adjust (v.) Look up adjust at
late 14c., ajusten, "to correct, remedy," from Old French ajuster, ajoster "add; assemble; calibrate, gauge, regulate," from Late Latin adiuxtare "to bring near," from ad "to" (see ad-) + Latin iuxta "next, close by," from suffixed form of PIE root *yeug- "to join."

In 16c. French corrected to adjuster, but the pedantic effort was rejected and Modern French has ajouter. Influenced in form and sense by folk-etymology, as if from ad- + iustus "just, equitable, fair." English reborrowed the word by c. 1600 in sense "arrange, settle, compose," from Middle French adjuster "fit (things together) properly, put things in order." Meaning "to arrange (something) so as to conform with (a standard or another thing)" is from 1660s. Insurance sense is from 1755 (see adjuster). To adjust to "get used to" is attested by 1924. Related: Adjusted; adjusting.
adjustable (adj.) Look up adjustable at
1775, from adjust + -able. Related: Adjustably; adjustability.
adjuster (n.) Look up adjuster at
1670s, agent noun in English form from adjust. Insurance sense "one who settles the amount to be paid for a claim under a policy, after making proper allowances and deductions," is from 1830.
adjustment (n.) Look up adjustment at
1640s, from French ajustement (Old French ajostement) or else a native formation from adjust (v.) + -ment.
adjustor (n.) Look up adjustor at
1857, of certain muscles, agent noun in Latin form from adjust (v.).
adjutant (n.) Look up adjutant at
"military officer who assists superior officers," c. 1600, from Latin adiutantem (nominative adiutans), present participle of adiutare "to give help to, help zealously, serve," frequentative of adiuvare (past participle adiutus) "help, assist, aid, support," from ad "to" (see ad-) + iuvare "to help, give strength, support," which is perhaps from the same root as iuvenis "young man" (see young (adj.)).

French adjudant, earlier ajudant (early 18c.) is from Spanish cognate ayudante. Related: Adjutancy. The adjutant bird is the name given by the English in Bengal to a large type of Indian stork, so called for its "stiff martinet air" [Century Dictionary].
administer (v.) Look up administer at
late 14c., aministren, later administren, "to manage as a steward, control or regulate on behalf of others," from Old French aministrer "help, aid, be of service to" (12c., Modern French administrer), and directly from Latin administrare "to help, assist; manage, control, guide, superintend; rule, direct," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ministrare "to serve, attend, wait upon," from minister "inferior, servant, priest's assistant" (see minister (n.)).

The -d- was restored 14c.-16c. in French and after 15c. in English. In reference to punishment, justice, etc., "to dispense, bring into operation" (especially as an officer), from mid-15c. In reference to medicines, medical treatment, etc., "to give," from 1540s. Related: Administered; administering.
administrate (v.) Look up administrate at
"manage or direct affairs," 1630s, from Latin administratus, past participle of administrare "manage, control, superintend" (see administer) or else a back-formation from administrator, administration. Related: Administrated; administrating.
administration (n.) Look up administration at
mid-14c., "act of giving or dispensing;" late 14c., "management (of a business, property, etc.), act of administering," from Latin administrationem (nominative administratio) "aid, help, cooperation; direction, management," noun of action from past participle stem of administrare "to help, assist; manage, control, guide, superintend; rule, direct," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ministrare "to serve, attend, wait upon," from minister "inferior, servant, priest's assistant" (see minister (n.)).

Early 15c. as "management of a deceased person's estate under a commission from authority." Meaning "management of public affairs" is from 1680s; hence, "executive power in a government" (1731), though later in Britain government was used in this sense. Meaning "a U.S. president's period in office" is first recorded 1796 in writings of George Washington.
The administration of government, in its largest sense, comprehends all the operations of the body politic, whether legislative, executive, or judiciary; but in its most usual, and perhaps in its most precise, signification, it is limited to executive details, and falls peculiarly within the province of the executive department. [Federalist No. 72 (Hamilton)]
administrative (adj.) Look up administrative at
"pertaining to administration, having to do with the managing of public affairs," 1731, from Latin administrativus, from past participle stem of administrare "to manage, control, superintend" (see administer). Related: Administratively.
administrator (n.) Look up administrator at
"one who has been given authority to manage," mid-15c., from Middle French administrateur or directly from Latin administrator "a manager, conductor," agent noun from past participle stem of administrare "to manage, control, superintend" (see administer). Estate sense is earliest. For ending, see -er.
admirable (adj.) Look up admirable at
mid-15c., "worthy of admiration," from Middle French admirable (restored from Old French amirable), from Latin admirabilis "admirable, wonderful," from admirari "to admire" (see admire). In early years it also carried a stronger sense of "awe-inspiring, marvelous."
admirably (adv.) Look up admirably at
1590s, from admirable + -ly (2).
admiral (n.) Look up admiral at
c. 1200, amiral, admirail, "Saracen commander or chieftain," from Old French amirail (12c.) "Saracen military commander; any military commander," ultimately from medieval Arabic amir "military commander," probably via Medieval Latin use of the word for "Muslim military leader."

Amiral de la mer "commander of a fleet of ships" is in late 13c. Anglo-French documents. Meaning "highest-ranking naval officer" in English is from early 15c. The extension of the word's meaning from "commander on land" to "commander at sea" likely began in 12c. Sicily with Medieval Latin amiratus and then spread to the continent, but the word also continued to mean "Muslim military commander" in Europe in the Middle Ages. The Arabic word was later Englished as emir.
As amīr is constantly followed by -al- in all such titles, amīr-al- was naturally assumed by Christian writers as a substantive word, and variously Latinized .... [OED]
Also in Old French and Middle English further conformed to familiar patterns as amirauld, amiraunt. The unetymological -d- probably is from influence of Latin ad-mirabilis (see admire). Italian form almiraglio, Spanish almirante are from confusion with Arabic words in al-. As the name of a type of butterfly from 1720, according to OED possibly a corruption of admirable.
admiralship (n.) Look up admiralship at
"office or position of an admiral," 1610s, from admiral + -ship.
admiralty (n.) Look up admiralty at
"naval branch of the English executive," early 15c., admiralte, from Old French amiralte, from amirail (see admiral).
admiration (n.) Look up admiration at
early 15c., "wonder," from Old French admiration "astonishment, surprise" (14c., corrected from earlier amiracion), or directly from Latin admirationem (nominative admiratio) "a wondering at, admiration," noun of state from past participle stem of admirari "regard with wonder, be astonished," from ad "to; with regard to" (see ad-) + mirari "to wonder," from mirus "wonderful" (see miracle). The sense has gradually weakened since 16c. toward "high regard, esteem."
admire (v.) Look up admire at
early 15c. (implied in admired), "regard with wonder, marvel at," from Old French admirer "look upon, contemplate" (correcting earlier amirer, 14c.), or directly from Latin admirari "regard with wonder, be astonished," from ad "to, with regard to" (see ad-) + mirari "to wonder," from mirus "wonderful" (see miracle). The sense has gradually weakened toward "regard with pleasure and esteem." Related: Admiring; admiringly.
admirer (n.) Look up admirer at
c. 1600, agent noun from admire (v.). From 1704 in colloquial sense "one who pays court to (a woman), a lover." The Latin agent noun was admirator.
admissibility (n.) Look up admissibility at
1763, from admissible + -ity. Perhaps modeled on French admissibilité (by 1670s).
admissible (adj.) Look up admissible at
1610s, "allowable," from Middle French admissible, from past participle stem of Latin admittere "allow to enter, admit, give entrance," from ad "to" (see ad-) + mittere "let go, send" (see mission). Meaning "capable of being allowed entrance" is from 1775; specific sense of "capable of being used in a legal decision or judicial investigation" is recorded from 1849.
admission (n.) Look up admission at
early 15c., "acceptance, reception, approval," from Latin admissionem (nominative admissio) "a letting in," noun of action from past participle stem of admittere "admit, give entrance; grant an audience," of acts, "let be done, allow, permit," from ad "to" (see ad-) + mittere "let go, send" (see mission). Meaning "an acknowledging" is from 1530s. Literal sense of "act of allowing to enter, admittance," is from 1620s. As short for admission price, by 1792.
admit (v.) Look up admit at
late 14c., "let in," from Latin admittere "admit, give entrance, allow to enter; grant an audience," of acts, "let be done, allow, permit," from ad "to" (see ad-) + mittere "let go, send" (see mission). Sense of "to concede in argument as valid or true" is first recorded early 15c. In Middle English sometimes also amit, after Old French amettre, which was refashioned 15c. Related: Admitted; Admitting.
admittance (n.) Look up admittance at
1580s, "the action of admitting," formed in English from admit + -ance (if from Latin, it would have been *admittence; French uses accès in this sense). Used formerly in figurative senses where admission now prevails. Admissure was used in this sense from mid-15c.
admitted (adj.) Look up admitted at
1550s, "received," past-participle adjective from admit (v.). As "received as true or valid" from 1780 (implied in admittedly).
admix (v.) Look up admix at
"mingle" (something, with something else), 1530s, a back-formed verb; see admixture. Related: Admixing.
admixture (n.) Look up admixture at
c. 1600, "act of mingling," with -ure + admix (1530s), a back-formed verb from admixt "mingled" (early 15c.), a past-participle adjective from Latin admixtus "mixed with," past participle of admiscere "to add to by mingling, mix with," from ad "to" (see ad-) + miscere "to mix" (see mix (v.)). In Middle English admixt was mistaken as the past participle of a (then) non-existent *admix. The earlier noun was admixtion (late 14c., from Latin admixionem).
admonish (v.) Look up admonish at
mid-14c., amonesten "remind, urge, exhort, warn, give warning," from Old French amonester "urge, encourage, warn" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *admonestare, from Latin admonere "bring to mind, remind (of a debt);" also "warn, advise, urge," from ad "to," here probably with frequentative force (see ad-) + monere "to admonish, warn, advice," from PIE *moneyo-, suffixed (causative) form of root *men- (1) "to think."

The -d- was restored on Latin model in English as in French (Modern French admonester). The ending was influenced by words in -ish (such as astonish, abolish). Related: Admonished; admonishing. Latin also had commonere "to remind," promonere "to warn openly," submonere "to advise privately."
admonition (n.) Look up admonition at
late 14c., amonicioun "reminding, instruction," from Old French amonicion "admonition, exhortation," from Latin admonitionem (nominative admonitio) "a suggestion, a reminding; an admonition," noun of action from past participle stem of admonere "to advise, warn" (see admonish). Meaning "caution or warning about future conduct based on past failures" is early 15c. The -d- was restored in French, then (17c.) in English.
admonitory (adj.) Look up admonitory at
"containing an admonition," 1590s, from Late Latin admonitorius, from Latin admonitus, past participle of admonere "to advise; to warn" (see admonish). Related: Admonitorily; admonitorial.
ado (n.) Look up ado at
late 14c., "conflict, fighting; difficulty, trouble," a contraction of at do, literally "to do," a dialectal northern English formation in the Norse-influenced areas of England, as some Scandinavian languages used at with the infinitive of a verb where Modern English uses to. From use of the infinitive in much ado ("much to do") and similar phrases, ado came to be regarded as a noun. Compare the sense evolution in to-do and affair (from French infinitive phrase à faire "to do"). The weakened meaning "fuss" is from early 15c. Also used in Middle English for "dealings, traffic," and "sexual intercourse" (both c. 1400).
adobe (n.) Look up adobe at
1739, American English, from Spanish adobe "unburnt brick dried in the sun," which is said by 19c. Dutch Arabist Reinhart Dozy to be from oral form of Arabic al-tob "the brick," from Coptic tube "brick," a word found in hieroglyphics. Other sources point to a Spanish adobar "daub, plaster," from the source of English daub (v.).
adolescence (n.) Look up adolescence at
"age following childhood, age of growing" (roughly the period from the 15th to the 21st year; or age 14 to 25 in males, 12 to 21 in females), early 15c., from Old French adolescence (13c.), from Latin adolescentia/adulescentia "youth, youthful people collectively," abstract noun from adulescentem "growing, youthful" (see adolescent (n.)). Adolescency (late 14c.) is slightly earlier.
adolescent (adj.) Look up adolescent at
1785, "growing toward maturity," from Latin adolescentem/adulescentem (nominative adolescens/adulescens) "growing, near maturity, youthful," present participle of adolescere "grow up, come to maturity, ripen" (see adolescent (n.)).
adolescent (n.) Look up adolescent at
mid-15c., "youth, young person, one who is growing up," from Middle French adolescent (15c.) or directly from Latin adolescentem/adulescentem (nominative adolescens/adulescens) "young man or woman, a youth," noun use of an adjective meaning "growing, near maturity, youthful," present participle of adolescere "grow up, come to maturity, ripen," from ad "to" (see ad-) + alescere "be nourished," hence, "increase, grow up," inchoative of alere "to nourish," from a suffixed form of PIE root *al- (2) "to grow, nourish." Adolesce was a back-formed verb used early 20c. (OED quotes H.G. Wells, G.B. Shaw, Louis MacNeice), but it seems not to have taken.
Adolph Look up Adolph at
also Adolf, masc. proper name, from Old High German Athalwolf "noble wolf," from athal "noble" (see atheling) + wolf (see wolf (n.)). The -ph is from the Latinized form of the name, Adolphus.
Adonai Look up Adonai at
Old Testament word for "God," used as a substitute for the ineffable name, late 14c., from Medieval Latin, from Hebrew, literally "my lord," from adon (see Adonis) + suffix of the first person.
Adonis (n.) Look up Adonis at
"beautiful young man," 1620s, probably via French Adonis (15c.), from Greek Adonis, name of the youth beloved by Aphrodite, from Phoenician adon "lord," probably originally "ruler," from base a-d-n "to judge, rule." Adonai is the Hebrew cognate.
adopt (v.) Look up adopt at
c. 1500, a back-formation from adoption or else from Middle French adopter (14c.) or directly from Latin adoptare "chose for oneself, take by choice, select, adopt," especially "to take into a family, adopt as a child," from ad "to" (see ad-) + optare "choose, wish, desire" (see option (n.)). Originally in English also of friends, fathers, citizens, etc. Sense of "to legally take as one's own child" and that of "to embrace, espouse" a practice, method, etc. are from c. 1600. Related: Adopted; adopting.
adoptee (n.) Look up adoptee at
"one who is adopted," 1849; see adopt (v.) + -ee.
adopter (n.) Look up adopter at
"one who adopts" in any sense, 1570s, agent noun from adopt (v.).
adoption (n.) Look up adoption at
mid-14c., from Old French adopcion or directly from Late Latin adoptionem (nominative adoptio) "a taking as one's child," shorter form of adoptatio, noun of action from past participle stem of Latin adoptare "chose for oneself, take by choice, select, adopt," especially "to take into a family, adopt as a child," from ad "to" (see ad-) + optare "choose, wish, desire," from PIE root *op- (2) "to choose" (see option (n.)).
adoptive (adj.) Look up adoptive at
early 15c., from Middle French adoptif, from Latin adoptivus "pertaining to adoption," from stem of adoptere "to choose, adopt" (see adopt).
adorable (adj.) Look up adorable at
1610s, "worthy of worship," from French adorable, from Latin adorabilis "worthy of worship," from adorare "to worship" (see adore). Weakened sense of "delightful, charming" is recorded from 1710. Related: Adorably; adorableness.
adoration (n.) Look up adoration at
1540s, "act of paying divine honors," from Middle French adoration, from Late Latin adorationem (nominative adoratio) "worship, adoration," noun of action from past participle stem of adorare "to worship." See adore, the original sense of which is preserved in this word.
adore (v.) Look up adore at
late 14c., aouren, "to worship, pay divine honors to, bow down before," from Old French aorer "to adore, worship, praise" (10c., later adorer), from Latin adorare "speak to formally, beseech, entreat, ask in prayer," in Late Latin "to worship," literally "to call to," from ad "to" (see ad-) + orare "speak formally, pray," from PIE *or- "pronounce a ritual formula" (see orator). Meaning "to honor very highly" is attested from 1590s; weakened sense of "to be very fond of" emerged by 1880s. Related: Adored; adoring.
adoring (adj.) Look up adoring at
1650s, "worshipping," present participle adjective from adore. Related: Adoringly.
adorn (v.) Look up adorn at
late 14c., aournen, later adornen, "to decorate, embellish," also "be an ornament to," from Old French aorner "to order, arrange, dispose, equip; adorn," from Latin adornare "equip, provide, furnish;" also "decorate, embellish," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ornare "prepare, furnish, adorn, fit out," from stem of ordo "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). The -d- was reinserted by French scribes 14c. and in English from late 15c. Related: Adorned; adorning.
adornment (n.) Look up adornment at
late 14c., "act of adorning;" also "a thing which adorns;" from Old French aornement "ornament, decoration," from aorner (see adorn).
adown (adv.) Look up adown at
"to a lower place," Old English adune (adv.), originally a prepositional phrase, of dune "down, downward;" see a- (1) + down (adv.).