anaerobic (adj.) Look up anaerobic at
"capable of living without oxygen," 1879 (as anaerobian; modern form first attested 1884), from French anaérobie, coined 1863 by French bacteriologist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), from Greek an- "without" (see an- (1)) + aer "air" (see air (n.1)) + bios "life" (see bio-).
anaesthesia (n.) Look up anaesthesia at
1721, "loss of feeling," Modern Latin, from Greek anaisthesia "want of feeling, lack of sensation (to pleasure or pain)," from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + aisthesis "feeling," from PIE root *au- "to perceive" (see audience). As "a procedure for the prevention of pain in surgical operations," from 1846.
anaesthesiologist (n.) Look up anaesthesiologist at
1943, American English, from anaesthesiology + -ist.
anaesthesiology (n.) Look up anaesthesiology at
1908, from anaesthesia + -ology.
Anesthesiology. This is the new term adopted by the University of Illinois defining "the science that treats of the means and methods of producing in man or animal various degrees of insensibility with or without hypnosis." ["Medical Herald," January, 1912]
anaesthetic (adj.) Look up anaesthetic at
1846, "insensible," from Greek anaisthetos "insensate, without feeling; senseless, stupid" (see anaesthesia). Noun meaning "agent that produces anesthesia" first used in modern sense 1848 by Scottish doctor James Young Simpson (1811-1870), discoverer of the surgical uses of chloroform.
anaesthetist (n.) Look up anaesthetist at
1861; see anaesthesia + -ist.
anaesthetize (v.) Look up anaesthetize at
1848, from Greek anaisthetos (see anaesthesia) + -ize. Related: Anaesthetized; anaesthetizing.
anagnorisis (n.) Look up anagnorisis at
c. 1800, from Latin, from Greek anagnorisis "recognition," from anagnorizein "to recognize."
anagram (n.) Look up anagram at
transposition of letters in a word so as to form another, 1580s, from French anagramme or Modern Latin anagramma (16c.), both from Greek anagrammatizein "transpose letters," from ana- "up, back" (see ana-) + gramma (genitive grammatos) "letter" (see -gram). Related: Anagrammatical; anagrammatically.
anal (adj.) Look up anal at
1769, from Modern Latin analis "of the anus;" see anus. Anal-retentive first attested 1957, in psychological jargon. Anal sex attested as such from 1966.
analects (n.) Look up analects at
1650s, "literary gleanings," from Latinized form of Greek analekta, literally "things chosen," neuter plural of analektos "select, choice," verbal adjective of analegein "to gather up, collect," from ana- "up" (see ana-) + legein "to gather," also "to choose words," hence "to speak" (see lecture (n.)).
analemma (n.) Look up analemma at
1650s, from Latin analemma "the pedestal of a sundial," hence the sundial itself, from Greek analemma "prop, support," from analambanein "to receive, take up, restore," from ana- "up" (see ana-) + lambanein "to take," from PIE root *(s)lagw- "to seize, take" (cognates: Sanskrit labhate, rabhate "seizes;" Old English læccan "to seize, grasp;" Greek lazomai "I take, grasp;" Old Church Slavonic leca "to catch, snare;" Lithuanian lobis "possession, riches").
analeptic (adj.) Look up analeptic at
1660s, "restorative, strengthening" (in medicine), from Greek analeptikos "restorative," from analambanein "to receive, take up in one's hands" (see analemma). Related: Analeptical (1610s).
analgesia (n.) Look up analgesia at
"absence of pain," 1706, medical Latin, from Greek analgesia "painlessness, insensibility," from analgetos "without pain, insensible to pain" (also "unfeeling, ruthless"), from an- "not" (see an- (1)) + algein "to feel pain" (see -algia).
analgesic (adj.) Look up analgesic at
"tending to remove pain," 1848, from analgesia + -ic. Alternative form analgetic is preferred by linguistic purists but is less common in use. The noun meaning "an analgesic preparation" recorded by 1860.
analgetic Look up analgetic at
see analgesic.
analog Look up analog at
chiefly U.S. spelling of analogue (q.v.).
analogize (v.) Look up analogize at
"explain by analogy," 1650s, from French analogiser (17c.) or directly from Greek analogizesthai "to reckon, sum up," from analogia (see analogy). Related: Analogized; analogizing.
analogous (adj.) Look up analogous at
1640s, from Latin analogus, from Greek analogos "proportionate, according to due proportion" (see analogy).
analogue (n.) Look up analogue at
1826, "an analogous thing," from French analogue, from Greek analogon (itself used in English from c. 1810), from ana "up to" (see ana-) + logos "account, ratio" (see lecture (n.)). Computing sense is recorded from 1946.
analogy (n.) Look up analogy at
1540s (perhaps early 15c.), from Old French analogie or directly from Latin analogia, from Greek analogia "proportion," from ana- "upon, according to" (see ana-) + logos "ratio," also "word, speech, reckoning" (see logos). A mathematical term used in a wider sense by Plato.
analyse (v.) Look up analyse at
chiefly British English spelling of analyze (q.v.).
Analyse is better than analyze, but merely as being the one of the two equally indefensible forms that has won. The correct but now impossible form would be analysize (or analysise), with analysist for existing analyst. [Fowler]
analysis (n.) Look up analysis at
1580s, "resolution of anything complex into simple elements" (opposite of synthesis), from Medieval Latin analysis (15c.), from Greek analysis "a breaking up, a loosening, releasing," noun of action from analyein "unloose, release, set free; to loose a ship from its moorings," in Aristotle, "to analyze," from ana "up, throughout" (see ana-) + lysis "a loosening," from lyein "to unfasten" (see lose). Psychological sense is from 1890. Phrase in the final (or last) analysis (1844), translates French en dernière analyse.
analyst (n.) Look up analyst at
1650s, "mathematician skilled in algebraic geometry," from French analyste "a person who analyzes," from analyser (see analysis). As a short form of psychoanalyst, attested from 1914. Greek analyter meant "a deliverer."
analytic (adj.) Look up analytic at
c. 1600, from Medieval Latin analyticus, from Greek analytikos "analytical," from analytos "dissolved" (see analysis).
analytical (adj.) Look up analytical at
1520s, from Medieval Latin analyticus (see analytic) + -al (1). Related: Analytically.
analytics (n.) Look up analytics at
1590s as a term in logic, from Latin analytica from Greek analytika (see analytic); also see -ics.
analyze (v.) Look up analyze at
c. 1600, "to dissect," from French analyser, from analyse (see analysis). Literature sense is attested from 1610s; meaning in chemistry dates from 1660s. General sense of "to examine closely" dates from 1809; psychological sense is from 1909. Related: Analyzed; analyzing.
anamnesis (n.) Look up anamnesis at
"recollection, remembrance," 1650s, from Greek anamnesis "a calling to mind, remembrance," noun of action from stem of anamimneskein "to remember, to remind (someone) of (something), make mention of," from ana "back" (see ana-) + mimneskesthai "to recall, cause to remember" (see amnesia). Related: Anamnestic.
anamorphic (adj.) Look up anamorphic at
1904, in geology; see anamorphosis + -ic. Cinematographic use dates from 1954.
anamorphism (n.) Look up anamorphism at
"distorted projection or perspective," 1836; see anamorphosis + -ism.
anamorphosis (n.) Look up anamorphosis at
"distorted projection or drawing that looks normal from a particular angle or with a certain mirror," 1727, from Greek anamorphosis "transformation," noun of action from anamorphoein "to transform," from ana "up" (see ana-) + morphosis, from morphe "form" (see Morpheus).
ananda (n.) Look up ananda at
in Hindu theology, "bliss," from Sanskrit ananda- "joy, happiness, bliss," from stem of nandati "he rejoices," which is of unknown origin.
Ananias Look up Ananias at
"liar," a reference to Acts v:3-5.
ananym (n.) Look up ananym at
real name written backwards, 1867, from Greek ana "back" (see ana-) + onyme "name" (see name (n.)).
anapest (n.) Look up anapest at
also anapaest, "two short syllables followed by a long one," 1670s, from Latin anapestus, from Greek anapaistos "struck back, rebounding," verbal adjective from anapaiein "to strike back," from ana- "back" (see ana-) + paiein "to strike," from PIE *pau- "to cut, strike, stamp" (see pave). So called because it reverses the dactyl.
anapestic (adj.) Look up anapestic at
1690s, from Latin anapaesticus, from Greek anapaistikos, from anapaistos (see anapest).
anaphase (n.) Look up anaphase at
1887, coined in German (1884), from Greek ana- (see ana-) + phase (n.).
anaphora (n.) Look up anaphora at
"repetition of a word or phrase in successive clauses," 1580s, from Latin, from Greek anaphora "reference," literally "a carrying back," from anapherein "to carry back, to bring up," from ana "back" (see ana-) + pherein "to bear" (see infer).
anaphoric (adj.) Look up anaphoric at
1914, coined by Danish linguist Otto Jespersen (1860-1943) in the grammatical sense; see anaphora + -ic. In the sentence, "Here are some apples; take one," the one is anaphoric.
anaphylactic (adj.) Look up anaphylactic at
1905, with -ic + medical Latin noun anaphylaxis "exaggerated susceptibility," from French anaphylaxie (1902), from Greek ana- (see ana-) + phylaxis "watching, guarding" (compare prophylactic). Anaphylactic shock is attested by 1916.
anaphylaxis (n.) Look up anaphylaxis at
see anaphylactic.
anarch (n.) Look up anarch at
"leader of leaderlessness," 1660s, a deliciously paradoxical word used by Milton, Pope, Byron; see anarchy.
anarchic (adj.) Look up anarchic at
1755, "chaotic, without order or rule," from Greek anarkhos "without head or chief" (see anarchy) + -ic. Differentiated from anarchistic (1845) which tends to refer to the political philosophy of anarchism. An older word in this sense was anarchical (1590s). Anarchial is from 1710; Landor used anarchal (1824).
anarchism (n.) Look up anarchism at
1640s; see anarchy + -ism.
anarchist (n.) Look up anarchist at
1670s; see anarchy + -ist. The word got a boost into modernity from the French Revolution.
anarchistic (adj.) Look up anarchistic at
1845; see anarchy + -istic. Also see anarchic. Related: Anarchistically.
anarcho-syndicalist Look up anarcho-syndicalist at
also anarchosyndicalist, 1911, from anarcho-, comb. form of anarchist (adj.) + syndicalist (see syndicalism). Earlier anarchist syndicalist (1907). Related: Anarcho-syndicalism.
anarchy (n.) Look up anarchy at
1530s, from French anarchie or directly from Medieval Latin anarchia, from Greek anarkhia "lack of a leader, the state of people without a government" (in Athens, used of the Year of Thirty Tyrants, 404 B.C., when there was no archon), noun of state from anarkhos "rulerless," from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + arkhos "leader" (see archon).
Either the State for ever, crushing individual and local life, taking over in all fields of human activity, bringing with it its wars and its domestic struggles for power, its palace revolutions which only replace one tyrant by another, and inevitably at the end of this development there is ... death! Or the destruction of States, and new life starting again in thousands of centers on the principle of the lively initiative of the individual and groups and that of free agreement. The choice lies with you! [Prince Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921)]
anasarca (n.) Look up anasarca at
"subcutaneous dropsy," late 14c., medical Latin, from Greek ana "up, throughout" (see ana-) + sarx (genitive sarkos) "flesh" (see sarcasm). Abbreviation of Greek phrase hydrops ana sarka "dropsy throughout the flesh."