anesthetist (n.) Look up anesthetist at
1861; see anesthesia + -ist.
anesthetize (v.) Look up anesthetize at
1848, from Greek anaisthetos (see anesthesia) + -ize. Related: Anesthetized; anesthetizing.
aneuploidy (n.) Look up aneuploidy at
abnormal number of chromosomes, 1934, from aneuploid (1931), Modern Latin, coined 1922 by G. Täckholm from an- (1) "not" + euploid, from Greek eu- "well, good" (see eu-) + -ploid, from ploos "fold" (see -plus) + -oid.
aneurism (n.) Look up aneurism at
the less correct, but more popular, spelling of aneurysm (q.v.), by influence of words in -ism. The -y- is etymologically correct; the spelling with -i- suggests a meaning "nervelessness."
aneurysm (n.) Look up aneurysm at
early 15c., from Medieval Latin aneurisma, from Greek aneurysmos "dilation," from aneurynein "to dilate," from ana- "up" (see ana-) + eurynein "widen," from eurys "broad, wide" (see eury-).
anew (adv.) Look up anew at
c. 1300, a neue, from Old English of-niowe; see a- (1) + new. One-word form dominant from c. 1400.
anext (adv.) Look up anext at
"next to," c. 1400, from a- (1) + next.
anfractuous (adj.) Look up anfractuous at
"full of windings and turnings," 1620s, from Latin anfractuous, from anfractus "a winding, a turning, bending round," especially "a circuitous route," from am(bi)- "around" (see ambi-) + fractus, past participle of frangere "to break" (see fraction). Related: Anfractuosity.
angel (n.) Look up angel at
14c. fusion of Old English engel (with hard -g-) and Old French angele, both from Latin angelus, from Greek angelos "messenger, envoy, one that announces," possibly related to angaros "mounted courier," both from an unknown Oriental word (Watkins compares Sanskrit ajira- "swift;" Klein suggests Semitic sources). Used in Scriptural translations for Hebrew mal'akh (yehowah) "messenger (of Jehovah)," from base l-'-k "to send." An Old English word for it was aerendgast, literally "errand-spirit."

Of persons, "loving; lovely," by 1590s. The medieval gold coin (a new issue of the noble, first struck 1465 by Edward VI) was so called for the image of archangel Michael slaying the dragon, which was stamped on it. It was the coin given to patients who had been "touched" for the King's Evil. Angel food cake is from 1881; angel dust "phencyclidine" is from 1968.
Angela Look up Angela at
fem. proper name, Latin fem. of angelus "angel" (see angel).
Angeleno (n.) Look up Angeleno at
"resident or native of Los Angeles," 1888, from American Spanish Angeleño, from (Los) Angeles + -eño, suffix indicating a native or resident. See Los Angeles.
angelfish (n.) Look up angelfish at
also angel-fish, 1660s, from angel + fish (n.); so called for its "wings."
angelic (adj.) Look up angelic at
late 15c., "pertaining to angels," from Old French angelique "angelic" (Modern French angélique (13c.), from Latin angelicus, from Greek angelikos "angelic," from angelos (see angel). Meaning "angel-like" is from late 14c.; sense of "wonderfully pure, sweet" is recorded from early 16c. Related: Angelically.
Angelica Look up Angelica at
fem. proper name, Latin fem. of angelicus "angelic" (see angel).
Angelina Look up Angelina at
fem. proper name, diminutive of Angela.
angelolatry (n.) Look up angelolatry at
"worship of angels," 1847, from angel + -latry.
anger (v.) Look up anger at
c. 1200, "to irritate, annoy, provoke," from Old Norse angra "to grieve, vex, distress; to be vexed at, take offense with," from Proto-Germanic *angus (source also of Old English enge "narrow, painful," Middle Dutch enghe, Gothic aggwus "narrow"), from PIE root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful" (source also of Sanskrit amhu- "narrow," amhah "anguish;" Armenian anjuk "narrow;" Lithuanian ankstas "narrow;" Greek ankhein "to squeeze," ankhone "a strangling;" Latin angere "to throttle, torment;" Old Irish cum-ang "straitness, want"). In Middle English, also of physical pain. Meaning "excite to wrath, make angry" is from late 14c. Related: Angered; angering.
anger (n.) Look up anger at
mid-13c., "distress, suffering; anguish, agony," also "hostile attitude, ill will, surliness," from Old Norse angr "distress, grief. sorrow, affliction," from the same root as anger (v.). Sense of "rage, wrath" is early 14c. Old Norse also had angr-gapi "rash, foolish person;" angr-lauss "free from care;" angr-lyndi "sadness, low spirits."
Angevin Look up Angevin at
1650s, "pertaining to the French province of Anjou," from French Angevin, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus, from Andegavum "Angers," city in France, capital of Anjou (Latin Andegavia, from Andecavi, Roman name of the Gaulish people who lived here, which is of unknown origin). In English history, of the Plantagenet kings (beginning with Henry II) who were descended from Geoffrey, count of Anjou, and Matilda, daughter of Henry I.
angina (n.) Look up angina at
1570s, from Latin angina "infection of the throat," from Greek ankhone "a strangling" (see anger); probably influenced in Latin by angere "to throttle." Angina pectoris is from 1744, from Latin pectoris, genitive of pectus "chest" (see pectoral (adj.)).
angio- Look up angio- at
before verbs angi-, word-forming element now usually meaning "covered or enclosed by a seed or blood vessel," from Latinized form of Greek angeion "a vessel, receptacle," diminutive of angos "chest, box," which is of unknown origin.
angiogenesis (n.) Look up angiogenesis at
1896, from angio- + -genesis "birth, origin, creation."
angiogram (n.) Look up angiogram at
1933, from angio- + -gram.
angiography (n.) Look up angiography at
1731, from angio- + -graphy.
angioma (n.) Look up angioma at
1867, medical Latin, from angio- + -oma.
angioplasty (n.) Look up angioplasty at
by 1976, from angio- + -plasty.
angiosperm (n.) Look up angiosperm at
"plant with seeds contained in a protective vessel" (as distinguished from a gymnosperm), 1853, from Modern Latin Angiospermae, coined 1690 by German botanist Paul Hermann (1646-1695), from Greek angeion "vessel" (see angio-) + spermos, adjective from sperma "seed" (see sperm). So called because the seeds in this class of plants are enclosed.
angle (v.1) Look up angle at
"to fish with a hook," mid-15c., from Old English angel (n.) "angle, hook, fishhook," related to anga "hook," from PIE *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (see angle (n.)). Compare Old English angul, Old Norse öngull, Old High German angul, German Angel "fishhook." Figurative sense is recorded from 1580s.
It is but a sory lyfe and an yuell to stand anglynge all day to catche a fewe fisshes. [John Palsgrave, 1530]
Related: Angled; angling.
angle (n.) Look up angle at
"space between intersecting lines," late 14c., from Old French angle "angle, corner," and directly from Latin angulus "an angle, corner," a diminutive form from PIE root *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (source also of Greek ankylos "bent, crooked," Latin ang(u)ere "to compress in a bend, fold, strangle;" Old Church Slavonic aglu "corner;" Lithuanian anka "loop;" Sanskrit ankah "hook, bent," angam "limb;" Old English ancleo "ankle;" Old High German ango "hook"). Angle bracket is 1875 in carpentry; 1956 in typography.
Angle Look up Angle at
member of a Teutonic tribe, Old English, from Latin Angli "the Angles," literally "people of Angul" (Old Norse Öngull), a region in what is now Holstein, said to be so-called for its hook-like shape (see angle (n.)). People from the tribe there founded the kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbia, and East Anglia in 5c. Britain. Their name, rather than that of the Saxons or Jutes, may have become the common one for the whole group of Germanic tribes because their dialect was the first committed to writing.
angle (v.2) Look up angle at
"to move at an angle, to move diagonally or obliquely," 1741, from angle (n.). Related: Angled; angling.
angler (n.) Look up angler at
"fisher with a hook and line," mid-15c. (c. 1300 as a surname); agent noun from angle (v.1).
Anglian Look up Anglian at
"of the Angles," 1726; see Angle. The Old English word was Englisc, but as this came to be used in reference to the whole Germanic people of Britain, a new word was wanted to describe this one branch of them.
Anglican (adj.) Look up Anglican at
1630s, "of the reformed Church of England" (opposed to Roman), from Medieval Latin Anglicanus, from Anglicus "of the English people, of England" (see anglicize). The noun meaning "adherent of the reformed Church of England" is first recorded 1797.
Anglicism (n.) Look up Anglicism at
1640s, "anglicized language," from Latin Anglicus "of the English" (see Angle) + -ism. As an instance of this, from 1781.
anglicization (n.) Look up anglicization at
1836, noun of action from anglicize; earlier in same sense was anglification (1822), from anglify (1751).
anglicize (v.) Look up anglicize at
1710, with -ize + Medieval Latin Anglicus "of the English," from Angli "the Angles" (see Angle). Related: Anglicized; anglicizing.
Anglo (n.) Look up Anglo at
"American, English-speaking white person," 1941, southwestern U.S., from Anglo-American. Anglo was used similarly of native, English-speakers in Canada from 1800 and Britain from 1964.
Anglo- Look up Anglo- at
from Medieval Latin Anglo-, comb. form of Angli "the English" (see Angle).
Anglo-American Look up Anglo-American at
1738, from Anglo- + American. Originally often in contrast to German immigrants. In contrast to non-English neighboring or border people in the U.S. from 1809 (adj.); 1834 (n.). Meaning "pertaining to both England and the United States" is from 1812.
Anglo-French (n.) Look up Anglo-French at
the French written in England from the Norman Conquest (1066) through the Middle Ages; the administrative and legal language of England 12c.-17c.; the name is attested from 1887 and was popularized, if not coined, by Skeat.
And Frenssh she spak ful faire and fetisly,
After the scole of Stratford-atte-Bowe,
For Frenssh of Parys was to hir unknowe.
Anglo-Saxon Look up Anglo-Saxon at
Old English Angli Saxones (plural), from Latin Anglo-Saxones, in which Anglo- is an adjective, thus literally "English Saxons," as opposed to those of the Continent (now called "Old Saxons"). Properly in reference to the Saxons of ancient Wessex, Essex, Middlesex, and Sussex.
I am a suthern man, I can not geste 'rum, ram, ruf' by letter. [Chaucer, "Parson's Prologue and Tale"]
After the Norman-French invasion of 1066, the peoples of the island were distinguished as English and French, but after a few generations all were English, and Latin-speaking scribes, who knew and cared little about Germanic history, began to use Anglo-Saxones to refer to the pre-1066 inhabitants and their descendants. When interest in Old English writing revived c. 1586, the word was extended to the language we now call Old English. It has been used rhetorically for "English" in an ethnological sense from 1832, and revisioned as Angle + Saxon.
Anglomania (n.) Look up Anglomania at
1787; see Anglo- + mania. Related: Anglomaniac.
Anglophile (adj.) Look up Anglophile at
1864, in reference to France, from Anglo- + -phile. Both Anglomania (1787) and Anglophobia (1793) are first attested in writings of Thomas Jefferson.
Anglophobia (n.) Look up Anglophobia at
1793, from Anglo- + -phobia. Related: Anglophobe; Anglophobic.
Anglophone (adj.) Look up Anglophone at
"English-speaking," 1895, from Anglo- + -phone.
angora (n.) Look up angora at
type of wool, 1810, from Angora, city in central Turkey (ancient Ancyra, modern Ankara), which gave its name to the goat (1745 in English), and to its silk-like wool, and to a cat whose fur resembles it (1771 in English). The city name is from the Greek word for "anchor, bend" (see angle (n.)).
angrily (adv.) Look up angrily at
mid-14c., "resentful, in anger; ill-temperedly," from angry + -ly (2).
angry (adj.) Look up angry at
late 14c., from anger (n.) + -y (2). Originally "full of trouble, vexatious;" sense of "enraged, irate" also is from late 14c. The Old Norse adjective was ongrfullr "sorrowful," and Middle English had angerful "anxious, eager" (mid-13c.). The phrase angry young man dates to 1941 but was popularized in reference to the play "Look Back in Anger" (produced 1956) though it does not occur in that work.

"There are three words in the English language that end in -gry. Two of them are angry and hungry. What is the third?" There is no third (except some extremely obscure ones). Richard Lederer calls this "one of the most outrageous and time-wasting linguistic hoaxes in our nation's history" and traces it to a New York TV quiz show from early 1975.
angst (n.) Look up angst at
1944, from German Angst "neurotic fear, anxiety, guilt, remorse," from Old High German angust, from the root of anger. George Eliot used it (in German) in 1849, and it was popularized in English by translation of Freud's work, but as a foreign word until 1940s. Old English had a cognate word, angsumnes "anxiety," but it died out.