ananda (n.) Look up ananda at
in Hindu theology, "bliss," from Sanskrit ananda- "joy, happiness, bliss," from stem of nandati "he rejoices," which is of unknown origin.
Ananias Look up Ananias at
"liar," a reference to Acts v.1-5.
ananym (n.) Look up ananym at
real name written backwards, 1867, from Greek ana "back" (see ana-) + onyme "name" (see name (n.)). Properly anonym, but this has another sense in English.
anapeiratic (adj.) Look up anapeiratic at
in pathology, "arising from too frequent exercise," especially of paralysis of a part caused by repetitive motion, 1877, from Greek anapeirasthai "try again, do again," from ana "again" (see ana-) + pieran "attempt, try" (see pirate (n.)).
anapest (n.) Look up anapest at
also anapaest, "two short or unaccented syllables followed by a long or accented one," 1670s, from Latin anapaestus, from Greek anapaistos "struck back, rebounding," as a noun "an anapest," verbal adjective from anapaiein "to strike back," from ana- "back" (see ana-) + paiein "to strike" (from PIE root *pau- (2) "to cut, strike, stamp"). So called because it is a dactyl reversed.
anapestic (adj.) Look up anapestic at
1690s, from Latin anapaesticus, from Greek anapaistikos, from anapaistos (see anapest). Related: Anapestical.
anaphalantiasis (n.) Look up anaphalantiasis at
"the falling out of the eyebrows," 1853, earlier in French and German, from Greek anaphalantiasis "baldness in front," from ana "up" (see ana-) + phalanthos "bald in front."
anaphase (n.) Look up anaphase at
name of a stage of cell division, 1887, coined in German (1884), from Greek ana "back" (see ana-) + phase (n.).
anaphora (n.) Look up anaphora at
"repetition of a word or phrase in successive clauses," 1580s, from Latin, from Greek anaphora "reference," literally "a carrying back," from anapherein "to carry back, to bring up," from ana "back" (see ana-) + pherein "to bear," from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry."
anaphoric (adj.) Look up anaphoric at
1914, coined in the grammatical sense by Danish linguist Otto Jespersen (1860-1943); see anaphora + -ic. In the sentence, "Here are some apples; take one," the one is anaphoric.
anaphrodisiac (adj.) Look up anaphrodisiac at
"diminishing the sexual appetite," 1823, from Greek anaphroditos "without sexual desire," or from an- (1) "not, without" + aphrodisiac. Related: Anaphrodisia; anaphroditic; anaphroditous.
anaphylactic (adj.) Look up anaphylactic at
"of or pertaining to a severe allergic reaction," 1905, with -ic + medical Latin noun anaphylaxis "exaggerated susceptibility," from Greek an- "without" (see an- (1)) + phylaxis "protection," from phylax "guardian, watcher, protector," a word of unknown origin. Compare prophylactic. Anaphylactic shock is attested by 1916.
anaphylaxis (n.) Look up anaphylaxis at
"severe allergic reaction," 1905, from Latin anaphylaxis, perhaps based on French anaphylaxie (1902); see anaphylactic.
anarch (n.) Look up anarch at
1660s, "leader of leaderlessness," a deliciously paradoxical word used by Milton, Pope, Shelley, Byron; from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + arkhon "ruler" (see archon), and compare anarchy. Also "an anarchist" (1884).
anarchic (adj.) Look up anarchic at
1755, "chaotic, lawless, without order or rule," from Latinized form of Greek anarkhos "without head or chief" (see anarchy) + -ic. Older in this sense was anarchical (1590s). Anarchial "disorderly, unregulated" is from 1710; Landor used anarchal "without government" (1824).
anarchism (n.) Look up anarchism at
"political doctrine advocating leaderlessness," 1640s; see anarchy + -ism.
anarchist (n.) Look up anarchist at
1670s, "one who denies the validity of ruling power;" see anarchy + -ist. The word got a boost during the French Revolution; in 19c. it was used both of "one who advocates absence of government as a political ideal" (philosophical or scientific anarchism) and "one who seeks to overthrow violently all forms and institutions of society and government with no intention of establishing others."
anarchistic (adj.) Look up anarchistic at
"advocating the political philosophy of anarchism," 1845, from anarchist + -ic. Differentiated from anarchic, which tends to mean "chaotic, lawless." Related: Anarchistically.
anarcho-syndicalist Look up anarcho-syndicalist at
also anarchosyndicalist, 1911, from anarcho-, comb. form of anarchist (adj.) + syndicalist (see syndicalism). Earlier anarchist syndicalist (1907). Related: Anarcho-syndicalism.
anarchy (n.) Look up anarchy at
1530s, "absence of government," from French anarchie or directly from Medieval Latin anarchia, from Greek anarkhia "lack of a leader, the state of people without a government" (in Athens, used of the Year of Thirty Tyrants, 404 B.C., when there was no archon), abstract noun from anarkhos "rulerless," from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + arkhos "leader" (see archon).

From 1660s as "confusion or absence of authority in general;" by 1850 in reference to the social theory advocating "order without power," with associations and co-operatives taking the place of direct government, as formulated in the 1830s by French political philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865).
Either the State for ever, crushing individual and local life, taking over in all fields of human activity, bringing with it its wars and its domestic struggles for power, its palace revolutions which only replace one tyrant by another, and inevitably at the end of this development there is ... death! Or the destruction of States, and new life starting again in thousands of centers on the principle of the lively initiative of the individual and groups and that of free agreement. The choice lies with you! [Prince Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921), "The State: Its Historic Role," 1896]
anasarca (n.) Look up anasarca at
"subcutaneous dropsy," late 14c., medical Latin, abbreviation of Greek phrase (hydrops) ana sarka "(dropsy) throughout the flesh," from ana "throughout" (see ana-) + sarx (genitive sarkos) "flesh" (see sarcasm). Abbreviation of Greek phrase hydrops ana sarka "dropsy throughout the flesh."
Anasazi Look up Anasazi at
Name applied by their Navajo neighbors to modern Pueblo peoples of the U.S. southwest, and to various landscape features associated with them, from Navajo anaasazi "ancestors of the enemies." Said to first have been applied to the ancient Pueblo ruins of southwestern United States in the Mesa Verde region c. 1889 by rancher and trader Richard Wetherill, who began exploration of the sites in the area; established in archaeological terminology 1927.
Anastasia Look up Anastasia at
fem. proper name, from fem. of Late Latin Anastasius, from Greek Anastasios, from anastasis "resurrection, a raising up of the dead;" literally "a setting up, a standing or rising up," from ana "up; again" (see ana-) + histanai "to cause to stand, to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."
anastomosis (n.) Look up anastomosis at
in anatomy, "union or intercommunication of the vessels of one system with those of another," 1610s, medical Latin, from Greek anastomosis "outlet, opening," from anastomoein "to open, discharge" (as one sea into another), "to furnish with a mouth," from ana "again, anew" (see ana-) + stoma "mouth" (see stoma). Related: Anastomotic.
anastrophe (n.) Look up anastrophe at
"inversion of usual word order," 1570s, from Greek anastrophe "a turning back, a turning upside down," from anastrephein "to turn up, turn back, turn upside-down," from ana "back" (see ana-) + strephein "to turn" (from PIE root *streb(h)- "to wind, turn").
anathema (n.) Look up anathema at
1520s, "an accursed thing," from Latin anathema "an excommunicated person; the curse of excommunication," from Ecclesiastical Greek anathema "a thing accursed," a slight variation of classical Greek anathāma, which meant merely "a thing devoted," literally "a thing set up (to the gods)," such as a votive offering in a temple, from ana "up" (see ana-) + tithenai "to put, to place," from reduplicated form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put."

By the time it reached Late Latin the meaning of the Greek word had progressed through "thing devoted to evil," to "thing accursed or damned." Later it was applied to persons and the Divine Curse. Meaning "act or formula of excommunicating and consigning to damnation by ecclesiastical authority" is from 1610s.

Anathema maranatha, taken as an intensified form, is held to be a misreading of I Corinthians xvi.22 where anathema is followed by Aramaic maran atha "Our Lord hath come" (see Maranatha), apparently a solemn formula of confirmation, like amen; but possibly it is a false transliteration of Hebrew mohoram atta "you are put under the ban," which would make more sense in the context. [Klein]
anathematisation (n.) Look up anathematisation at
chiefly British English spelling of anathematization; see -ize.
anathematise (v.) Look up anathematise at
chiefly British English spelling of anathematize (q.v.). For suffix, see -ize. Related: Anathematised; anathematising.
anathematization (n.) Look up anathematization at
"act of formally denouncing as accursed," 1590s, from Medieval Latin anathematizationem (nominative anathematizatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Late Latin anathematizare, from Greek anathematizein "to devote (to evil)," from stem of anathema (q.v.). Earlier was anathemization (1540s).
anathematize (v.) Look up anathematize at
"to pronounce an anathema against, denounce, curse," 1560s, from French anathématiser (Old French anatemer), from Late Latin anathematizare, from Ecclesiastical Greek anathematizein "to devote (to evil); excommunicate," from stem of anathema (q.v.). Alternative anathemize (1670s) is less correct and more rare. Related: Anathematized; anathematizing.
Anatolia Look up Anatolia at
ancient name of Asia Minor, from Medieval Latin Anatolia, from Greek anatole "the east," originally "sunrise" (which of course happens in the east), literally "a rising above (the horizon)," from anatellein "to rise," from ana "up" (see ana-) + tellein "to accomplish, perform." Related: Anatolian.
anatomic (adj.) Look up anatomic at
"anatomical," 1712, from Latin anatomicus, from Greek anatomikos "relating to anatomy," from anatomia (see anatomy). Anatomical is older.
anatomical (adj.) Look up anatomical at
"of or pertaining to anatomy," 1580s; see anatomy + -ical.
anatomically (adv.) Look up anatomically at
1640s, from anatomical + -ly (2). Anatomically correct, of dolls and meaning "with genitalia," is attested 1968, perhaps 1967, American English, in reference to Petit Frère, an imported French boy doll.
anatomize (v.) Look up anatomize at
"to dissect, investigate by dissection," early 15c., from Medieval Latin anatomizare, from Greek anatomia (see anatomy). Related: Anatomized; anatomizing.
anatomy (n.) Look up anatomy at
late 14c., "study or knowledge of the structure and function of the human body" (learned by dissection); c. 1400, "anatomical structure," from Old French anatomie and directly from Late Latin anatomia, from late Greek anatomia for classical anatome "dissection," literally "a cutting up," from ana "up" (see ana-) + temnein "to cut" (from PIE root *tem- "to cut").

"Dissection" (1540s), "mummy" (1580s), and "skeleton" (1590s) were primary senses of this word in Shakespeare's day; meaning "the science of the structure of organized bodies" predominated from 17c. Of persons, "the body," from 1590s. Often misdivided as an atomy or a natomy (see N).
The scyence of the Nathomy is nedefull and necessarye to the Cyrurgyen [1541]
ancestor (n.) Look up ancestor at
"one from whom a person is descended," c. 1300, ancestre, antecessour, from Old French ancestre, ancessor "ancestor, forebear, forefather" (12c., Modern French ancêtre), from Late Latin antecessor "predecessor," literally "fore-goer," agent noun from past participle stem of Latin antecedere "to precede," from ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + cedere "to go" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield"). Current form from early 15c. Feminine form ancestress recorded from 1570s.
ancestral (adj.) Look up ancestral at
"pertaining to ancestors," 1520s, from Old French ancestrel (Anglo-French auncestrel) "ancestral," from ancestre (see ancestor). Alternative form ancestorial is from 1650s. Related: Ancestrally.
ancestry (n.) Look up ancestry at
"series or line of ancestors, descent from ancestors," early 14c., auncestrie, from Old French ancesserie "ancestry, ancestors, forefathers," from ancestre (see ancestor); spelling modified in English by influence of ancestor.
anchor (v.) Look up anchor at
"fix or secure in a particular place," c. 1200, perhaps in Old English, from anchor (n.) or from Medieval Latin ancorare. Figurative use from 1580s; in reference to television or radio programs, 1961. Related: Anchored; anchoring.
anchor (n.) Look up anchor at
"device for securing ships to the ground under the water by means of cables," Old English ancor, borrowed 9c. from Latin ancora "an anchor," from or cognate with Greek ankyra "an anchor, a hook," from PIE root *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (see angle (n.)).

A very early borrowing into English and said to be the only Latin nautical term used in the Germanic languages (German Anker, Swedish ankar, etc.). The unetymological -ch- emerged late 16c., a pedantic imitation of a corrupt spelling of the Latin word. The figurative sense of "that which gives stability or security" is from late 14c. Meaning "host or presenter of a TV or radio program" is from 1965, short for anchorman (q.v.).
anchorage (n.) Look up anchorage at
mid-14c., "toll or charge for anchoring" (see anchor (v.) + -age. Meaning "act of dropping anchor, being at anchor" is from 1610s; that of "place suitable for anchoring" is from 1706. The Alaska city of Anchorage was founded 1914.
anchoress (n.) Look up anchoress at
"female recluse, nun," late 14c.; see anchorite + -ess.
anchorite (n.) Look up anchorite at
mid-15c., "hermit (especially those of the Eastern deserts in the two centuries after c. 300 C.E.), recluse, one who withdraws from the world for religious reasons," from Medieval Latin anchorita, Late Latin anchoreta, from Greek anakhoretes, literally "one who has retired," agent noun from anakhorein "to retreat, go back, retire (from battle, the world, etc.)," from ana "back" (see ana-) + khorein "withdraw, give place," from khoros "place, space, free space, room," from PIE root *ghē- "to release, let go; be released." Replaced Old English ancer, from Late Latin anchoreta. Related: Anchoritic.
There is, perhaps, no phase in the moral history of mankind of a deeper or more painful interest than this ascetic epidemic. A hideous, sordid, and emaciated maniac, without knowledge, without patriotism, without natural affection, passing his life in a long routine of useless and atrocious self-torture, and quailing before the ghastly phantoms of his delirious brain, had become the ideal of the nations which had known the writings of Plato and Cicero, and the lives of Socrates and Cato. [Lecky, "History of European Mortals"]
anchorman (n.) Look up anchorman at
"last man of a tug-of-war team," 1903, from anchor (n.) + man (n.). Later, "one who runs last in a relay race" (1934). Transferred sense "host or presenter of a TV or radio program" is from 1958.
anchovy (n.) Look up anchovy at
small, common fish of the Mediterranean and other seas, esteemed for its rich, peculiar flavor, 1590s, from Portuguese anchova, from Genoese or Corsican dialect, perhaps ultimately from either Latin apua "small fish" (from Greek aphye "small fry") [Gamillscheg, Diez], or from Basque anchu "dried fish," from anchuva "dry" [Klein, citing Mahn].
anchylosis (n.) Look up anchylosis at
"stiffening of joints caused by consolidation or fusion of two or more bones into one," 1713, from Greek ankylos "crooked" (see angle (n.)) + -osis. Related: Anchylotic.
ancien regime (n.) Look up ancien regime at
1794, from French ancien régime, literally "old rule," referring to the government and social order of France before the Revolution there. See ancient + regime.
ancient (n.) Look up ancient at
"standard-bearer," 1590s, short for ancient-bearer (1570s), from ancient "flag, banner, standard" (1550s), a corruption of ensign (q.v.). Archaic, but preserved in Shakespeare's character Aunchient Pistoll in "Henry V."
ancient (adj.) Look up ancient at
late 14c., auncyen, of persons, "very old;" c. 1400, of things, "having lasted from a remote period," from Old French ancien "old, long-standing, ancient," from Vulgar Latin *anteanus, literally "from before," adjectivization of Latin ante "before, in front of, against" (from PIE *anti "against," locative singular of root *ant- "front, forehead"). The unetymological -t dates from 15c. by influence of words in -ent.

From early 15c. as "existing or occurring in times long past." Specifically, in history, "belonging to the period before the fall of the Western Roman Empire" (c. 1600, contrasted with medieval and modern). In English law, "from before the Norman Conquest." As a noun, "very old person," late 14c.; "one who lived in former ages," 1530s. Ancient of Days "supreme being" is from Daniel vii.9. Related: Anciently.