angel (n.) Look up angel at
"one of a class of spiritual beings, attendants and messengers of God," a c. 1300 fusion of Old English engel (with hard -g-) and Old French angele. Both are from Late Latin angelus, from Greek angelos, literally "messenger, envoy, one that announces," in the New Testament "divine messenger," which is possibly related to angaros "mounted courier," both from an unknown Oriental word (Watkins compares Sanskrit ajira- "swift;" Klein suggests Semitic sources). Used in Scriptural translations for Hebrew mal'akh (yehowah) "messenger (of Jehovah)," from base l-'-k "to send." An Old English word for it was aerendgast, literally "errand-spirit."

Of persons, "one who is loving, gracious, or lovely," by 1590s. The medieval English gold coin (a new issue of the noble, first struck 1465 by Edward VI) was so called for the image of archangel Michael slaying the dragon, which was stamped on it. It was the coin given to patients who had been "touched" for the King's Evil. Angel food cake is from 1881; angel dust "phencyclidine" is from 1968.
angel-fish (n.) Look up angel-fish at
also angelfish, 1660s, from angel + fish (n.); so called for its wing-like pectoral fins.
Angela Look up Angela at
fem. proper name, Latin fem. of angelus "angel" (see angel).
Angeleno (n.) Look up Angeleno at
"resident or native of Los Angeles," 1888, from American Spanish Angeleño, from (Los) Angeles + -eño, suffix indicating a native or resident. See Los Angeles.
angelic (adj.) Look up angelic at
early 14c., "consisting of angels;" late 14c., "like or befitting an angel;" mid-15c., "pertaining to angels," from Old French angelique "angelic" (13c., Modern French angélique), from Latin angelicus, from Greek angelikos "angelic," from angelos (see angel). Sense of "wonderfully pure, sweet" is recorded from early 16c. Related: Angelically.
Angelica Look up Angelica at
fem. proper name, Latin fem. of angelicus "angelic" (see angelic). As a type of plant, 1570s, probably so called for its scent.
Angelina Look up Angelina at
fem. proper name, diminutive of Angela.
angelolatry (n.) Look up angelolatry at
"worship of angels," 1847, from angel + -latry, with connective -o-.
anger (v.) Look up anger at
c. 1200, "to irritate, annoy, provoke," from Old Norse angra "to grieve, vex, distress; to be vexed at, take offense with," from Proto-Germanic *angaz (source also of Old English enge "narrow, painful," Middle Dutch enghe, Gothic aggwus "narrow"), from PIE *anghos, suffixed form of root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful."

In Middle English, also of physical pain. Meaning "excite to wrath, make angry" is from late 14c. Related: Angered; angering.
anger (n.) Look up anger at
mid-13c., "hostile attitude, ill will, surliness" (also "distress, suffering; anguish, agony," a sense now obsolete), from Old Norse angr "distress, grief, sorrow, affliction," from Proto-Germanic *angaz (from PIE root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful"). Cognate with German Angst. Sense of "rage, wrath" is early 14c. Old Norse also had angr-gapi "rash, foolish person;" angr-lauss "free from care;" angr-lyndi "sadness, low spirits."
Angevin (adj.) Look up Angevin at
in reference to the English royal house of the 12th and early 13th centuries (Henry II, Richard I, and John) descended from Geoffrey, count of Anjou, and Matilda, daughter of Henry I, 1650s, literally "pertaining to the French province of Anjou," from French Angevin, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus, from Andegavum "Angers," city in France, capital of Anjou (Latin Andegavia), from Andecavi, Roman name of the Gaulish people who lived here, which is of unknown origin.
angina (n.) Look up angina at
1570s, "severe inflammatory infection of the throat," from Latin angina "infection of the throat, quinsy," literally "a strangling," from Greek ankhone "a strangling" (from PIE root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful"); probably influenced in Latin by angere "to throttle." Angina pectoris "acute, constricting pain in the chest" is from 1744, from Latin pectoris, genitive of pectus "chest" (see pectoral (adj.)). Related: Anginal.
angio- Look up angio- at
before verbs angi-, word-forming element meaning "vessel of the body," now often "covered or enclosed by a seed or blood vessel," from Latinized form of Greek angeion "case, capsule, vessel of the body," diminutive of angos "vessel, jar, vat, vase," which is of unknown origin. Beekes says "Possibly a Mediterranean loanword ..., as kitchen utensils are often borrowed."
angiogenesis (n.) Look up angiogenesis at
"development of new blood vessels," 1896, from angio- + -genesis "birth, origin, creation."
angiogram (n.) Look up angiogram at
1933, from angio- + -gram.
angiography (n.) Look up angiography at
1731, "description of the vessels of the body" (blood and nymph), from angio- "blood vessel" + -graphy.
angioma (n.) Look up angioma at
"tumor produced by enlargement or new formation of blood vessels," 1867, medical Latin, from angio- + -oma. Related: Angiomatous.
angioplasty (n.) Look up angioplasty at
by 1976, from angio- + -plasty.
angiosperm (n.) Look up angiosperm at
"plant with seeds contained in a protective vessel" (as distinguished from a gymnosperm, in which the seeds are naked), 1852, from Modern Latin Angiospermae, coined 1690 by German botanist Paul Hermann (1646-1695), from Greek angeion "vessel" (see angio-) + spermos, adjective from sperma "seed" (see sperm). So called because the seeds in this class of plants are enclosed. Related: Angiospermous.
angle (v.2) Look up angle at
"to move at an angle, to move diagonally or obliquely," 1741, from angle (n.). Related: Angled; angling.
angle (v.1) Look up angle at
"to fish with a hook," mid-15c., from Old English angel (n.) "angle, hook, fish-hook," related to anga "hook," from Proto-Germanic *angul-, from PIE *ankulo-, suffixed form of root *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (see angle (n.)). Compare Old English angul, Old Norse öngull, Old High German angul, German Angel "fishhook." Figurative sense "catch or elicit by artful wiles" is recorded from 1580s. Related: Angled; angling.
angle (n.) Look up angle at
"space or difference in direction between intersecting lines," late 14c., from Old French angle "an angle, a corner" (12c.) and directly from Latin angulus "an angle, a corner," a diminutive form from PIE root *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (source also of Greek ankylos "bent, crooked," Latin ang(u)ere "to compress in a bend, fold, strangle;" Old Church Slavonic aglu "corner;" Lithuanian anka "loop;" Sanskrit ankah "hook, bent," angam "limb;" Old English ancleo "ankle;" Old High German ango "hook").

Figurative sense "point or direction from which one approaches something" is from 1872. Angle-bracket is 1781 in carpentry; 1956 in typography.
Angle Look up Angle at
member of a Teutonic tribe, Old English, from Latin Angli "the Angles," literally "people of Angul" (Old Norse Öngull), a region in what is now Holstein, said to be so-called for its hook-like shape (see angle (n.)). People from the tribe there founded the kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbia, and East Anglia in 5c. Britain. Their name, rather than that of the Saxons or Jutes, may have become the common one for the whole group of Germanic tribes because their dialect was the first committed to writing.
angler (n.) Look up angler at
"fisher with a hook and line," mid-15c. (c. 1300 as a surname); agent noun from angle (v.1).
Anglian (adj.) Look up Anglian at
"of the Angles; of East Anglia," 1726; see Angle. The Old English word was Englisc, but as this came to be used in reference to the whole Germanic people of Britain, a new word was wanted to describe this branch of them.
Anglican (adj.) Look up Anglican at
1630s, "high-church, of the Church of England," from Medieval Latin Anglicanus, from Anglicus "of the English people, of England," from Angli "the Angles" (see Angle). The noun meaning "adherent of the Church of England" is first recorded 1797. Related: Anglicanism.
Anglice (adv.) Look up Anglice at
"in (plain) English," c. 1600, from Medieval Latin Anglice, from Anglicus (see Angle).
Anglicism (n.) Look up Anglicism at
1640s, "anglicized language, that which is peculiar to England in speech or writing," from Latin Anglicus "of the English" (see Angle) + -ism. As an instance of this, "a word or expression used particularly in England and not in America," from 1781.
anglicization (n.) Look up anglicization at
"process of making English in form or character," 1836, noun of action from anglicize; earlier in same sense was anglification (1822), from anglify (1751).
anglicize (v.) Look up anglicize at
1710, with -ize + Medieval Latin Anglicus "of the English," from Angli "the Angles" (see Angle). Related: Anglicized; anglicizing.
angling (n.) Look up angling at
"art of fishing with a rod and line," late 15c., verbal noun from angle (v.1).
It is but a sory lyfe and an yuell to stand anglynge all day to catche a fewe fisshes. [John Palsgrave, 1530]
Anglist (n.) Look up Anglist at
"student of English," from German Anglist, from Medieval Latin Angli (see Angle). Related: Anglistics.
Anglo (n.) Look up Anglo at
"American, English-speaking white person," 1941, southwestern U.S., from Anglo-American. Anglo was used similarly of native, English-speakers in Canada from 1800 and Britain from 1964.
Anglo- Look up Anglo- at
word-forming element meaning "of or pertaining to England or the English (including the English inhabitants of North America and other places); of England and," from Medieval Latin Anglo-, comb. form of Angli "the English" (see Angle).
Anglo-American (n.) Look up Anglo-American at
"English person who has settled in North America," 1738, from Anglo- + American. Originally often in contrast to German immigrants; later (1830s) in contrast to French-Canadians, Louisiana French, Spanish Mexicans. As an adjective from 1797, "pertaining to the English who have settled in America;" meaning "pertaining to both England and the United States" is from 1812.
Anglo-French (n.) Look up Anglo-French at
the form of Old French written in England from the Norman Conquest (1066) through the Middle Ages; the administrative and legal language of England 12c.-17c.; the name is attested from 1887 and was popularized, if not coined, by Skeat.
And Frenssh she spak ful faire and fetisly,
After the scole of Stratford-atte-Bowe,
For Frenssh of Parys was to hir unknowe.
Anglo-Indian (adj.) Look up Anglo-Indian at
1814, "pertaining to the English who settled in India," from Anglo- + Indian.
Anglo-Latin (n.) Look up Anglo-Latin at
Medieval Latin as written in England, 1791, from Anglo- + Latin (n.).
Anglo-Norman (adj.) Look up Anglo-Norman at
1767, "pertaining to the Normans who settled in England," from Anglo- + Norman. As a noun, 1735; from 1801 as "the Norman dialect of Old French as spoken and developed in England."
Anglo-Saxon (n.) Look up Anglo-Saxon at
Old English Angli Saxones (plural), from Latin Anglo-Saxones, in which Anglo- is an adjective, thus literally "English Saxons," as opposed to those of the Continent (now called "Old Saxons"). Properly in reference to the Saxons of ancient Wessex, Essex, Middlesex, and Sussex.
I am a suthern man, I can not geste 'rum, ram, ruf' by letter. [Chaucer, "Parson's Prologue and Tale"]
After the Norman-French invasion of 1066, the peoples of the island were distinguished as English and French, but after a few generations all were English, and Latin-speaking scribes, who knew and cared little about Germanic history, began to use Anglo-Saxones to refer to the pre-1066 inhabitants and their descendants. When interest in Old English writing revived c. 1586, the word was extended to the language we now call Old English. It has been used rhetorically for "English" in an ethnological sense from 1832, and revisioned as Angle + Saxon.
Anglomania (n.) Look up Anglomania at
"excessive or undue enthusiasm for England and all things English," 1787 (Jefferson); see Anglo- + mania. Related: Anglomaniac.
Anglophile (adj.) Look up Anglophile at
1864, in reference to France, from Anglo- + -phile. Both Anglomania (1787) and Anglophobia (1793) are first attested in the writings of Thomas Jefferson.
Anglophobia (n.) Look up Anglophobia at
"intense hatred or fear of England or what is English," 1793 (Jefferson), from Anglo- + -phobia. Related: Anglophobe; Anglophobic (adj.); Anglophobiac (n.).
anglophone (adj.) Look up anglophone at
"English-speaking," 1895, from Anglo- + -phone.
Angola Look up Angola at
country in southwest Africa, a former Portuguese colony, from N'gola, title of the native ruler there when the Portuguese made contact. Related: Angolan.
angora (n.) Look up angora at
type of wool, 1810, from Angora, city in central Turkey (ancient Ancyra, modern Ankara), which gave its name to the goat (1745 in English), and to its silk-like wool, and to a cat whose fur resembles it (1771 in English). The city name is from the Greek word for "anchor, bend" (see angle (n.)).
Angria Look up Angria at
name of a fictional empire, placed in Africa, imagined by the Brontë children, who wrote tales of it before they wrote the novels that made the three women famous. Related: Angrian.
angrily (adv.) Look up angrily at
mid-14c., "resentfully, in anger; ill-temperedly," from angry + -ly (2).
angry (adj.) Look up angry at
late 14c., "hot-tempered, irascible; incensed, openly wrathful," from anger (n.) + -y (2). The Old Norse adjective was ongrfullr "sorrowful," and Middle English had angerful "anxious, eager" (mid-13c.). Angry young man dates to 1941 but was popularized in reference to John Osborne's play "Look Back in Anger" (produced 1956) though the exact phrase does not occur in that work. Related: Angriness.

"There are three words in the English language that end in -gry. Two of them are angry and hungry. What is the third?" There is no third (except some extremely obscure ones). Richard Lederer calls this "one of the most outrageous and time-wasting linguistic hoaxes in our nation's history" and traces it to a New York TV quiz show from early 1975.
angst (n.) Look up angst at
1944, from specialized use in psychology of German Angst "neurotic fear, anxiety, guilt, remorse," from Old High German angust, from Proto-Germanic *angusti-, from PIE *anghosti-, suffixed form of root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful." George Eliot used it (in German) in 1849, and it was popularized in English early 20c. by translation of Freud's work, but as a foreign word until 1940s. Old English had a cognate word, angsumnes "anxiety," but it died out.