anoxic (adj.) Look up anoxic at
1920, Modern Latin, from Greek an-, privative prefix, "not, without" (see an- (1)) + first two letters of oxygen + -ic. Anoxia "oxygen deficiency" is attested from 1931.
Anschauung (n.) Look up Anschauung at
"sense-perception," c. 1856, from German Anschauung "mode of view," literally "looking at," from anschauen "to look at," from Middle High German aneschouwen (related to show (v.)). A term in Kantian philosophy.
anschluss (n.) Look up anschluss at
1924, from German Anschluß, "connection; addition; junction," literally "joining, union," from anschließen "to join, annex," from an "at, to, toward" + schließen "to shut, close, lock, bolt; contract" (a marriage); see slot (n.2). Specifically the proposal to unite Germany and Austria, accomplished in 1938.
Anselm Look up Anselm at
masc. proper name, from Latin Anselmus, from Old High German Ansehelm, literally "having a divine helmet," from ansi "god" (see Aesir) + helm (see helm (n.2)).
answer (n.) Look up answer at
Old English andswaru "an answer, a reply," from and- "against" (see ante) + -swaru "affirmation," from swerian "to swear" (see swear), suggesting an original sense of "make a sworn statement rebutting a charge." A common Germanic compound (cognates: Old Saxon antswor, Old Norse andsvar, Old Frisian ondser, Danish and Swedish ansvar), implying a Proto-Germanic *andswara-. Meaning "a reply to a question," the main modern sense, was present in Old English. Meaning "solution of a problem" is from c. 1300.
answer (v.) Look up answer at
Old English answarian "to answer;" see answer (n.). Meaning "to respond in antiphony" is from early 15c.; that of "to be responsible for" is early 13c. Related: Answered; answering. The telephone answering machine is from 1961.
answerable (adj.) Look up answerable at
"liable to be held responsible," 1540s, from answer (v.) + -able. Less-common meaning "able to be answered" is from 1690s.
ant (n.) Look up ant at
c. 1500, from Middle English ampte (late 14c.), from Old English æmette "ant," from West Germanic *amaitjo (source also of Old High German ameiza, German Ameise) from a compound of bases *ai- "off, away" + *mai- "cut," from PIE *mai- "to cut" (source also of maim). Thus the insect's name is, etymologically, "the biter off."
As þycke as ameten crepeþ in an amete hulle [chronicle of Robert of Gloucester, 1297]
Emmet survived into 20c. as an alternative form. White ant "termite" is from 1729. To have ants in one's pants "be nervous and fidgety" is from 1934, made current by a popular song; antsy embodies the same notion.
antacid Look up antacid at
1732, adjective and noun, medical hybrid from anti- + acid.
Antaeus Look up Antaeus at
Libyan giant slain by Herakles, from Greek Antaios, literally "opposite, opposed to, hostile," from anta "over against, face to face," related to anti "opposite, against" (see ante).
antagonise (v.) Look up antagonise at
chiefly British English spelling of antagonize; see -ize. Related: Antagonised; antagonising.
antagonism (n.) Look up antagonism at
1797, from French antagonisme or directly from late Greek antagonisma, noun of action from antagonizesthai "to struggle against" (see antagonist).
antagonist (n.) Look up antagonist at
1590s, from French antagoniste (16c.) or directly from Late Latin antagonista, from Greek antagonistes "competitor, opponent, rival," agent noun from antagonizesthai "to struggle against, oppose, be a rival," from anti- "against" (see anti-) + agonizesthai "to contend for a prize," from agon "contest" (see agony). Originally in battle or sport, extended 1620s to any sphere of human activity.
antagonistic (adj.) Look up antagonistic at
1630s, from antagonist + -ic. Related: Antagonistical (1620s); antagonistically.
antagonize (v.) Look up antagonize at
1630s, "to compete with," from Greek antagonizesthai "to struggle against, oppose, be a rival" (see antagonist). Meaning "to struggle against continuously" is recorded from 1742. Related: Antagonized; antagonizing.
antalgic (adj.) Look up antalgic at
1775, from Greek ant-, form of anti- used before vowels (see anti-), + algos "pain" (see -algia). As a noun, recorded from 1753.
antaphrodisiac Look up antaphrodisiac at
1742 (adj.), 1753 (n.), "used against venereal disease;" see anti- + aphrodisiac.
antarchism (n.) Look up antarchism at
"opposition to all social government or control of individuals by law," 1845, from antarchy + -ism. Related: Antarchist.
antarchy (n.) Look up antarchy at
"opposition to government," 1650s, from anti- + Greek -arkhia (see -archy). Related: Antarchic.
antarctic (adj.) Look up antarctic at
late 14c., antartyk "opposite to the north pole" (adj.), also (with capital A) "region around the South pole" (n.), from Old French antartique, from Medieval Latin antarcticus, from Greek antarktikos "opposite the north," from anti- "opposite" (see anti-) + arktikos "arctic" (see arctic). The first -c- sound ceased to be pronounced in Medieval Latin and was dropped in Old French. Modern English spelling, which restores it, dates from 17c.
Antarctica Look up Antarctica at
continent name attributed to Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew (1860-1920), who used it on a map published 1887. From antarctic (q.v.). Hypothetical southern continents had been imagined since antiquity; first sighting of Antarctica by Europeans probably was 1820 (Lazarev and Bellingshausen). Also compare Antipodes.
Antares Look up Antares at
bright star in Scorpio, from Greek Antares, from anti Ares "rival of Mars," in reference to its red color, which resembles that of Mars. See anti- + Ares.
ante Look up ante at
1838 (n.), 1846 (v.), American English poker slang, apparently from Latin ante "before," from PIE *anti- "facing opposite, against," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before; end" (source also of Sanskrit antah "end, border, boundary," Hittite hanti "opposite," Greek anta, anten "opposite," anti "over against, opposite, before;" Old Lithuanian anta "on to;" Gothic anda "along;" Old English and- "against;" German ent- "along, against"), from root *ant- "front, forehead."
ante meridiem Look up ante meridiem at
1560s, Latin, literally "before noon," from ante (see ante) + accusative of meridies "midday, noon" (see meridian).
ante- Look up ante- at
word-forming element meaning "before, in front of; previous, existing beforehand; introductory to," from Latin ante (prep. and adv.) "before, in front of, opposite," used in combinations, from PIE *anti "facing opposite, near, in front of, before" (see ante).
anteater (n.) Look up anteater at
also ant-eater, 1764, in reference to the South American species; 1868 of the Australian echidna; from ant + agent noun from eat (v.).
antebellum (adj.) Look up antebellum at
also ante-bellum, from Latin phrase ante bellum, literally "before the war;" see ante- + bellicose. In U.S., usually in reference to the American Civil War (1861-65); first attested in a June 14, 1862, entry in Mary Chesnut's diary.
antecede (v.) Look up antecede at
early 15c., from Latin antecedere "to go before" (see antecedent). Related: Anteceded; anteceding.
antecedent Look up antecedent at
late 14c. (n. and adj.), from Old French antecedent (14c.) or directly from Latin antecedentem (nominative antecedens), present participle of antecedere "go before, precede," from ante- "before" (see ante) + cedere "to yield" (see cede). Used as a noun in Latin philosophical writings.
antechamber (n.) Look up antechamber at
1650s, from French antichambre (16c.), on analogy of Italian anticamera (see ante and chamber).
antedate (v.) Look up antedate at
1580s, earlier as noun meaning "a backdating, false early date attached to a document or event" (1570s); from Latin ante "before" (see ante) + date (v.1). Related: Antedated; antedating.
antediluvian (adj.) Look up antediluvian at
"before Noah's flood," 1640s, formed from Latin ante- "before" (see ante) + diluvium "a flood" (see deluge (n.)). Coined by English physician Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682). As a noun meaning "person who lived before the Flood," from 1680s.
antelope (n.) Look up antelope at
early 15c., from Old French antelop, from Medieval Latin ant(h)alopus (11c.), from Greek antholops (attested in Eusebius of Antioch, c.336 C.E.), a fabulous animal haunting the banks of the Euphrates, very savage, hard to catch and having long saw-like horns capable of cutting down trees. Original sense and language unknown (it looks like Greek "flower-eye," as if from anthos + ops, but that may be a result of Greek folk etymology). A heraldic animal, also known in Medieval Latin as talopus and calopus, the name was applied c. 1600 to a living type of deer-like mammal. In the western U.S., it is used in reference to the pronghorn.
antemundane (adj.) Look up antemundane at
"existing or happening before the creation of the world," 1731; see ante- + mundane.
antenatal (adj.) Look up antenatal at
"before birth," 1798, from Latin ante "before" (see ante) + natal.
antenna (n.) Look up antenna at
1640s, "feeler or horn of an insect," from Latin antenna "sail yard," the long yard that sticks up on some sails, which is of unknown origin, perhaps from PIE root *temp- "to stretch, extend." In the etymological sense, it is a loan-translation of Aristotle's Greek keraiai "horns" (of insects). Modern use in radio, etc., for "aerial wire" is from 1902. Adjectival forms are antennal (1834), antennary (1836), antennular (1858).
antennae (n.) Look up antennae at
classically correct plural of antenna; see -ae.
antennas (n.) Look up antennas at
nativized plural of antenna; see -ae.
antenuptial (adj.) Look up antenuptial at
"prior to marriage," 1818, originally of children's births; see ante- + nuptial.
antepartum (adj.) Look up antepartum at
1908, from Latin phrase ante partum "before birth" (see postpartum).
antepenult (n.) Look up antepenult at
1610s; see antepenultimate.
antepenultimate (adj.) Look up antepenultimate at
"the last but two," 1730, from antepenult (n.), 1610s, abbreviation of Latin antepaenultima (syllaba), fem. of antepaenultimus, from ante "before" (see ante) + paenultima, from paen "almost" + ultima "last" (see ultimate).
anterior (adj.) Look up anterior at
1610s, Latin, literally "former," comparative of ante "before" (see ante). Related: Anteriority.
anteroom (n.) Look up anteroom at
also ante-room, 1762, literally "a room in front;" after French antichambre, Italian anticamera, from Latin ante "before" (see ante) + camera (see chamber).
anthem (n.) Look up anthem at
Old English ontemn, antefn, "a composition (in prose or verse) sung antiphonally," from Late Latin antefana, from Greek antiphona "verse response" (see antiphon). Sense evolved to "a composition set to sacred music" (late 14c.), then "song of praise or gladness" (1590s). Used in reference to the English national song (technically, as OED points out, a hymn) and extended to those of other nations. Modern spelling is from late 16c., perhaps an attempt to make the word look more Greek.
anthemic (adj.) Look up anthemic at
of music, "felt to resemble an anthem," 1841, from anthem + -ic. In reference to a type of acid, 1859, so called because isolated from dog-fennel (Anthemis arvensis).
anther (n.) Look up anther at
1550s, "medical extract of flowers," from French anthère, from Modern Latin anthera "a medicine extracted from a flower," from Greek anthera, fem. of antheros "flowery, blooming," from anthos "flower," from PIE root *andh- "to bloom" (source also of Sanskrit andhas "herb," Armenian and "field," Middle Irish ainder "young girl," Welsh anner "young cow"). Main modern sense attested by 1791.
anthesis (n.) Look up anthesis at
"full bloom," 1835, from Greek anthesis, noun of action from antheein "to blossom," from anthos "flower," (see anther).
anthill (n.) Look up anthill at
late 13c., from ant + hill (n.).
anthologize (v.) Look up anthologize at
1889; see anthology + -ize. Related: Anthologized; anthologizing.