Angstrom (n.) Look up Angstrom at
unit of length equal to one hundred millionth of a centimeter (used to measure wavelengths of light), 1892, named for Swedish physicist Anders Ångström (1814-1874).
anguish (v.) Look up anguish at
mid-14c., angwisshen, intransitive and reflexive ("be troubled or distressed; feel agony") and transitive ("cause grief, distress,or torment"); from Old French angoissier (12c., Modern French angoisser), from angoisse "distress, anxiety, rage" (see anguish (n.)). Related: Anguished; anguishing.
anguish (n.) Look up anguish at
c. 1200, "acute bodily or mental suffering," from Old French anguisse, angoisse "choking sensation, distress, anxiety, rage" (12c.), from Latin angustia (plural angustiae) "tightness, straitness, narrowness;" figuratively "distress, difficulty," from ang(u)ere "to throttle, torment" (from PIE root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful").
anguished (adj.) Look up anguished at
late 14c., "full of anguish," past-participle adjective from anguish (v.). From c. 1800 as "expressing anguish."
anguishous (adj.) Look up anguishous at
(obsolete), "full of wrath," also "anxious," early 13c., from Old French angoissos "anxious, worried, distressed; difficult; painful," from angoisse "distress, anxiety, rage" (see anguish (n.)). Related: Anguishously.
angular (adj.) Look up angular at
1590s, "having an angle or angles, pointy," from Latin angularis "having corners or angles," from angulus "angle, corner" (see angle (n.)). Earlier in an astrological sense, "occupying a cardinal point of the zodiac" (late 14c.). Angulous "having many corners" is from mid-15c. Angular as "measured by an angle" is from 1670s, hence angular motion "motion of a body which moves around a fixed point."
angularity (n.) Look up angularity at
"quality of being angular," 1640s; see angular + -ity.
Angus Look up Angus at
masc. proper name, Scottish, related to Irish Aonghus, a compound that may be rendered in English as "having solitary strength," or else "one choice, sole choice." From Celtic oen "one" (from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique") + Old Irish gus "ability, excellence, strength, inclination," from Celtic root *gustu- "choice," from PIE root *geus- "to taste; to choose." Also the name of a former county in Scotland (said to have been named for an 8c. Pictish king of that name), hence a breed of cattle (1842) associated with that region.
anhedonia (n.) Look up anhedonia at
"inability to feel pleasure," 1897, from French anhédonie, coined 1896 by French psychologist Theodule Ribot (1839-1916) as an opposite to analgesia, from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + hedone "pleasure" (see hedonist) + abstract noun ending -ia.
anhinga (n.) Look up anhinga at
fishing bird of the American tropics (also called the snake-bird, water-turkey), 1769, from a Tupi word which is said to mean "snake-bird."
anhungered (adj.) Look up anhungered at
"very hungry," c. 1300, contraction of Old English of-hyngrod; see a- (1) + hunger.
anhydrous (adj.) Look up anhydrous at
"containing no water," 1809, a modern coinage from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + hydor "water" (from PIE root *wed- (1) "water; wet") + -ous. Greek did have anhydros "waterless," used of arid lands or corpses that had not been given proper funeral rites.
ani (n.) Look up ani at
black bird of the cuckoo family native to the American tropics, 1829, from Spanish or Portuguese ani, from Tupi.
anigh (adv.) Look up anigh at
"nearby," c. 1200, from a- (1) + nigh.
anil (n.) Look up anil at
West Indian shrub from which indigo is made, 1580s, from French or Portuguese anil "the indigo shrub," from Arabic an-nil "the indigo," assimilated from al-nil, from Persian nila, ultimately from Sanskrit nili "indigo," from nilah "dark blue."
aniline (n.) Look up aniline at
chemical base used in making colorful dyes, 1843, coined 1841 by German chemist Carl Julius Fritzsche (1808-1871) and adopted by Hofmann, ultimately from Portuguese anil "the indigo shrub," from Arabic an-nil "the indigo," assimilated from al-nil (with Arabic definite article al-), from Persian nila, ultimately from Sanskrit nili "indigo," from nilah "dark blue."

With suffix -ine indicating "derived substance" (see -ine (1); also see -ine (2) for the later, more precise, use of the suffix in chemistry). Discovered in 1826 in indigo and at first called crystallin; it became commercially important in 1856 when mauve dye was made from it. As an adjective from 1860.
anima (n.) Look up anima at
Jung's term for the inner part of the personality, or the female component of a masculine personality, 1923, from fem. of Latin animus "the rational soul; life; the mental powers, intelligence" (see animus). For earlier use in the sense "soul, vital principle," see anima mundi.
anima mundi (n.) Look up anima mundi at
"spiritual essence, distinct from matter and supposed in the philosophy of Pythagoras and Plato to be diffused throughout the universe, organizing and acting through the whole of it," 1670s, Medieval Latin, literally "soul of the world;" used by Abelard to render Greek psyche tou kosmou. From fem. of Latin animus "the rational soul; life; the mental powers, intelligence" (see animus) + genitive of mundus "universe, world" (see mundane).
animadversion (n.) Look up animadversion at
1590s, "criticism, blame, reproof; a critical commentary," also sometimes in early use simply "notice, attention, perception of an object" (a sense now obsolete), from Latin animadversionem (nominative animadversio) "investigation, inquiry; perception, observation," noun of action from past participle stem of animadverte "to take cognizance of," literally "to turn the mind to," from animum, accusative of animus "the mind" (see animus), + advertere "turn to" (see advertise). The sense of "take notice of as a fault" was in Latin and animadverto at times was a euphemism for "to punish with death."
animadvert (v.) Look up animadvert at
early 15c., "to take notice of," from Latin animadvertere "to notice, take cognizance of," also "to censure, blame, punish," literally "turn the mind to," from animus "the mind" (see animus) + advertere "turn to" (see advertise). Sense of "to criticize, blame, censure" in English is from 1660s. Related: Animadverted; animadverting.
animal (adj.) Look up animal at
late 14c., "pertaining to the animal spirit of man," that is, "pertaining to the merely sentient (as distinguished from the intellectual, rational, or spiritual) qualities of a human being," from Latin animalis, from animale (see animal (n.)).

From 1540s as "pertaining to sensation;" 1630s as "pertaining to or derived from beasts;" 1640s as "pertaining to the animal kingdom" (as opposed to vegetable or mineral); 1650s as "having life, living." Animal rights is attested from 1879; animal liberation from 1973. Animal magnetism originally (1784) referred to mesmerism.
animal (n.) Look up animal at
early 14c., "any sentient living creature" (including humans), from Latin animale "living being, being which breathes," noun use of neuter of animalis (adj.) "animate, living; of the air," from anima "breath, soul; a current of air" (from PIE root *ane- "to breathe;" compare deer). A rare word in English before c. 1600, and not in KJV (1611). Commonly only of non-human creatures. It drove out the older beast in common usage. Used derisively of brutish humans (in which the "animal," or non-rational, non-spiritual nature is ascendant) from 1580s.
Quid est homo? A dedlych best and resonable, animal racionale. ["Battlefield Grammar," c. 1450]
animalcule (n.) Look up animalcule at
"very small animal," especially a microscopic one, 1590s, from Late Latin animalculum (plural animalcula), diminutive of Latin animal "living being" (see animal (n.)). In early use also of mice, insects, etc. Related: Animalcular; animalculine.
animalism (n.) Look up animalism at
1828, "brutishness, state of being a (mere) animal; moved by sensual appetites as opposed to intellectual or moral forces," from animal + -ism. From 1857 as "the doctrine that man is a mere animal."
animalistic (adj.) Look up animalistic at
"characterized by animalism" in the negative sense; "motivated by sensual appetites," 1877; see animal (n.) + -istic.
animate (v.) Look up animate at
1530s, "to fill with boldness or courage," from Latin animatus past participle of animare "give breath to," also "to endow with a particular spirit, to give courage to, enliven," from anima "life, breath" (see animus). Sense of "give natural life to" in English attested from 1742. Meaning "render in moving pictures, especially cinematic cartoons" is from early 20c. Related: Animated; animating.
animate (adj.) Look up animate at
"alive," late 14c., from Latin animatus, past participle of animare "give breath to," also "to endow with a particular spirit, to give courage to, enliven," from anima "life, breath" (from PIE root *ane- "to breathe").
animated (adj.) Look up animated at
1530s, "alive," past participle adjective from animate (v.). Meaning "mentally excited, lively" is from 1530s, that of "full of activity" is from 1580s. The moving pictures sense is attested from 1890. Related: Animatedly.
At present [Edison] is working at the 'Kinetograph,' a combination of the phonograph and the instantaneous photograph as exhibited in the zoetrope, by which he expects to produce an animated picture or simulacrum of a scene in real life or the drama, with its appropriate words and sounds. J. Munro, "Heroes of the Telegraph," 1890]
animation (n.) Look up animation at
1590s, "action of imparting life" (a sense now obsolete), from Latin animationem (nominative animatio) "an animating," noun of action from past participle stem of animare "give breath to," also "to endow with a particular spirit, to give courage to, enliven," from anima "life, breath" (from PIE root *ane- "to breathe"). Meaning "vitality, appearance of activity or life" is from 1610s (the sense in suspended animation). Cinematographic sense, "production of moving cartoon pictures" is from 1912.
animator (n.) Look up animator at
1630s, "one who or that which enlivens or inspires," from Latin animator, agent noun from animare (see animate (v.)). Cinematographic sense "artist who makes drawings for cinematographic cartoons" is from 1919.
animatronic (adj.) Look up animatronic at
"pertaining to or involving robotics that realistically imitate living things," 1962 (in Walt Disney's audio-animatronic), from animation + electronics. Related: Animatronics.
anime (n.) Look up anime at
c. 1985, Japanese for "animation," a word that seems to have arisen in Japan in the 1970s, apparently based on French animé "animated, lively, roused," from the same Latin source as English animate (adj.). Probably taken into Japanese from a phrase such as dessin animé "cartoon," literally "animated design," with the adjective abstracted or mistaken, due to its position, as a noun.

Manga (q.v.) is Japanese for "comic book, graphic novel," but anime largely are based on manga and until 1970s, anime were known in Japan as manga eiga or "TV manga." The two terms are somewhat confused in English.
animism (n.) Look up animism at
"attribution of living souls to inanimate objects," 1866, reintroduced by English anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Taylor (1832-1917), who defined it (1871) as the "theory of the universal animation of nature," from Latin anima "life, breath, soul" (from PIE root *ane- "to breathe") + -ism.

Earlier sense was of "doctrine that animal life is produced by an immaterial soul" (1832), from German Animismus, coined c. 1720 by physicist/chemist Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734) based on the concept of the anima mundi. Animist is attested from 1819, in Stahl's sense. Related: Animisic.
animosity (n.) Look up animosity at
early 15c., "vigor, bravery" (a sense now obsolete), from Old French animosité (14c.) or directly from Latin animositatem (nominative animositas) "boldness, vehemence," from animosus "bold, spirited," from animus "life, breath" (from PIE root *ane- "to breathe"). Sense of "active hostile feeling" is first recorded c. 1600, from a secondary sense in Latin.
animus (n.) Look up animus at
1820, "temper" (usually in a hostile sense), from Latin animus "rational soul, mind, life, mental powers, consciousness, sensibility; courage, desire," related to anima "living being, soul, mind, disposition, passion, courage, anger, spirit, feeling," from PIE root *ane- "to breathe."

It has no plural. As a term in Jungian psychology for the masculine component of a feminine personality, it dates from 1923. For sense development in Latin, compare Old Norse andi "breath, breathing; current of air; aspiration in speech; soul, spirit, spiritual being."
anion (n.) Look up anion at
"a negatively charged ion, which moves toward the anode (q.v.) during electrolysis," 1834, proposed by the Rev. William Whewell (1794-1866), English polymath, and published by English physicist Michael Faraday, from Greek anion "(thing) going up," neuter past participle of anienai "go up," from ana "up" (see ana-) + ienai "go" (from PIE root *ei- "to go"). Related: Anionic.
anise (n.) Look up anise at
Levantine plant cultivated for its seeds, which were important sources of chemical oils and flavoring, c. 1300, from Old French anis (13c.), from Latin anisum, from Greek anison. By the Ancients somewhat confused with dill. Related: Anisic.
aniseed (n.) Look up aniseed at
late 14c., a contraction of anise seed (n.).
anisette (n.) Look up anisette at
"liqueur flavored with aniseed," 1821, from French Anisette de Bordeaux, from diminutive of anis (see anise).
aniso- Look up aniso- at
word-forming element meaning "unequal, not equal," from Greek anisos "not equal," from an- "not" (see an- (1)) + isos "equal to, the same as" (see iso-).
anisometric (adj.) Look up anisometric at
"of unequal measurement," 1850, perhaps based on German anisometrisch (by 1836); see an- (1) "not" + isometric.
anisotropic (adj.) Look up anisotropic at
"not having the same properties in all directions," 1854; see an- (1) "not" + isotropic.
Anjou Look up Anjou at
provine of France; see Angevin.
anker (n.) Look up anker at
also anchor, liquid measure in North Sea and Baltic trade (equivalent to from 9 to a little more than 10 gallons), early 14c., from Dutch, related to German Anker, Swedish ankare, Medieval Latin anceria "keg, vat," which is of unknown origin.
ankh (n.) Look up ankh at
tau cross with an oval loop at the top, Egyptian symbol of life, 1873, from Egyptian ankh, literally "life, soul." Also known as crux ansata.
ankle (n.) Look up ankle at
14c. ancle, ankle, from Old English ancleow "ankle," ultimately from PIE root *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (see angle (n.)). The Middle English and modern form of the word seems to be from or influenced by Old Norse ökkla or Old Frisian ankel, which are immediately from the Proto-Germanic form of the root, *ankulaz (source also of Middle High German anke "joint," German Enke "ankle").

The second element in the Old English, Old Norse and Old Frisian forms perhaps suggests claw (compare Dutch anklaauw), or it may be from influence of cneow "knee," or it may be the diminutive suffix -el. Middle English writers distinguished inner ankle projection (hel of the ancle) from the outer (utter or utward ancle), and the word sometimes was applied to the wrist (ankle of þe hand).
anklet (n.) Look up anklet at
"ornamental ring for an ankle," 1810, from ankle, with diminutive suffix -let, after bracelet, etc.
ankylosaurus (n.) Look up ankylosaurus at
Cretaceous armored dinosaur, 1907, Modern Latin, from Greek ankylos "bent, curved" (see angle (n.)) + -saurus. Said to be a reference to the curved ribs.
ankylosis (n.) Look up ankylosis at
"stiffening of joints caused by consolidation or fusion of two or more bones into one," 1713, alternative (and more etymological) spelling of anchylosis (q.v.).
anlage (n.) Look up anlage at
"basis of a later development" (plural anlagen), 1892, from German anlage "foundation, basis," from anlagen (v.) "to establish," from an "on" (see on (prep.)) + legen "to lay" (from PIE root *legh- "to lie down, lay").