anthill (n.) Look up anthill at
late 13c., from ant + hill (n.).
anthologize (v.) Look up anthologize at
1889; see anthology + -ize. Related: Anthologized; anthologizing.
anthology (n.) Look up anthology at
1630s, "collection of poetry," from Latin anthologia, from Greek anthologia "collection of small poems and epigrams by several authors," literally "flower-gathering," from anthos "a flower" (see anther) + logia "collection, collecting," from legein "gather" (see lecture (n.)). Modern sense (which emerged in Late Greek) is metaphoric, "flowers" of verse, small poems by various writers gathered together.
Anthony Look up Anthony at
masc. proper name, from Latin Antonius, name of a Roman gens (with excrescent -h- probably suggested by many Greek loan words beginning anth-, such as anthros "flower," anthropos "man"); St. Anthony (4c.), Egyptian hermit, patron saint of swineherds, to whom one of each litter was usually vowed, hence Anthony for "smallest pig of the litter (1660s; in condensed form tantony pig from 1590s). St. Anthony's Fire (1520s), popular name for erysipelas, is said to be so called from the tradition that those who sought his intercession recovered from that distemper during a fatal epidemic in 1089.
anthracite (n.) Look up anthracite at
"non-bituminous coal," 1812, earlier (c. 1600) a type of ruby-like gem described by Pliny, from Latin anthracites "bloodstone, semi-precious gem," from Greek anthrakites "coal-like," from anthrax (genitive anthrakos) "live coal" (see anthrax). Related: Anthractic (adj.).
anthrax (n.) Look up anthrax at
late 14c., "any severe boil or carbuncle," from Latin, from Greek anthrax "charcoal, live coal," also "carbuncle," which is of unknown origin. Specific sense of the malignant disease in sheep and cattle (and occasionally humans) is from 1876.
anthro- Look up anthro- at
see anthropo-.
anthropic (adj.) Look up anthropic at
"pertaining to man," 1836, from Greek anthropikos "human," from anthropos "male human being, man" (see anthropo-). Related: Anthropical (1804).
anthropo- Look up anthropo- at
before a vowel, anthrop-, word-forming element meaning "pertaining to man or human beings," from Greek anthropos "man, human being" (sometimes also including women) from Attic andra (genitive andros), from Greek aner "man" (as opposed to a woman, a god, or a boy), from PIE *ner- (2) "man," also "vigorous, vital, strong" (source also of Sanskrit nar-, Armenian ayr, Welsh ner).

Anthropos sometimes is explained as a compound of aner and ops (genitive opos) "eye, face;" so literally "he who has the face of a man." The change of -d- to -th- is difficult to explain; perhaps it is from some lost dialectal variant, or the mistaken belief that there was an aspiration sign over the vowel in the second element (as though *-dhropo-), which mistake might have come about by influence of common verbs such as horao "to see."
anthropocentric (adj.) Look up anthropocentric at
"regarding man as the center," 1855, from anthropo- + -centric. Related: Anthropocentrically.
anthropocentrism (n.) Look up anthropocentrism at
1897; see anthropocentric + -ism.
anthropogenic (adj.) Look up anthropogenic at
1889, from anthropogeny + -ic.
anthropogeny (n.) Look up anthropogeny at
1833, from anthropo- + geny.
anthropoid (adj.) Look up anthropoid at
"manlike," 1835, from Greek anthropoeides "like a man, resembling a man; in human form;" see anthropo- + -oid. As a noun, attested from 1832 (the Greek noun in this sense was anthroparion).
anthropolatry (n.) Look up anthropolatry at
"worship of a human being," 1650s, from Greek anthropos (see anthropo-) + latreia "hired labor, service, worship" (see -latry).
anthropological (adj.) Look up anthropological at
1825, from anthropology + -ical. Related: Anthropologically.
anthropologist (n.) Look up anthropologist at
1798, from anthropology + -ist.
anthropology (n.) Look up anthropology at
"science of the natural history of man," 1590s, originally especially of the relation between physiology and psychology, from Modern Latin anthropologia or coined independently in English from anthropo- + -logy. In Aristotle, anthropologos is used literally, as "speaking of man."
anthropometric (adj.) Look up anthropometric at
1871, based on French anthropométrique, from anthropometry "measurement of the human body" + -ic.
anthropometry (n.) Look up anthropometry at
1839, "acquaintance with the dimensions of the parts of the human body," from anthropo- + -metry. Perhaps modeled on French anthropometrie.
anthropomorphic (adj.) Look up anthropomorphic at
1806, from anthropomorphous + -ic. Originally in reference to regarding God or gods as having human form and human characteristics; of animals and other things from 1858; the sect of the Antropomorfites is mentioned in English from mid-15c. (see anthropomorphite).
anthropomorphism (n.) Look up anthropomorphism at
1753, "attributing of human qualities to a deity;" see anthropomorphic + -ism. Of other non-human things, from 1858. Related: Anthropomorphist (1610s).
anthropomorphite (n.) Look up anthropomorphite at
mid-15c.; see anthropomorphite + -ist.
The sect of Antropomorfitis, whiche helden that God in his godhede hath hondis and feet and othere suche membris. [Reginald Pecock, "The Repressor of Over Much Blaming of the Clergy," 1449]
Related: Anthropomorphitism (1660s).
anthropomorphize (v.) Look up anthropomorphize at
1834; see anthropomorphic + -ize. Related: Anthropomorphized; anthopomorphizing.
anthropomorphous (adj.) Look up anthropomorphous at
1753, Englishing of Late Latin anthropomorphus "having human form," from Greek anthropomorphos, from anthropos "human being" (see anthropo-) + morphe "form" (see morphine).
anthropopathy (n.) Look up anthropopathy at
"ascribing of human feelings to god," 1640s, from Greek anthropopatheia "humanity," literally "human feeling," from anthropo- + -patheia, comb. form of pathos "suffering, disease, feeling" (see pathos). Related: Anthropopathic; anthropopathically.
anthropophagy (n.) Look up anthropophagy at
"cannibalism," 1630s, from French anthropophagie, from Greek anthropophagia "an eating of men," from anthropophagos "man-eating; a man-eater," from anthropo- + stem of phagein "to eat" (see -phagous). Related: Anthropophagic; anthropophagous; anthropophagism.
anti (n.) Look up anti at
as a stand-alone word, attested from 1788, originally in reference to the anti-federalists in U.S. politics (in the 1830s, of the Anti-Masonic party); as an adjective, from 1857. From anti- in various usages.
anti- Look up anti- at
word-forming element meaning "against, opposed to, opposite of, instead," from Old French anti- and directly from Latin anti-, from Greek anti "against, opposite, instead of," also used as a prefix, from PIE *anti- "against," also "in front of" (see ante). It appears in some words in Middle English but was not commonly used in word formations until modern times.
anti-aircraft (adj.) Look up anti-aircraft at
also antiaircraft, 1914, from anti- + aircraft.
Anti-American (adj.) Look up Anti-American at
also antiamerican, 1788 (n.), in reference to British parliamentary policies, from anti- + American. As an adjective by 1838. Related: Anti-Americanism "opposition to what is distinctly American," 1844.
anti-bacterial (adj.) Look up anti-bacterial at
also antibacterial, 1875, from anti- + bacterial.
anti-choice (adj.) Look up anti-choice at
also antichoice, 1978; see pro-life.
anti-communist (adj.) Look up anti-communist at
1919, from anti- + communist.
anti-freeze (n.) Look up anti-freeze at
also antifreeze, 1935, from use as an adjective (1913); from anti- + freeze (v.).
anti-imperialist (adj.) Look up anti-imperialist at
1898, American English, in debates about the Spanish-American War, from anti- + imperialist. Related: Anti-imperialism.
anti-intellectual Look up anti-intellectual at
1821 (adj.), from anti- + intellectual. As a noun meaning "an anti-intellectual person" from 1913.
anti-intellectualism (n.) Look up anti-intellectualism at
1904, from anti- + intellectualism; or in some cases from anti-intellectual + -ism.
anti-macassar (n.) Look up anti-macassar at
also antimacassar, 1852, from anti- + macassar oil, proprietary name of a hair tonic advertised as imported from the district of Macassar on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. The cloth was laid to protect chair and sofa fabric from people leaning their oily heads back against it.
anti-Semite (n.) Look up anti-Semite at
1881, see anti-Semitism.
anti-Semitic (adj.) Look up anti-Semitic at
1881, see anti-Semitism.
anti-Semitism (n.) Look up anti-Semitism at
also antisemitism, 1881, from German Antisemitismus, first used by Wilhelm Marr (1819-1904) German radical, nationalist and race-agitator, who founded the Antisemiten-Liga in 1879; see anti- + Semite.

Not etymologically restricted to anti-Jewish theories, actions, or policies, but almost always used in this sense. Those who object to the inaccuracy of the term might try Hermann Adler's Judaeophobia (1881). Anti-Semitic (also antisemitic) and anti-Semite (also antisemite) also are from 1881, like anti-Semitism they appear first in English in an article in the "Athenaeum" of Sept. 31, in reference to German literature. Jew-hatred is attested from 1881.
anti-social (adj.) Look up anti-social at
also antisocial, 1797, from anti- + social (adj.). First-attested use is in sense of "unsociable;" meaning "hostile to social order or norms" is from 1802.
anti-war (adj.) Look up anti-war at
also antiwar, 1857, from anti- + war (n.).
antibiotic (adj.) Look up antibiotic at
1894, "destructive to micro-organisms," from French antibiotique (c. 1889), from anti- "against" (see anti-) + biotique "of (microbial) life," from Late Latin bioticus "of life" (see biotic). As a noun, first recorded 1941 in works of U.S. microbiologist Selman Waksman (1888-1973), discoverer of streptomycin. Earlier the adjective was used in a sense "not from living organisms" in debates over the origins of certain fossils.
antibody (n.) Look up antibody at
"substance developed in blood as an antitoxin," 1901, a hybrid formed from anti- "against" + body. Probably a translation of German Antikörper, condensed from a phrase such as anti-toxischer Körper "anti-toxic body" (1891).
antic (n.) Look up antic at
1520s, "grotesque or comical gesture," from Italian antico "antique," from Latin antiquus "old" (see antique). Originally (like grotesque) a 16c. Italian word referring to the strange and fantastic representations on ancient murals unearthed around Rome (especially originally the Baths of Titus, rediscovered 16c.); later extended to "any bizarre thing or behavior," in which sense it first arrived in English. As an adjective in English from 1580s, "grotesque, bizarre."
antichrist (n.) Look up antichrist at
c. 1300, from Late Latin antichristus, from Greek antikhristos (I John ii.18), from anti- "against" (see anti-) + khristos (see Christ).
antichristian (adj.) Look up antichristian at
1530s, "pertaining to the antichrist," from antichrist + -ian; as "hostile or opposed to to Christianity or Christians" (also anti-Christian), 1580s, from anti- + Christian (adj.).
anticipate (v.) Look up anticipate at
1530s, "to cause to happen sooner," a back-formation from anticipation, or else from Latin anticipatus, past participle of anticipare "take (care of) ahead of time," literally "taking into possession beforehand," from ante "before" (see ante) + capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp" (see capable).

Later "to be aware of (something) coming at a future time" (1640s). Used in the sense of "expect, look forward to" since 1749, but anticipate has an element of "prepare for, forestall" that should prevent its being used as a synonym for expect. Related: Anticipated; anticipating.