anomic (adj.) Look up anomic at
1898, from French anomique (Durkheim, 1897); see anomie.
A more important form of suicide is that which the author terms "anomic," by which he means the suicides produced by any sudden social shock or disturbance such as that due to economic disasters. Men commit egoistic suicide because they see no further reason for living, altruistic suicide because the reason for living seems to them to lie outside life itself, anomic suicide because they are suffering from a disturbance of their activity. [review of "Le Suicide" in "Mind," April 1898]
Also attested from 1919 in a sense "non-legal."
anomie (n.) Look up anomie at
"absence of accepted social values," 1915, in reference to Durkheim, who gave the word its modern meaning in social theory in French; a reborrowing with French spelling of anomy.
anomo- Look up anomo- at
word-forming element meaning "irregular, unusual," from Greek anomos, from a- "without" (see a- (3)) + nomos "law," from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take."
anomphalous (adj.) Look up anomphalous at
"without a navel," 1742, from Latinized compound of Greek an- "without" (see an- (1)) + omphalos "navel" (see omphalos).
anomy (n.) Look up anomy at
"lawlessness, violation of (divine) law," 1590s, Englished from French anomie, from Greek anomia "lawlessness," abstract noun from anomos "without law, lawless," from a- "without" (see a- (3)) + nomos "law," from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take."
anon (adv.) Look up anon at
late Old English anon "straightway, forthwith," earlier on an, literally "into one," thus "continuously; straightway (in one course), at once;" see one. As a reply, "at once, coming!" By gradual misuse, "soon, in a little while" (1520s). A one-word etymological lesson in procrastination.
anonym (n.) Look up anonym at
1812, "nameless person," from French anonyme, from noun use of Latin anonymus, from Greek anonymos "without a name" (see anonymous). Meaning "fictitious name" is recorded from 1864.
anonymity (n.) Look up anonymity at
"state or quality of being nameless," 1820; see anonym "nameless person" + -ity. In same sense anonymousness is recorded from 1802.
anonymous (adj.) Look up anonymous at
c. 1600, "without a name;" 1670s, "published under no name, of unknown authorship," from Late Latin anonymus, from Greek anonymos "without a name," from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + onyma, Æolic dialectal form of onoma "name" (see name (n.)).
anonymously (adv.) Look up anonymously at
1728, from anonymous + -ly (2).
Anopheles (n.) Look up Anopheles at
genus of mosquitoes, Modern Latin, coined 1818 by German entomologist Johann Wilhelm Meigen (1764-1845) from Greek anopheles "hurtful, harmful," literally "useless," from an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + ophelos "use, help, advantage," from PIE root *obhel- "to avail" (see Ophelia). So called because it conveys malaria.
anorak (n.) Look up anorak at
Eskimo's waterproof, hooded jacket, 1924, from Greenland Eskimo anoraq. Applied to Western imitations of this garment from 1930s. In British slang, "socially inept person" (Partridge associates it with a fondness for left-wing politics and pirate radio), by 1983, on the notion that that sort of person typically wears this sort of coat.
anorectic (adj.) Look up anorectic at
"characterized by want of appetite," 1832, medical Latin, from Greek anorektos "without appetite," from an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + orektos, verbal adjective of oregein "to long for, desire" (see anorexia). As a noun, attested from 1913.
anorexia (n.) Look up anorexia at
1590s, "morbid want of appetite," Modern Latin, from Greek anorexia, from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + orexis "appetite, desire," from oregein "to desire, long for," literally "reach out (one's hand), stretch oneself, stretch out for" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line") + abstract noun ending -ia. In current use, often short for anorexia nervosa.
anorexia nervosa (n.) Look up anorexia nervosa at
"emaciation as a result of severe emotional disturbance," coined 1873 by William W. Gull (1816-1890), who also offered as an alternative apepsia hysterica as a name for it. See anorexia.
anorexic (adj.) Look up anorexic at
1876; see anorexia + -ic. The immediate source or model is perhaps French anorexique. As a noun meaning "person with anorexia nervosa" it is attested from 1913.
anormal (adj.) Look up anormal at
1812, from French anormal, from Medieval Latin anormalus, a corruption of anomalus (from Greek anomalos "uneven, irregular;" see anomaly), as if from Latin ab "away" + norma "rule, pattern." In 20c., used as "an antonym of 'normal' when the association of 'abnormal', i.e. 'unhealthy', 'unnatural', would be inappropriate" [OED].
anosmia (n.) Look up anosmia at
"loss of sense of smell," 1811, Modern Latin, from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + osme "smell" (Doric odme), from *odsme, from PIE root *od- (1) "to smell" (see odor) + abstract noun ending -ia.
another (pron., adv.) Look up another at
"not this, not the same; someone or something else," early 13c., merger of an + other. Old English used simply oþer. Originally "a second of two." Compound reciprocal pronoun one another is recorded from 1520s.
anoxic (adj.) Look up anoxic at
"characterized by or causing lack of oxygen in tissues," 1920, medical Latin, from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + first two letters of oxygen + -ic. Anoxia "oxygen deficiency" is attested from 1931.
Anschauung (n.) Look up Anschauung at
"sense-perception," 1833 as a German word in English, nativized from 1848, from German Anschauung "mode of view," literally "a looking at," from anschauen "to look at," from Middle High German aneschouwen, from an (see on) + Old High German scouwon "to look at" (see show (v.)). A term in Kantian philosophy.
anschluss (n.) Look up anschluss at
1924 as a German word in English, from German Anschluß, "connection; addition; junction," literally "joining, union," from anschließen "to join, annex," from an "at, to, toward" (from Old High German ana- "on;" see on) + schließen "to shut, close, lock, bolt; contract" (a marriage); see slot (n.2). Specifically the Pan-Germanic proposal to unite Germany and Austria, accomplished in 1938.
Anselm Look up Anselm at
masc. proper name, from Latin Anselmus, from Old High German Ansehelm, literally "having a divine helmet," or "with the gods for a hemlet," from ansi "god" (see Aesir) + helm "helmet" (see helm (n.2)). Related: Anselmian.
answer (v.) Look up answer at
Old English answarian "make a statement in reply," from and- "against" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + swerian "to swear" (see swear), suggesting an original sense of "make a sworn statement rebutting a charge."

Meanings "conform, correspond" and "be responsible for" are from early 13c; that of "suffer the consequences of" is from late 13c.; that of "respond in antiphony" is from early 15c. Sense of "respond in act or action, give back in kind" is from 1570s; that of "solve, find the result of" is from 1742. Related: Answered; answering. The telephone answering machine so called from 1961.
answer (n.) Look up answer at
Old English andswaru "a response, a reply," from and- "against" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + -swaru "affirmation," from swerian "to swear" (see swear), suggesting an original sense of "sworn statement rebutting a charge."

A common Germanic compound (cognates: Old Saxon antswor, Old Norse andsvar, Old Frisian ondser, Danish and Swedish ansvar), implying a Proto-Germanic *andswara-. Meaning "a reply to a question," the main modern sense, was in Old English. Meaning "solution of a problem" is from c. 1300.
answerable (adj.) Look up answerable at
"liable to be held responsible," 1540s, from answer (v.) in the "be responsible for" sense + -able. Less-common meaning "able to be answered" is from 1690s.
answerless (adj.) Look up answerless at
1530s, from answer (n.) + -less.
ant (n.) Look up ant at
c. 1500 shortening of Middle English ampte (late 14c.), from Old English æmette "ant," from West Germanic *emaitjon (source also of Old High German ameiza, German Ameise) from a compound of Germanic *e-, *ai- "off, away" + *mai- "cut," from PIE root *mai- (1) "to cut" (see maim). Thus the insect's name is, etymologically, "the biter-off."
As þycke as ameten crepeþ in an amete hulle [chronicle of Robert of Gloucester, 1297]
Emmet survived into 20c. as an alternative form. White ant "termite" is from 1729. To have ants in one's pants "be nervous and fidgety" is from 1934, made current by a popular song; antsy embodies the same notion.
ant-eater (n.) Look up ant-eater at
also anteater, 1764, in reference to the South American species; 1868 of the Australian echidna; from ant + agent noun from eat (v.).
ant-hill (n.) Look up ant-hill at
also anthill, "mound of dirt formed by ants in building their nest," late 13c., from ant + hill (n.).
ant-ihero (n.) Look up ant-ihero at
also antihero; 1714, from anti- + hero.
antacid (n.) Look up antacid at
"alkali used as a remedy for acidity in the stomach," 1732, medical hybrid from anti- (which is shortened to ant- before vowels and -h-) + acid (n.). Also from 1732 as an adjective.
Antaeus Look up Antaeus at
Libyan giant slain by Herakles, from Latinized form of Greek Antaios, literally "opposite, opposed to, hostile," from anta "over against, face to face," related to anti "opposite, against" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before").
antagonise (v.) Look up antagonise at
chiefly British English spelling of antagonize; see -ize. Related: Antagonised; antagonising.
antagonism (n.) Look up antagonism at
"state of being mutually opposed; opposition between two things or against something," 1797, from French antagonisme or directly from late Greek antagonisma, noun of action from antagonizesthai "to struggle against, oppose, be a rival," from anti "against" (see anti-) + agonizesthai "to contend for a prize," from agon "a contest, a struggle" (see agony). Milton used antagony as a noun.
antagonist (n.) Look up antagonist at
"one who contends with another," 1590s, from French antagoniste (16c.) or directly from Late Latin antagonista, from Greek antagonistes "competitor, opponent, rival," agent noun from antagonizesthai "to struggle against, oppose, be a rival," from anti "against" (see anti-) + agonizesthai "to contend for a prize," from agon "a struggle, a contest" (see agony). Originally in battle or sport, extended 1620s to any sphere of human activity.
antagonistic (adj.) Look up antagonistic at
"acting in opposition," 1630s, from antagonist + -ic. Related: Antagonistical (1620s); antagonistically.
antagonize (v.) Look up antagonize at
1630s, "to compete with" (obsolete); 1742, "act in opposition to, struggle against continuously," from Greek antagonizesthai "to struggle against, oppose, be a rival," from anti "against" (see anti-) + agonizesthai "to contend for a prize," from agon "a struggle, a contest" (see agony). Meaning "make antagonistic" is by 1882. Related: Antagonized; antagonizing; antagonization.
antalgic (adj.) Look up antalgic at
"alleviating pain," 1775, from Greek ant-, form of anti- used before vowels (see anti-), + algos "pain" (see -algia) + -ic. As a noun, "preparation which alleviates pain," 1753.
antanaclasis (n.) Look up antanaclasis at
in rhetoric, "repetition of the same word in a different sense" ("While we live, let us live"), 1650s, from Latinized form of Greek antanaklasis "reflection of light or sound," literally "a bending back against," from anti "against" (see anti-) + anaklan "to bend back."
antaphrodisiac (adj.) Look up antaphrodisiac at
1719, "used against sexual appetite;" 1742, "used against venereal disease;" from anti- + Greek aphrodisios "venereal" (see aphrodisiac). From 1753 as a noun, "medicine used against venereal disease." Antaphroditic is from 1706 as a noun, "medicine having the power to mitigate venereal disease;" 1755 as an adjective.
antarchism (n.) Look up antarchism at
"opposition to all social government or control of individuals by law," 1845, from antarchy + -ism. Related: Antarchist; antarchistic.
antarchy (n.) Look up antarchy at
"opposition to government," 1650s, from anti- "against, opposed to" + -archy "rule." Related: Antarchic.
antarctic (adj.) Look up antarctic at
late 14c., antartyk "opposite to the north pole" (adj.), also (with capital A-) "region around the South pole" (n.), from Old French antartique, from Medieval Latin antarcticus, from Greek antarktikos "opposite the north," from anti- "opposite" (see anti-) + arktikos "arctic" (see arctic). The first -c- ceased to be pronounced in Medieval Latin and was dropped in Old French. Modern English restores it in spelling from 17c. As a noun, "regions around the South Pole," from c. 1400.
Antarctica Look up Antarctica at
continent name attributed to Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew (1860-1920), who used it on a map published in 1887. From antarctic (q.v.). Hypothetical southern continents had been imagined since antiquity; first sighting of Antarctica by Europeans probably was 1820 (Lazarev and Bellingshausen). Also compare Antipodes.
Antares Look up Antares at
bright star in Scorpio, from Greek Antares, contracted from anti Ares "rival of Mars," in reference to its red color, which resembles that of Mars. See anti- + Ares.
ante (n.) Look up ante at
in the game of poker, "stake of money placed in a pool by each player before drawing cards," 1838, American English poker slang, apparently from Latin ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before"). From 1846 as a verb.
ante meridiem Look up ante meridiem at
"of morning, before mid-day," 1560s, Latin, literally "before noon," from ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + accusative of meridies "midday, noon" (see meridian). Adjective antemeridian is attested from 1650s.
ante- Look up ante- at
word-forming element meaning "before, in front of; previous, existing beforehand; introductory to," from Latin ante (prep., adv.) "before (in place or time), in front of, against," also used in compounds, from PIE *anti- "facing opposite, against," inflected form (locative singular) of root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before."
ante-bellum (adj.) Look up ante-bellum at
also antebellum, from Latin phrase ante bellum, literally "before the war;" see ante- + bellicose. In U.S., usually in reference to the American Civil War (1861-65); attested in that specific sense by 1862 (it appears in a June 14 entry in Mary Chesnut's diary).