apologetic (adj.) Look up apologetic at Dictionary.com
1640s, "vindicatory," from French apologétique, from Latin apologeticus, from Greek apologetikos "defensible," from apologeisthai (see apology). Meaning "regretfully acknowledging failure" is from 1855. As a noun, "formal defense," from early 15c. Related: Apologetics (c. 1753).
apologia (n.) Look up apologia at Dictionary.com
see apology.
apological (adj.) Look up apological at Dictionary.com
c. 1600; see apology + -ical.
apologise (v.) Look up apologise at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of apologize; for suffix, see -ize. Related: Apologised; apologising.
apologist (n.) Look up apologist at Dictionary.com
1630s, from French apologiste, from apologie (see apology).
apologize (v.) Look up apologize at Dictionary.com
1590s, "to speak in defense of;" see apology + -ize. Main modern sense "to regretfully acknowledge" is attested by 1725. The Greek equivalent, apologizesthai, meant simply "to give an account." Related: Apologized; apologizing.
apologue (n.) Look up apologue at Dictionary.com
"moral fable," 1550s, from French apologue, from Latin apologus, from Greek apologos, from apo- "off, away from" (see apo-) + logos "speech" (see lecture (n.)). Literally, "(that which comes) from a speech."
apology (n.) Look up apology at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "defense, justification," from Late Latin apologia, from Greek apologia "a speech in defense," from apologeisthai "to speak in one's defense," from apologos "an account, story," from apo- "from, off" (see apo-) + logos "speech" (see lecture (n.)).

The original English sense of "self-justification" yielded a meaning "frank expression of regret for wrong done," first recorded 1590s, but this was not the main sense until 18c. The old sense tends to emerge in Latin form apologia (first attested in English 1784), especially since J.H. Newman's "Apologia pro Vita Sua" (1864).
aponeurosis (n.) Look up aponeurosis at Dictionary.com
1670s, from Latin, from Greek aponeurosis, from aponeuroein, from apo- "off, away from" (see apo-) + neuron "sinew" (see neuro-).
apophatic (adj.) Look up apophatic at Dictionary.com
"involving a mention of something one feigns to deny; involving knowledge obtained by negation," 1850, from Greek apophatikos, from apophasis "denial, answer," from apophanai "to speak off," from apo- "off" (see apo-) + phanai "to speak," related to pheme "voice," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say" (see fame (n.)).
apophthegm (n.) Look up apophthegm at Dictionary.com
see apothegm.
apoplectic (adj.) Look up apoplectic at Dictionary.com
1610s, "involving apoplexy," from French apoplectique (16c.), from Latin apoplecticus, from Greek apoplektikos "disabled by a stroke, crippled, struck dumb," from apoplektos, verbal adjective of apoplessein (see apoplexy). Meaning "showing symptoms of apoplexy" (1721) gradually shaded into "enraged, very angry."
apoplexy (n.) Look up apoplexy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "sudden fit of paralysis and dizziness," from Old French apoplexie or directly from Late Latin apoplexia, from Greek apoplexia, from apoplessein "to strike down and incapacitate," from apo- "off" (see apo-), in this case probably an intensive prefix, + plessein "to hit" (compare plague (n.), also with a root sense of "stricken"). The Latin translation, sideratio, means "disease caused by a constellation."
aporetic (adj.) Look up aporetic at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from French aporetique, from Greek aporetikos, from aporeein "to be at a loss," from aporos "impassable, impracticable, very difficult; hard to deal with; at a loss," from a-, privative prefix (see a- (3)), + poros "passage" (see pore (n.)).
aporia (n.) Look up aporia at Dictionary.com
1580s, from Latin, from Greek aporia, noun of state from aporos (see aporetic).
aposiopesis (n.) Look up aposiopesis at Dictionary.com
rhetorical artifice wherein the speaker suddenly breaks off in the middle of a sentence, 1570s, from Latin, from Greek aposiopesis "a becoming silent," also as a rhetorical figure, from apo- (see apo-) + siope "silence."
apostasy (n.) Look up apostasy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "renunciation, abandonment or neglect of established religion," from Latin apostasia, from later Greek apostasia, from apostasis "revolt, defection," literally "a standing off" (see apostate). General (non-religious) sense is attested from 1570s.
apostate (n.) Look up apostate at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "one who forsakes his religion or faith," from Old French apostate (Modern French apostat) and directly from Late Latin apostata, from Greek apostasia "defection, desertion, rebellion," from apostenai "to defect," literally "to stand off," from apo- "away from" (see apo-) + stenai "to stand." Used in non-religious situations (politics, etc.) from mid-14c.
apostate (adj.) Look up apostate at Dictionary.com
late 14c.; see apostate (n.).
apostatize (v.) Look up apostatize at Dictionary.com
1610s, from Late Latin apostatizare, earlier apostatare, from apostata (see apostate). Related: Apostatized; apostatizing. The past participle form apostazied is attested from late 14c.
apostille (n.) Look up apostille at Dictionary.com
"note, especially on text of the Bible," also apostil, 1520s, from French apostille (15c.), probably from Medieval Latin postilla, which probably represents Latin post illa, literally "after those."
apostle (n.) Look up apostle at Dictionary.com
Old English apostol "messenger," especially the 12 witnesses sent forth by Jesus to preach his Gospel, from Late Latin apostolus, from Greek apostolos "messenger, person sent forth," from apostellein "send away, send forth," from apo- "from" (see apo-) + stellein in its secondary sense of "to send," from PIE *stel-yo-, suffixed form of root *stel- "to put, stand," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place (see stall (n.1)). Compare epistle.

The current form of the word, predominant since 16c., is influenced by Old French apostle (12c.), from the same Late Latin source. Figurative sense of "chief advocate of a new principle or system" is from 1810. Apostles, short for "The Acts and Epistles of the Apostles," is attested from c. 1400.
apostolic (adj.) Look up apostolic at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from French apostolique or directly from Church Latin apostolicus, from Greek apostolikos, from apostolos (see apostle). Apostolical also is early 15c.
apostrophe (n.) Look up apostrophe at Dictionary.com
mark indicating omitted letter, 1580s, from Middle French apostrophe, from Late Latin apostrophus, from Greek apostrophos (prosoidia) "(the accent of) turning away," thus, a mark showing where a letter has been omitted, from apostrephein "avert, turn away," from apo- "from" (see apo-) + strephein "to turn" (see strophe).

In English, the mark often represents loss of -e- in -es, possessive ending. It was being extended to all possessives, whether they ever had an -e- or not, by 18c. Greek also used this word for a "turning aside" of an orator in speech to address some individual, a sense first recorded in English 1530s.
apothecary (n.) Look up apothecary at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "shopkeeper, especially one who stores, compounds, and sells medicaments," from Old French apotecaire (13c., Modern French apothicaire), from Late Latin apothecarius "storekeeper," from Latin apotheca "storehouse," from Greek apotheke "barn, storehouse," literally "a place where things are put away," from apo- "away" (see apo-) + tithenai "to put, to place" (see theme). Same root produced French boutique and Spanish bodega. Cognate compounds produced Sanskrit apadha- "concealment," Old Persian apadana- "palace."

Drugs and herbs being among the chief items of non-perishable goods, the meaning narrowed 17c. to "druggist" (Apothecaries' Company of London separated from the Grocers' in 1617). Apothecaries formerly were notorious for "the assumed gravity and affectation of knowledge generally put on by the gentlemen of this profession, who are commonly as superficial in their learning as they are pedantic in their language" [Francis Grose, "A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1796]. Hence, Apothecary's Latin, barbarously mangled, also known as Dog Latin.
apothegm (n.) Look up apothegm at Dictionary.com
"pithy saying," 1550s, from Greek apophthegma "terse, pointed saying," literally "something clearly spoken," from apophthengesthai "to speak one's opinion plainly," from apo- "from" (see apo-) + phthengesthai "to utter." See aphorism for nuances of usage. Spelling apophthegm, restored by Johnson, is preferred in England, according to OED.
apotheosis (n.) Look up apotheosis at Dictionary.com
1600s, from Late Latin apotheosis "deification," from Greek apotheosis, from apotheoun "deify, make (someone) a god," from apo- special use of this prefix, meaning, here, "change" + theos "god" (see theo-).
apotheosize (v.) Look up apotheosize at Dictionary.com
1760; see apotheosis + -ize. Related: Apotheosized; apotheosizing. Earlier in same sense was apotheose (1670s).
apothesis (n.) Look up apothesis at Dictionary.com
1811, from Greek apothesis "a laying up in store; a putting aside," noun of action from apotithenai "to lay aside," from apo- "off, away" (see apo-) + tithenai "to put, place" (see theme).
apotropaic (adj.) Look up apotropaic at Dictionary.com
1883, with -ic + Greek apotropaios "averting evil," from apotrepein "to turn away, avert," from apo- "off, away" (see apo-) + trepein "to turn" (see trope).
app (n.) Look up app at Dictionary.com
computerese shorthand for application, attested by 1992.
Appalachia Look up Appalachia at Dictionary.com
"cultural and geographical region of inland Eastern U.S.," 1880s, from the Appalachian Mountains, which are its core. Earlier Appalachia was proposed as a better name for "United States of America" by Washington Irving in 1839 (though he preferred Alleghenia) and this may have been the coinage of the word.
It is a thousand pities that the puny witticisms of a few professional objectors should have the power to prevent, even for a year, the adoption of a name for our country. At present we have, clearly, none. There should be no hesitation about "Appalachia." In the first place, it is distinctive. "America" is not, and can never be made so. We may legislate as much as we please, and assume for our country whatever name we think right — but to use it will be no name, to any purpose for which a name is needed, unless we can take it away from the regions which employ it at present. South America is "America," and will insist upon remaining so. [Edgar Allan Poe, 1846]
Appalachian Look up Appalachian at Dictionary.com
in reference to the North American mountain range, c. 1600, Mountaynes Apalatsi; written apalachen by Spanish explorers and originally in reference only to the southern end of the range. Originally the name of the Apalachee, a Muskogean people of northwestern Florida, perhaps from Apalachee abalahci "other side of the river" or Hitchiti (Muskogean) apalwahči "dwelling on one side." Spelling shifted under influence of adjectives in -ian.
appall (v.) Look up appall at Dictionary.com
also appal, early 14c., "to fade;" c. 1400, "to grow pale," from Old French apalir "become or make pale," from a- "to" (see ad-) + palir "grow pale," from Latin pallere (see pallor). Meaning "cause dismay or shock," is 1530s. Related: Appalled; appalling.
appalled (adj.) Look up appalled at Dictionary.com
1570s, "enfeebled;" c. 1600, "dismayed;" past participle adjective from appall.
appalling (adj.) Look up appalling at Dictionary.com
1620s, present participle adjective from appall. Colloquial weakened sense of "distasteful" is attested from 1919.
Appaloosa Look up Appaloosa at Dictionary.com
breed of horses favored by Indian tribes in U.S. West, 1849, either from Opelousa in Louisiana or from Palouse Indians, who lived near the river of that name in Idaho, in which case it probably is a Nez Percé word. Opelousa is perhaps from Choctaw api losa "black body;" while Palouse is from Sahaptin palou:s "what is standing up in the water."
appanage (n.) Look up appanage at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from French apanage (13c.), from apaner "to endow with means of subsistence," from Medieval Latin appanare "equip with bread," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + panis "bread," from PIE root *pa- "to feed" (see food). Originally, provisions made for younger children of royalty. The double -p- restored in French 15c.-16c., in English 17c.
apparat (n.) Look up apparat at Dictionary.com
"administrative machinery of the Communist Party in Russia," 1950, from Russian, from German apparat "apparatus, instrument," from Latin apparatus (see apparatus).
apparatchik (n.) Look up apparatchik at Dictionary.com
"Communist agent or spy," 1941, originally in writings of Arthur Koestler, from Russian, from apparat "political organization" (see apparat). Russian plural is apparatchiki.
apparatus (n.) Look up apparatus at Dictionary.com
1620s, from Latin apparatus "tools, implements, equipment; preparation, a preparing," noun of state from past participle stem of apparare "prepare," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + parare "make ready" (see pare).
apparel (v.) Look up apparel at Dictionary.com
mid-13c., "to equip (in any way)," from Old French apareillier (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *appariculare. This is either from Latin apparare "prepare, make ready" (see apparatus), or from Vulgar Latin *ad-particulare "to put things together." The meaning "to attire in proper clothing" is from mid-14c. Cognate with Italian aparecchiare, Spanish aparejar, Portuguese aparelhar. Related: Appareled; apparelled; appareling; apparelling.
apparel (n.) Look up apparel at Dictionary.com
"personal outfit or attire," early 14c., also "ship's rigging," from Old French apareil "preparation," from apareillier (see apparel (v.)). Earlier in same sense was apparelment (early 14c.).
apparent (adj.) Look up apparent at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French aparant "evident, obvious, visible," from Latin apparentem (nominative apparens) "visible, manifest," present participle of apparere (see appear). First attested in phrase heir apparent (see heir). Meaning "superficial" is c. 1400. Apparent magnitude in astronomy (how bright a heavenly body looks from earth, as opposed to absolute magnitude, which is how bright it really is) is attested from 1875.
apparently (adv.) Look up apparently at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "visibly, openly," from apparent + -ly (2). Meaning "evidently" is from 1550s; that of "to all appearances" (but not necessarily "really") is from 1560s; meaning "so far as can be judged, seemingly," is from 1846. A gradual retreat from certainty.
apparition (n.) Look up apparition at Dictionary.com
c. 1500, "unclosing" (of Heaven), from Anglo-French aparicion, Old French apparition, aparoison (15c.), used in reference to the Epiphany (revealing of Christ child to the Wise Men), from Late Latin apparitionem (nominative apparitio) "an appearance," also "attendants," in classical Latin "service, servants," noun of action from past participle stem of apparere "appear" (see appear). Meaning "ghost" first recorded c. 1600; the shade of sense differentiation between appearance and apparition is that the latter tends to be unexpected or startling.
appeal (v.) Look up appeal at Dictionary.com
early 14c., originally in legal sense of "to call" to a higher judge or court, from Anglo-French apeler "to call upon, accuse," Old French apeler "make an appeal" (11c., Modern French appeler), from Latin appellare "to accost, address, appeal to, summon, name," iterative of appellere "to prepare," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + pellere "to beat, drive" (see pulse (n.1)). Related: Appealed; appealing.

Probably a Roman metaphoric extension of a nautical term for "driving a ship toward a particular landing." Popular modern meaning "to be attractive or pleasing" is quite recent, attested from 1907 (appealing in this sense is from 1891), from the notion of "to address oneself in expectation of a sympathetic response."
appeal (n.) Look up appeal at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, in the legal sense, from Old French apel (Modern French appel), back-formation from apeler (see appeal (v.)). Meaning "call to an authority" is from 1620s; that of "attractive power" attested by 1916.
appealing Look up appealing at Dictionary.com
mid-15c. as a noun, "action of petitioning a higher court or authority," verbal noun from appeal (v.). Adjectival sense of "attractive" attested by 1892. Related: Appealingly.
appear (v.) Look up appear at Dictionary.com
late 13c., "to come into view," from stem of Old French aparoir (12c., Modern French apparoir) "appear, come to light, come forth," from Latin apparere "to appear, come in sight, make an appearance," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + parere "to come forth, be visible." Of persons, "present oneself," late 14c. Meaning "seem, have a certain appearance" is late 14c. Related: Appeared; appearing.