ante-mortal (adj.) Look up ante-mortal at
"occurring before death," 1827; see ante- + mortal (adj.).
ante-partum (adj.) Look up ante-partum at
also antepartum, "occurring or existing before birth," 1908, from Latin phrase ante partum "before birth," from ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + accusative of partus "a bearing, a bringing forth," from partus, past participle of parere "to bring forth" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").
ante-room (n.) Look up ante-room at
also anteroom, "small room giving access to a larger," especially a waiting room for visitors, 1762, literally "a room in front;" after French antichambre, Italian anticamera, from Latin ante "before" (see ante-) + camera (see chamber (n.)).
antecede (v.) Look up antecede at
"come before in time, place, or order," early 15c. (implied in anteceding), from Latin antecedere "go before," from ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + cedere "to yield" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield"). Related: Anteceded; anteceding.
antecedence (n.) Look up antecedence at
1650s, "fact or act of coming before (another or others) in time, place, or order," from Latin antecedens "a going before" (see antecedent). From 1660s in specific sense in astronomy, "apparent contrary motion of a planet" (from east to west). Related: Antecedency (1590s).
antecedent (n .) Look up antecedent at
late 14c. in grammar ("noun to which a pronoun refers") and in logic ("if A is, then B is;" A is the antecedent, B the consequent), from Old French antecedent (14c.) or directly from Latin antecedentem (nominative antecedens), noun use of present participle of antecedere "go before, precede," from ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + cedere "to yield" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield").

Hence "an event upon which another follows" (1610s). As an adjective in English from c. 1400. Related: Antecedently.
antecessor (n.) Look up antecessor at
c. 1300, "an ancestor;" c. 1400, "a predecessor;" see ancestor.
antechamber (n.) Look up antechamber at
"chamber which gives access to a principal chamber; waiting room," 1650s, antichamber, from French antichambre (16c.), on analogy of Italian anticamera (see ante- and chamber (n.)). English spelling Latinized to ante- in 18c.
antedate (v.) Look up antedate at
1580s, "to date before the true time," earlier as noun meaning "a backdating, false early date attached to a document or event" (1570s); from Latin ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + date (v.1). Meaning "be of older date than" is from 1660s. Related: Antedated; antedating.
antediluvian (adj.) Look up antediluvian at
"before Noah's flood," 1640s, from Latin ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + diluvium "a flood" (see deluge (n.)). Hence (humorously or disparagingly) "very antiquated" (1726). Coined by English physician Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682). As a noun meaning "person who lived before the Flood," from 1680s. Related: antediluvial (1823).
antelope (n.) Look up antelope at
early 15c., from Old French antelop, from Medieval Latin antalopus, anthalopus (11c.), from Late Greek antholops (Eusebius of Antioch, c.336 C.E.), in reference to a fabulous animal haunting the banks of the Euphrates, very savage, hard to catch and having long saw-like horns capable of cutting down trees. In modern zoology, the name was applied c. 1600 to a living type of deer-like mammal of India. In the western U.S., the name is used in reference to the pronghorn.

Original sense and language unknown (it looks like Greek "flower-eye," as if from anthos + ops, but that may be Greek folk etymology). It figures in heraldry, and also was known in Medieval Latin as talopus and calopus.
antemundane (adj.) Look up antemundane at
"existing or happening before the creation of the world," 1731; see ante- + mundane.
antenatal (adj.) Look up antenatal at
"before birth," 1798; see ante- "before" + natal "pertaining to birth." Ante-nati was an old term for (in Scotland) those born before the accession of James I to the English throne, also used in U.S. in reference to those born in the colonies before the Declaration of Independence.
antenna (n.) Look up antenna at
1640s, "feeler or horn of an insect or other arthropod," from Latin antenna, antemna "sail yard," the long yard that sticks up on some sails, which is of unknown origin, perhaps from PIE root *temp- "to stretch, extend." In the entomological sense, it is a loan-translation of Aristotle's Greek keraiai "horns" (of insects). Modern use in radio, etc., for "aerial wire" is from 1902. Adjectival forms are antennal (1815), antennary (1833), antennular (1853).
antennae (n.) Look up antennae at
classically correct plural of antenna; see -ae.
antennas (n.) Look up antennas at
nativized plural of antenna; see -ae.
antenuptial (adj.) Look up antenuptial at
"prior to marriage," 1757, originally in reference to children's births, from Late Latin antenuptialis; see ante- + nuptial.
antepenult (n.) Look up antepenult at
1610s, shortening of antepenultima "last syllable but two in a word" (1580s); see antepenultimate.
antepenultimate (adj.) Look up antepenultimate at
"the last but two," 1730, from antepenult (n.), 1610s, abbreviation of Latin antepaenultima (syllaba) "last syllable but two in a word," from fem. of antepaenultimus, from ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + paenultima, from paene "almost" (see penitence) + ultima "last" (see ultimate).
antephialtic (adj.) Look up antephialtic at
"tending to prevent nightmares," 1848; see anti- + ephialtes.
anterior (adj.) Look up anterior at
"more in front; earlier," 1610s, Latin, literally "former," comparative of ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before"). Related: Anteriorly (1590s); anteriority.
anthelion (n.) Look up anthelion at
"faint luminous ring caused by diffraction of light," 1660s, from Greek anthelion, noun use of neuter of anthelios, from assimilated form of anti "opposite" (see anti-) + helios "sun" (from PIE root *sawel- "the sun").
anthem (n.) Look up anthem at
Old English ontemn, antefn, "a composition (in prose or verse) sung in alternate parts," from Late Latin antefana, from Greek antiphona "verse response" (see antiphon).

The sense evolved to "a composition (usually from Scripture) set to sacred music" (late 14c.), then "song of praise or gladness" (1590s). It came to be used in reference to the English national song (technically, as OED points out, a hymn) and extended to those of other nations. Modern spelling is from late 16c., perhaps an attempt to make the word look more Greek.
anthemic (adj.) Look up anthemic at
of music, "felt to resemble an anthem," 1841, from anthem + -ic. In reference to a type of acid, 1859, so called because isolated from dog-fennel (Anthemis arvensis).
anther (n.) Look up anther at
1550s, "medical extract of flowers," from French anthère or Modern Latin anthera "a medicine extracted from a flower," from Greek anthera, fem. of antheros "flowery, blooming," from anthos "flower," from PIE root *andh- "to bloom" (source also of Sanskrit andhas "herb," Armenian and "field," Middle Irish ainder "young girl," Welsh anner "young cow"). Botanical sense of "polliniferous part of a stamen" attested by 1791.
anthesis (n.) Look up anthesis at
"full bloom, period or act of blooming, time that the flower is expanded," 1811, from Greek anthesis, noun of action from antheein "to blossom," from anthos "flower" (see anther).
anthologize (v.) Look up anthologize at
1889; see anthology + -ize. Related: Anthologized; anthologizing.
anthology (n.) Look up anthology at
1630s, "collection of poetry," from Latin anthologia, from Greek anthologia "collection of small poems and epigrams by several authors," literally "flower-gathering," from anthos "a flower" (see anther) + logia "collection, collecting," from legein "gather," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')." Modern sense (which emerged in Late Greek) is metaphoric: "flowers" of verse, small poems by various writers gathered together.
anthomania (n.) Look up anthomania at
"extravagant passion for flowers," 1775, from Greek anthos "flower" (see anther) + -mania. Related: Anthomaniac.
Anthony Look up Anthony at
masc. proper name, from Latin Antonius, name of a Roman gens (with unetymological -h- probably suggested by many Greek loan words beginning anth-, such as anthros "flower," anthropos "man").

St. Anthony (4c.), Egyptian hermit, was patron saint of swineherds, to whom one of each litter was usually vowed, hence Anthony for "smallest pig of the litter (1660s; in condensed form tantony pig from 1590s). St. Anthony's Fire (1520s), popular name for erysipelas, is said to be so called from the tradition that those who sought his intercession recovered from that distemper during a fatal epidemic in 1089.
anthracite (n.) Look up anthracite at
"non-bituminous coal, hard coal," 1812, earlier (c. 1600) a type of ruby-like gem described by Pliny, from Latin anthracites "bloodstone, semi-precious gem," from Greek anthrakites "coal-like," from anthrax (genitive anthrakos) "live coal" (see anthrax). Deep black with a brilliant luster, it is nearly pure carbon and burns almost without a flame and formerly was mined extensively in eastern Pennsylvania and south Wales. Related: Anthractic (adj.), anthracitic.
anthracomancy (n.) Look up anthracomancy at
"divination by inspection of burning coals," 1895, from Latinized comb. form of Greek anthrax "live coal" (see anthrax) + -mancy.
anthrax (n.) Look up anthrax at
late 14c., "severe boil or carbuncle," from Latin anthrax "virulent ulcer," from Greek anthrax "charcoal, live coal," also "carbuncle," which is of unknown origin; probably [Beekes] from a pre-Greek language. Specific sense of the malignant disease in sheep and cattle (and occasionally humans) is from 1876.
anthro- Look up anthro- at
see anthropo-.
anthropic (adj.) Look up anthropic at
"pertaining to a human being," 1836, from Greek anthropikos "human; of or for a man," from anthropos "male human being, man" (see anthropo-). Related: Anthropical (1804).
anthropo- Look up anthropo- at
before a vowel, anthrop-, word-forming element meaning "pertaining to man or human beings," from Greek anthropos "man; human being" (including women), as opposed to the gods, from andra (genitive andros), Attic form of Greek aner "man" (as opposed to a woman, a god, or a boy), from PIE root *ner- (2) "man," also "vigorous, vital, strong."

Anthropos sometimes is explained as a compound of aner and ops (genitive opos) "eye, face;" so literally "he who has the face of a man." The change of -d- to -th- is difficult to explain; perhaps it is from some lost dialectal variant, or the mistaken belief that there was an aspiration sign over the vowel in the second element (as though *-dhropo-), which mistake might have come about by influence of common verbs such as horao "to see." But Beekes writes, "As no IE explanation has been found, the word is probably of substrate origin."
anthropocentric (adj.) Look up anthropocentric at
"regarding man as the central fact of creation," 1855, from anthropo- + -centric. Related: Anthropocentrically.
anthropocentrism (n.) Look up anthropocentrism at
1897; see anthropocentric + -ism.
anthropogenic (adj.) Look up anthropogenic at
"of or pertaining to anthropogeny," 1847, from anthropogeny + -ic.
anthropogeny (n.) Look up anthropogeny at
"origination of the human race," 1833, from anthropo- + geny. Related: Anthropogenesis "origination or evolution of man" (1862; from 1855 in German and French); anthropogony "doctrine of man's origin" (1847).
anthropoid (adj.) Look up anthropoid at
"manlike," especially, in zoology, "human or simian, of humans and monkeys" (as opposed to lemurs and other less-human-like primates), 1835, from Greek anthropoeides "like a man, resembling a man; in human form;" see anthropo- + -oid. As a noun, from 1832 (the Greek noun in this sense was anthroparion). Related: Anthropoidal.
anthropolatry (n.) Look up anthropolatry at
"worship of a human being," 1650s, from Greek anthropos "man, human" (see anthropo-) + latreia "hired labor, service, worship" (see -latry). The accusation was made by pagans against Christians and by Christians against pagans. The word figured in Church disputes about the nature of Christ.
anthropological (adj.) Look up anthropological at
1786, from anthropology + -ical. Related: Anthropologically.
anthropologist (n.) Look up anthropologist at
"student or expert in anthropology," 1798, from anthropology + -ist. Attested from 1783 in German.
anthropology (n.) Look up anthropology at
"science of the natural history of man," 1590s, originally especially of the relation between physiology and psychology, from Modern Latin anthropologia or coined independently in English from anthropo- + -logy. In Aristotle, anthropologos is used literally, as "speaking of man." Related: Anthropologic; anthropological.
anthropometric (adj.) Look up anthropometric at
"pertaining to the measurements of the human body," 1871, based on French anthropométrique, from anthropometry "measurement of the human body" + -ic.
anthropometry (n.) Look up anthropometry at
"science of the measurement and dimensions of the parts of the human body," 1839, from anthropo- + -metry "a measuring of." Perhaps modeled on French anthropometrie (by 1806).
anthropomorphic (adj.) Look up anthropomorphic at
1806, "involving the attribution of human qualities to divine beings," from anthropomorphous + -ic. Originally in reference to regarding God or gods as having human form and human characteristics; of animals, plants, nature, etc. by 1858. Related: Anthropomorphical.
anthropomorphism (n.) Look up anthropomorphism at
1753, "the ascription of human qualities to a deity," from anthropomorphous + -ism. Of other non-human things, from 1858. Related: Anthropomorphist (1610s).
anthropomorphite (n.) Look up anthropomorphite at
mid-15c., Antropomorfites (plural), one who believes as an article of faith that the Supreme Being exists in human form," from Late Latin anthropomorphitae (plural); see anthropomorphous + -ite (1). Specifically of certain sects of Christians that arose over the years and were condemned as heretics.
The sect of Antropomorfitis, whiche helden that God in his godhede hath hondis and feet and othere suche membris. [Reginald Pecock, "The Repressor of Over Much Blaming of the Clergy," 1449]
Related: Anthropomorphitism (1660s); anthropomorphitic. Technically, the anthropomorphite attributes a human body to God, the anthropomorphist attributes to Him human passions.