anthropomorphize (v.) Look up anthropomorphize at
"to invest with human qualities," 1834; see anthropomorphous + -ize. Related: Anthropomorphized; anthopomorphizing.
anthropomorphous (adj.) Look up anthropomorphous at
"having human form; anthropoid in form" (of apes, etc.), 1753, Englishing of Late Latin anthropomorphus "having human form," from Greek anthropomorphos "of human form," from anthropos "human being" (see anthropo-) + morphe "form" (see Morpheus). Related: Anthropomorphously.
anthropopathy (n.) Look up anthropopathy at
"ascription of human feelings to divine beings," 1640s, from Greek anthropopatheia "humanity," literally "human feeling," from anthropos "man, human" (see anthropo-) + -patheia, comb. form of pathos "suffering, disease, feeling" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer"). Related: Anthropopathic; anthropopathite; anthropopathically.
anthropophagous (adj.) Look up anthropophagous at
"cannibalistic, man-eating," 1807, from Greek anthropophagos "man-eating," from anthropos "man, human" (see anthropo-) + phagos "eating" (from PIE root *bhag- "to share out, apportion; to get a share"). Related: Anthropophagite (c. 1600).
anthropophagy (n.) Look up anthropophagy at
"cannibalism," 1630s, from French anthropophagie, from Greek anthropophagia "an eating of men," from anthropophagos "man-eating; a man-eater," from anthropo- + stem of phagein "to eat" (from PIE root *bhag- "to share out, apportion; to get a share"). Related: Anthropophagic; anthropophagistic; anthropophagism. Shakespeare has Anthropophaginian.
anthropophobia (n.) Look up anthropophobia at
"fear of man," 1841 (from 1798 in German); see anthropo- + -phobia.
anti (n.) Look up anti at
the word-forming element anti- (q.v.) used by itself, short for various nouns beginning in anti-, from 1788, originally in reference to the anti-federalists in U.S. politics (in the 1830s, of the U.S. Anti-Masonic political party); as an adjective, from 1857.
anti- Look up anti- at
word-forming element of Greek origin meaning "against, opposed to, opposite of, instead," shortened to ant- before vowels and -h-, from Old French anti- and directly from Latin anti-, from Greek anti (prep.) "over, against, opposite; instead, in the place of; as good as; at the price of; for the sake of; compared with; in opposition to; in return; counter-," from PIE *anti "against," also "in front of, before" (from root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before"), which became anti- in Italian (hence antipasto) and French.

It is cognate with Sanskrit anti "over, against," and Old English and- (the first element in answer). A common compounding element in Greek, in some combinations it became anth- for euphonic reasons. It appears in some words in Middle English but was not commonly used in English word formations until modern times. In a few English words (anticipate, antique) it represents Latin ante.

In noun compounds where it has the sense of "opposed to, opposite" (Antichrist, anti-communist) the accent remains on the anti-; in adjectives where it retains its old prepositional sense "against, opposed to," the accent remains on the other element (anti-Christian, anti-slavery).
anti-aircraft (adj.) Look up anti-aircraft at
also antiaircraft, 1914, from anti- + aircraft.
Anti-American (adj.) Look up Anti-American at
also antiamerican, 1773, in reference to British parliamentary policies, from anti- + American. As a noun by 1788. Related: Anti-Americanism "opposition to what is distinctly American" (1844).
anti-bacterial (adj.) Look up anti-bacterial at
also antibacterial, 1875, from anti- + bacterial.
anti-choice (adj.) Look up anti-choice at
also antichoice, by 1978, American English, in reference to opposition to legalized abortion; from anti- + choice (n.). Compare pro-life.
anti-communist (adj.) Look up anti-communist at
1919, from anti- + communist.
anti-fascist (adj.) Look up anti-fascist at
1923, in names of organizations of Italian workers in the U.S., from anti- + fascist.
anti-feminist (adj.) Look up anti-feminist at
1900 as "opposed to women, misogynistic," from anti- + feminism in the "quality of being female" sense; perhaps based on French anti-féministes (1897). By 1970 as "opposed to feminism" in the political sense.
anti-freeze (n.) Look up anti-freeze at
also antifreeze, 1935, shortening of anti-freeze solution (1913); see anti- + freeze (v.).
anti-imperialist (adj.) Look up anti-imperialist at
1898, American English, in debates about the Spanish-American War, from anti- + imperialist. It was the title of a weekly anti-war publication begun in 1899. Related: Anti-imperialism.
anti-intellectual (adj.) Look up anti-intellectual at
1821, from anti- + intellectual. As a noun meaning "an anti-intellectual person" from 1913.
anti-intellectualism (n.) Look up anti-intellectualism at
1904, from anti- + intellectualism; in some cases from anti-intellectual + -ism.
anti-macassar (n.) Look up anti-macassar at
also antimacassar, 1848, from anti- + macassar oil, supposedly imported from the district of Macassar on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, which was commercially advertised from 1809 as a men's hair tonic "infallible in promoting an abundant growth and in maintaining the early hue and lustre of the HAIR to the extent of human life" [1830]. The cloth was laid to protect chair and sofa fabric from men leaning their oily heads back against it.
Anti-Mason (n.) Look up Anti-Mason at
by 1928 in reference to a U.S. third political party formed in opposition to elites and for a time powerful in the mid-Atlantic states, from anti- + Mason, in reference to the secret society. Related: Anti-Masonic.
anti-militarist (n.) Look up anti-militarist at
1894, from anti- + militarist in the political sense. Related: Anti-militaristic.
anti-node (n.) Look up anti-node at
also antinode, 1872, "point of a vibrating string where the amplitude is greatest," from anti- + node. Later applied to other wave systems; at the anti-node the two waves cancel each other out.
anti-perspirant (adj.) Look up anti-perspirant at
also antiperspirant, 1935, in advertisements for Nonspi ("The Safe Anti-Perspirant for Fastidious Women"), from anti- + perspire + adjectival suffix -ant. Technically an application preventing or restricting the flow of perspiration, as opposed to a deodorant, which deodorizes only and in no way affects secretion.
anti-scorbutic (n.) Look up anti-scorbutic at
also antiscorbutic, "preparation that counteracts scurvy," 1690s, from anti- "against" + medical Latin scorbutus "scurvy" (see scorbutic). From 1725 as an adjective.
anti-Semite (n.) Look up anti-Semite at
1881, see anti-Semitism.
One who seeks by political or other means to lessen the commercial, political, or social influence of the Jews. The name is given especially to those who have participated in the agitation against the Jews in Germany, Russia, and Austria which began about 1878. [Century Dictionary, 1900]
anti-Semitic (adj.) Look up anti-Semitic at
"of or pertaining to anti-Semites," 1881, see anti-Semitism.
anti-Semitism (n.) Look up anti-Semitism at
also antisemitism, 1881, from German Antisemitismus, first used by Wilhelm Marr (1819-1904) German radical, nationalist and race-agitator, who founded the Antisemiten-Liga in 1879; see anti- + Semite.

Not etymologically restricted to anti-Jewish theories, actions, or policies, but almost always used in this sense. Those who object to the inaccuracy of the term might try Hermann Adler's Judaeophobia (1881). Anti-Semitic (also antisemitic) and anti-Semite (also antisemite) also are from 1881, like anti-Semitism they appear first in English in an article in the "Athenaeum" of Sept. 31, in reference to German literature. Jew-hatred is attested from 1881. As an adjective, anti-Jewish is from 1817.
anti-socialist (adj.) Look up anti-socialist at
also antisocialist, 1841, "opposed to socialism;" see anti- + socialist.
anti-trust (adj.) Look up anti-trust at
also antitrust, 1890, U.S., from anti- "against" + trust (n.) in the "economic monopoly" sense.
anti-war (adj.) Look up anti-war at
also antiwar, 1812, American English, in reference to opposition to the War of 1812, from anti- + war (n.). In a non-specific sense of "political pacifism, opposition to all war," 1821.
antibiotic (adj.) Look up antibiotic at
"destructive to micro-organisms," 1894, from French antibiotique (c. 1889), from anti- "against" (see anti-) + biotique "of (microbial) life," from Late Latin bioticus "of life" (see biotic). As a noun, first recorded 1941 in works of U.S. microbiologist Selman Waksman (1888-1973), discoverer of streptomycin. Earlier the adjective was used in a sense "not from living organisms" in debates over the origins of certain fossils (1860).
antibody (n.) Look up antibody at
"substance developed in blood as an antitoxin," 1901, a hybrid formed from anti- "against" + body. Probably a translation of German Antikörper, condensed from a phrase such as anti-toxischer Körper "anti-toxic body" (1891).
antic (n.) Look up antic at
1520s, antick, antyke, later antique (with accent on the first syllable), "grotesque or comical gesture," from Italian antico "antique," from Latin antiquus "old, ancient; old-fashioned" (see antique (adj.)). In art, "fantastical figures, incongruously combined" (1540s).

Originally (like grotesque) a 16c. Italian word referring to the strange and fantastic representations on ancient murals unearthed around Rome (especially the Baths of Titus, rediscovered 16c.); later extended to "any bizarre thing or behavior," in which sense it first arrived in English. As an adjective in English from 1580s, "grotesque, bizarre." In 17c. the spelling antique was restricted to the original sense of that word.
antichrist (n.) Look up antichrist at
mid-14c., earlier antecrist (late Old English) "an opponent of Christ, an opponent of the Church," especially the last and greatest persecutor of the faith at the end of the world, from Late Latin antichristus, from Greek antikhristos (I John ii.18), from anti- "against" (see anti-) + khristos (see Christ). The earliest appearance of anti- in English and one of the few before c. 1600.
The name has also been applied to the pretenders to the Messiahship, or false Christs (Mat. xxiv. 24), who have arisen at various periods, as being antagonistic to the true Christ. Of these as many as sixty-four have been reckoned, including some of little importance, and also some, as Mohammed, who cannot properly be classed among them. [Century Dictionary]
antichristian (adj.) Look up antichristian at
1530s, "pertaining to the Antichrist," from antichrist + -ian; as "hostile or opposed to to Christianity or Christians" (also anti-Christian), 1580s, from anti- + Christian (adj.). Related: Antichristianity.
antichthon (n.) Look up antichthon at
c. 1600, antichthones (plural), from Latin antichthontes, from Greek antikhthontes "people of the opposite hemisphere," from anti "opposite" (see anti-) + khthon "land, earth, soil" (from PIE root *dhghem- "earth"). In Pythagorean philosophy, an imagined invisible double of earth.
anticipate (v.) Look up anticipate at
1530s, "to cause to happen sooner," a back-formation from anticipation, or else from Latin anticipatus, past participle of anticipare "take (care of) ahead of time," literally "taking into possession beforehand," from anti, an old form of ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp."

Later "prevent or preclude by prior action" (c. 1600) and "be aware of (something) coming at a future time" (1640s). Used in the sense of "expect, look forward to" since 1749, but anticipate has an element of "prepare for, forestall" that, etymologically, should prevent its being used as a synonym for expect. Related: Anticipated; anticipating.
anticipation (n.) Look up anticipation at
late 14c., "foreshadowing," from Latin anticipationem (nominative anticipatio) "preconception, preconceived notion," noun of action from past participle stem of anticipare "take (care of) ahead of time," literally "taking into possession beforehand," from anti, an old form of ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp." Meaning "act of being before another in doing something" is from 1550s. Meaning "action of looking forward to" is from 1809.
anticipatory (adj.) Look up anticipatory at
"involving anticipation," 1660s, from anticipate + -ory.
anticlimactic (adj.) Look up anticlimactic at
also anti-climactic, "of the nature of an anticlimax," 1831; see anticlimax + -ic.
anticlimax (n.) Look up anticlimax at
"the addition of a particular which suddenly lowers the effect," especially, in style, "an abrupt descent from a stronger to a weaker expression or from greater to lesser things," 1701, from anti- + climax (n.).
anticline (n.) Look up anticline at
1861, earlier anticlinal (1849, shortened from anticlinal fold), in geology, "sedimentary rocks inclined in opposite directions from a central axis," from anti- "against" + Latinized form of Greek klinein "to lean, slope" from PIE root *klei- "to lean." Form assimilated to incline.
anticoagulant (adj.) Look up anticoagulant at
"that prevents or retards coagulation," 1886, from anti- + coagulant. As a noun by 1896.
antics (n.) Look up antics at
"ludicrous behavior," 1520s; see antic.
anticyclone (n.) Look up anticyclone at
"outward rotary flow of air from an area of atmospheric high pressure," 1863, coined by Francis Galton (1822-1911), English polymath, explorer, and meteorologist, from anti- + cyclone. Related: Anticyclonic.
antidepressant (n.) Look up antidepressant at
1876, from anti- + depressant.
antidisestablishmentarianism (n.) Look up antidisestablishmentarianism at
"opposition to disestablishment of the Church of England," 1838, said by Weekley to be first recorded in Gladstone's "Church and State." The establishment is "the ecclesiastical system established by law" (1731), specifically "the Church of England" (1731). Hence establishmentarianism "the principle of a state church" (1846) and disestablish (1590s) "to deprive (a church) of especial state patronage and support" (first used specifically of Christian churches in 1806), which are married in this word. Rarely used at all now except in examples of the longest words, amongst which it has been counted at least since 1901.
antidotal (adj.) Look up antidotal at
1640s, from antidote + -al (1). Related: Antidotally.
antidote (n.) Look up antidote at
"remedy counteracting poison," early 15c. (c. 1400 as a Latin word in English), from Middle French antidot and directly from Latin antidotum/antidotus "a remedy against poison," from Greek antidoton (pharmakon) "(drug) given as a remedy," from antidoton literally "given against," verbal adjective of antididonai "give for" (also "give in return, give instead of") from anti "against" (see anti-) + didonai "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give"). Compare Middle English antidotarie "treatise on drugs or medicines" (c. 1400).