anti (n.) Look up anti at
as a stand-alone word, attested from 1788, originally in reference to the anti-federalists in U.S. politics (in the 1830s, of the Anti-Masonic party); as an adjective, from 1857. From anti- in various usages.
anti- Look up anti- at
word-forming element meaning "against, opposed to, opposite of, instead," shortened to ant- before vowels and -h-, from Old French anti- and directly from Latin anti-, from Greek anti "against, opposite, instead of," from PIE *anti- "against," also "in front of" (see ante-). It appears in some words in Middle English but was not commonly used in word formations until modern times.
anti-aircraft (adj.) Look up anti-aircraft at
also antiaircraft, 1914, from anti- + aircraft.
Anti-American (adj.) Look up Anti-American at
also antiamerican, 1788 (n.), in reference to British parliamentary policies, from anti- + American. As an adjective by 1838. Related: Anti-Americanism "opposition to what is distinctly American," 1844.
anti-bacterial (adj.) Look up anti-bacterial at
also antibacterial, 1875, from anti- + bacterial.
anti-choice (adj.) Look up anti-choice at
also antichoice, 1978; see pro-life.
anti-communist (adj.) Look up anti-communist at
1919, from anti- + communist.
anti-freeze (n.) Look up anti-freeze at
also antifreeze, 1935, from use as an adjective (1913); from anti- + freeze (v.).
anti-imperialist (adj.) Look up anti-imperialist at
1898, American English, in debates about the Spanish-American War, from anti- + imperialist. Related: Anti-imperialism.
anti-intellectual Look up anti-intellectual at
1821 (adj.), from anti- + intellectual. As a noun meaning "an anti-intellectual person" from 1913.
anti-intellectualism (n.) Look up anti-intellectualism at
1904, from anti- + intellectualism; or in some cases from anti-intellectual + -ism.
anti-macassar (n.) Look up anti-macassar at
also antimacassar, 1852, from anti- + macassar oil, proprietary name of a hair tonic advertised as imported from the district of Macassar on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. The cloth was laid to protect chair and sofa fabric from people leaning their oily heads back against it.
anti-Semite (n.) Look up anti-Semite at
1881, see anti-Semitism.
anti-Semitic (adj.) Look up anti-Semitic at
1881, see anti-Semitism.
anti-Semitism (n.) Look up anti-Semitism at
also antisemitism, 1881, from German Antisemitismus, first used by Wilhelm Marr (1819-1904) German radical, nationalist and race-agitator, who founded the Antisemiten-Liga in 1879; see anti- + Semite.

Not etymologically restricted to anti-Jewish theories, actions, or policies, but almost always used in this sense. Those who object to the inaccuracy of the term might try Hermann Adler's Judaeophobia (1881). Anti-Semitic (also antisemitic) and anti-Semite (also antisemite) also are from 1881, like anti-Semitism they appear first in English in an article in the "Athenaeum" of Sept. 31, in reference to German literature. Jew-hatred is attested from 1881.
anti-social (adj.) Look up anti-social at
also antisocial, 1797, from anti- + social (adj.). First-attested use is in sense of "unsociable;" meaning "hostile to social order or norms" is from 1802.
anti-war (adj.) Look up anti-war at
also antiwar, 1857, from anti- + war (n.).
antibiotic (adj.) Look up antibiotic at
1894, "destructive to micro-organisms," from French antibiotique (c. 1889), from anti- "against" (see anti-) + biotique "of (microbial) life," from Late Latin bioticus "of life" (see biotic). As a noun, first recorded 1941 in works of U.S. microbiologist Selman Waksman (1888-1973), discoverer of streptomycin. Earlier the adjective was used in a sense "not from living organisms" in debates over the origins of certain fossils.
antibody (n.) Look up antibody at
"substance developed in blood as an antitoxin," 1901, a hybrid formed from anti- "against" + body. Probably a translation of German Antikörper, condensed from a phrase such as anti-toxischer Körper "anti-toxic body" (1891).
antic (n.) Look up antic at
1520s, "grotesque or comical gesture," from Italian antico "antique," from Latin antiquus "old" (see antique). Originally (like grotesque) a 16c. Italian word referring to the strange and fantastic representations on ancient murals unearthed around Rome (especially originally the Baths of Titus, rediscovered 16c.); later extended to "any bizarre thing or behavior," in which sense it first arrived in English. As an adjective in English from 1580s, "grotesque, bizarre."
antichrist (n.) Look up antichrist at
c. 1300, from Late Latin antichristus, from Greek antikhristos (I John ii.18), from anti- "against" (see anti-) + khristos (see Christ).
antichristian (adj.) Look up antichristian at
1530s, "pertaining to the antichrist," from antichrist + -ian; as "hostile or opposed to to Christianity or Christians" (also anti-Christian), 1580s, from anti- + Christian (adj.).
anticipate (v.) Look up anticipate at
1530s, "to cause to happen sooner," a back-formation from anticipation, or else from Latin anticipatus, past participle of anticipare "take (care of) ahead of time," literally "taking into possession beforehand," from ante "before" (see ante-) + capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp" (see capable).

Later "to be aware of (something) coming at a future time" (1640s). Used in the sense of "expect, look forward to" since 1749, but anticipate has an element of "prepare for, forestall" that should prevent its being used as a synonym for expect. Related: Anticipated; anticipating.
anticipation (n.) Look up anticipation at
late 14c., from Latin anticipationem (nominative anticipatio) "preconception, preconceived notion," noun of action from past participle stem of anticipare "take care of ahead of time" (see anticipate). Meaning "action of looking forward to" is from 1809.
anticipatory (adj.) Look up anticipatory at
1660s, from anticipate + -ory.
anticlimactic (adj.) Look up anticlimactic at
also anti-climactic, 1831; see anticlimax + -ic.
anticlimax (n.) Look up anticlimax at
"the addition of a particular which suddenly lowers the effect," 1701, from anti- + climax (n.).
anticline (n.) Look up anticline at
1867, earlier anticlinal (1849, by ellipsis from anticlinal fold), from anti- "against" + Latinized form of Greek klinein "to lean, slope" from PIE root *klei- "to lean" (see lean (v.)). Form assimilated to incline.
anticoagulant Look up anticoagulant at
1905, adjective and noun, from anti- + coagulant.
antics (n.) Look up antics at
"ludicrous behavior," 1520s; see antic.
anticyclone (n.) Look up anticyclone at
1863, coined by Francis Galton (1822-1911), English polymath, explorer, and meteorologist, from anti- + cyclone. Related: Anticyclonic.
antidepressant (n.) Look up antidepressant at
1876, from anti- + depressant.
antidisestablishmentarianism (n.) Look up antidisestablishmentarianism at
"opposition to disestablishment of the Church of England," 1838, said by Weekley to be first recorded in Gladstone's "Church and State," from dis- + establishment in the sense of "the ecclesiastical system established by law; the Church of England" (1731). Hence establishmentarianism "the principle of a state church" (1846) and disestablish (1590s) "to deprive (a church) of especial state patronage and support" (first used specifically of Christian churches in 1806), which are married in this word. Rarely used at all now except in examples of the longest words, amongst which it has been counted at least since 1901.
antidotal (adj.) Look up antidotal at
1640s, from antidote + -al (1).
antidote (n.) Look up antidote at
"remedy counteracting poison," 1510s (earlier in English as a Latin word), from Middle French antidot and directly from Latin antidotum "a remedy against poison," from Greek antidoton "given as a remedy," literally "given against," verbal adjective of antididonai "give in return," from anti "against" (see anti-) + didonai "to give" (see date (n.1)). Compare Middle English antidotarie "treatise on drugs or medicines" (c. 1400).
Antietam Look up Antietam at
place name, eastern U.S., from an Algonquian word perhaps meaning "swift water;" the name occurrs in Pennsylvania and Ohio, but the best-known is a creek near Sharpsburg in Washington County, Maryland, site of a bloody Civil War battle Sept. 17, 1862.
antifebrile Look up antifebrile at
1660s, from anti- + febrile.
antigen (n.) Look up antigen at
"substance that causes production of an antibody," 1908, from German Antigen, from French antigène (1899), from anti- (see anti-) + Greek -gen (see -gen).
Antigone Look up Antigone at
daughter of Oedipus, her name may mean "in place of a mother" in Greek, from anti "opposite, in place of" (see anti-) + gone "womb, childbirth, generation," from root of gignesthai "to be born" related to genos "race, birth, descent" (see genus).
Antigua Look up Antigua at
Caribbean island, from Spanish fem. of antiguo, literally "ancient, antique" (see antique); discovered by Columbus in 1493 and named by him for the church of Santa Maria la Antigua ("Old St. Mary's") in Seville.
antihero (n.) Look up antihero at
also anti-hero; 1714, from anti- + hero.
antihistamine (n.) Look up antihistamine at
1933, from anti- + histamine.
antimatter (n.) Look up antimatter at
also anti-matter, 1953, from anti- + matter (n.).
antimetabole (n.) Look up antimetabole at
1590s, from Greek antimetabole, from anti "opposite" (see anti-) + metabole "turning about" (see metabolism).
antimony (n.) Look up antimony at
brittle metallic element, early 15c., from Old French antimoine and directly from Medieval Latin antimonium, an alchemist's term (used 11c. by Constantinus Africanus), origin obscure, probably a Latinization of Greek stimmi "powdered antimony, black antimony" (a cosmetic used to paint the eyelids), from some Arabic word (such as al 'othmud), unless the Arabic word is from the Greek or the Latin is from Arabic; probably ultimately from Egyptian stm "powdered antimony." In French folk etymology, anti-moine "monk's bane" (from moine).

As the name of a pure element, it is attested in English from 1788. Its chemical symbol Sb is for Stibium, the Latin name for "black antimony," which word was used also in English for "black antimony."
antinode (n.) Look up antinode at
1872, from anti- + node.
antinomian (n.) Look up antinomian at
"one who maintains the moral law is not binding on Christians under the law of grace," 1640s, from Medieval Latin Antinomi, name given to a sect of this sort that arose in Germany in 1535, from Greek anti "opposite, against" (see anti-) + nomos "rule, law" (see numismatic).
antinomianism (n.) Look up antinomianism at
1640s, from antinomian + -ism.
antinomy (n.) Look up antinomy at
1590s, "contradiction in the laws," from Latin antinomia, from Greek antinomia "ambiguity in the law," from anti "against" (see anti-) + nomos "law" (see numismatics). As a term in logic, from 1802 (Kant).
Antioch Look up Antioch at
modern Antakya in Turkey, anciently the capital of Syria, founded c. 300 B.C.E. by Seleucus I Nictor and named for his father, Antiochus.