Antietam Look up Antietam at
place name, eastern U.S., from an Algonquian word perhaps meaning "swift water;" the name occurrs in Pennsylvania and Ohio, but the best-known is a creek near Sharpsburg in Washington County, Maryland; site of a bloody American Civil War battle fought Sept. 17, 1862.
antifebrile (n.) Look up antifebrile at
also anti-febrile, 1660s, "having the property of abating fever," from anti- + febrile. As a noun, "substance which abates fever," 1859.
antigen (n.) Look up antigen at
"substance that causes production of an antibody," 1908, from German Antigen, from French antigène (1899), from anti(body) (see antibody) + -gen.
Antigone Look up Antigone at
daughter of Oedipus, her name in Greek might mean "in place of a mother," from anti "opposite, in place of" (see anti-) + gone "womb, childbirth, generation," from root of gignesthai "to be born" related to genos "race, birth, descent" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups).
Antigua Look up Antigua at
Caribbean island, from Spanish fem. of antiguo, literally "ancient, antique" (see antique); discovered by Columbus in 1493 and named by him for the church of Santa Maria la Antigua ("Old St. Mary's") in Seville. Related: Antiguan.
antihistamine (adj.) Look up antihistamine at
1933, from anti- + histamine. From 1957 as a noun.
antimatter (n.) Look up antimatter at
also anti-matter, 1953, from anti- "opposite" + matter (n.).
antimetabole (n.) Look up antimetabole at
"rhetorical figure in which the same words are repeated in reverse order," 1590s, from Greek antimetabole, from anti "opposite" (see anti-) + metabole "turning about" (see metabolism).
antimnemonic (adj.) Look up antimnemonic at
"injurious to the memory," 1817, from anti- "against, opposite" + mnemonic "aiding the memory."
antimony (n.) Look up antimony at
early 15c., "black antimony, antimony sulfide" (powder, medicinally and in alchemy), from Old French antimoine and directly from Medieval Latin antimonium (11c.), of obscure origin.

Probably it is a Latinization of later Greek stimmi "powdered antimony, black antimony" (a cosmetic used to paint the eyelids), from an Arabic source (such as al 'othmud), unless the Arabic word is from the Greek and the Latin is from Arabic (which would explain the a- as the Arabic direct article al-). Probably ultimately from Egyptian stm "powdered antimony;" the substance was used there as a cosmetic from at least 3000 B.C.E. In French, by folk etymology, it became anti-moine "monk's bane."

As the name of a brittle metallic element in a pure form, it is attested in English from 1788. Its chemical symbol Sb is for Stibium, the Latin name for "black antimony," which word also was used in English for black antimony. Related: Antimonial; antimoniac.
antinomian (n.) Look up antinomian at
"one who maintains that, by the dispensation of grace, the moral law is not binding on Christians," 1640s, from Medieval Latin Antinomi, name given to a sect of this sort that arose in Germany in 1535, from Greek anti "opposite, against" (see anti-) + nomos "rule, law," from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take." As an adjective from 1640s.
antinomianism (n.) Look up antinomianism at
1640s, from antinomian + -ism.
antinomy (n.) Look up antinomy at
1590s, "contradiction in the laws," from Latin antinomia, from Greek antinomia "ambiguity in the law," from anti "against" (see anti-) + nomos "law" (from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take"). From 1802 in the philosophical sense used by Kant, "contradiction between logical conclusions." Related: Antinomic.
Antioch Look up Antioch at
ancient city, modern Antakya in Turkey, anciently the capital of Syria, founded c. 300 B.C.E. by Seleucus I Nictor and named for his father, Antiochus. The name, also borne by several Syrian kings and an eclectic philosopher, is a Latinized form of Greek Antiokhos, literally "resistant, holding out against," from anti "against" (see anti-) + ekhein "to have, hold;" in intransitive use, "be in a given state or condition" (from PIE root *segh- "to hold"). Related: Antiochian.
antioxidant (n.) Look up antioxidant at
1920, from anti- + oxidant. From 1932 as an adjective.
antipasto (n.) Look up antipasto at
1929, from Italian antipasto, from anti- "before" (from Latin ante; see ante-) + pasto "food," from Latin pascere "to feed," from PIE root *pa- "to feed." Earlier Englished as antepast "something taken before a meal to whet the appetite" (1580s).
antipathetic (adj.) Look up antipathetic at
"having an antipathy," 1630s, an adjectival construction from antipathy. Related: antipathetical (c. 1600); antipathetically.
antipathic (adj.) Look up antipathic at
"opposite, unlike, averse," 1811, in a translation of Swedenborg; see antipathy + -ic. Perhaps modeled on French antipathique. In later use it tends to be a medical word for "producing contrary symptoms," in place of antipathetic.
antipathy (n.) Look up antipathy at
c. 1600, "natural aversion, hostile feeling toward," from Latin antipathia, from Greek antipatheia, abstract noun from antipathes "opposed in feeling, having opposite feeling; in return for suffering;" also "felt mutually," from anti "opposite, against" (see anti-) + pathein "to suffer, feel" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer").
An abuse has crept in upon the employment of the word Antipathy. ... Strictly it does not mean hate,--not the feelings of one man set against the person of another,--but that, in two natures, there is an opposition of feeling. With respect to the same object they feel oppositely. ["Janus, or The Edinburgh Literary Almanack," 1826]
antiphon (n.) Look up antiphon at
c. 1500, "a versicle sung responsively," from Middle French antiphone "hymn" or directly from Medieval Latin antiphona, from Greek antiphona (neuter plural), from antiphonos "responsive, sounding in answer," from anti "in return" (see anti-) + phone "voice," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say."

A reborrowing by English of the word which had become anthem in English (in Old English antefn, antifon) and lost its original meaning.
antiphonal (adj.) Look up antiphonal at
"marked by responsive singing," 1719, from antiphon + -al. Related: Antiphonally.
antiphony (n.) Look up antiphony at
"alternate or responsive singing," 1590s, from antiphon + -y (1).
antiphrasis (n.) Look up antiphrasis at
in rhetoric, "the use of a word in a sense opposite to its proper meaning; ironic use of a word in sarcasm or humor," 1530s, from Latin antiphrasis, from Greek antiphrasis, from antiphrazein "to express (something) by the opposite," from anti "against, opposite, instead of" (see anti-) + phrazein "to tell, declare, point out, express" (see phrase (n.)). Related: Antiphrastic.
antipodal (adj.) Look up antipodal at
"situated on the opposite side of the globe," 1640s; see antipodes + -al (1). Also antipodean, attested from 1630s as a noun; 1650s as an adjective.
antipodes (n.) Look up antipodes at
late 14c., "persons who dwell on the opposite side of the globe;" 1540s as "country or region on the opposite side of the earth," from Latin antipodes "those who dwell on the opposite side of the earth," from Greek antipodes, plural of antipous "with feet opposite (ours)," from anti "opposite" (see anti-) + pous "foot" (from PIE root *ped- "foot").
Yonde in Ethiopia ben the Antipodes, men that haue theyr fete ayenst our fete. [John of Trevisa, translation of Bartholomew de Glanville's "De proprietatibus rerum," 1398]
Belief in them could be a heresy in medieval Europe, when the orthodox supposition was that the whole of the earth was a flat surface. Not to be confused with antiscii "those who live on the same meridian on opposite side of the equator," whose shadows fall at noon in the opposite direction, from Greek anti- + skia "shadow." Also see Antoecian. Related: Antipodist.
antipope (n.) Look up antipope at
also anti-pope, early 15c. (mid-13c. in Anglo-Latin), from Medieval Latin antipapa, from Greek anti "against, opposite, instead of" (see anti-) + papa (see pope). There have been about 30 of them, the last was Felix V, elected at Basel in 1439.
antipyretic (n.) Look up antipyretic at
"that which reduces fever," 1680s, from anti- + Greek pyretos "fever, burning heat," related to pyr "fire" (from PIE root *paewr- "fire") + -ic. As an adjective, "reducing fever," 1837.
antiquarian (n.) Look up antiquarian at
"one who studies or is fond of antiquities, one versed in knowledge of ancient things," c. 1600, with -an + Latin antiquarius "pertaining to antiquity," from antiquus "ancient, aged, venerable" (see antique (adj.)). In later use more specifically "collector of antiquities; dealer in old books, coins, objects of art, etc." As an adjective, "pertaining to antiquaries," from 1771. Compare antiquary.
antiquary (n.) Look up antiquary at
1580s, "one versed in knowledge of ancient things," from Latin antiquarius "pertaining to antiquity," in Medieval Latin "a copier of old books," from antiquus "ancient, aged, venerable" (see antique (adj.)). In later use especially "dealer in old books, coins, objects of art, etc."
antiquate (v.) Look up antiquate at
"make old or obsolete," 1590s, from Latin antiquatus, past participle of antiquare "restore to its ancient condition," in Late Latin "make old," from antiquus "ancient, of olden times; aged, venerable; old-fashioned" (see antique (adj.)). Related: Antiquated; antiquating.
antiquated (adj.) Look up antiquated at
1620s, past participle adjective from verb antiquate "make old or obsolete" (1590s), from Latin antiquatus, past participle of antiquare "restore to its ancient condition," in Late Latin "make old," from antiquus "ancient, of olden times; aged, venerable; old-fashioned" (see antique (adj.)). An older adjective in the same sense was antiquate (early 15c.), from Latin. Related: Antiquatedness.
antiquation (n.) Look up antiquation at
1640s, "action of making or becoming antiquated;" 1650s, "state of being antiquated," from Late Latin antiquationem (nominative antiquatio), noun of action from past participle stem of antiquare (see antiquate (v.)).
antique (v.) Look up antique at
"to give an antique appearance to," 1753 (implied in antiqued, in bookbinding, "finished in an antique style"), from antique (adj.). Related: Antiquing.
antique (n.) Look up antique at
1520s, "a relic of antiquity," from antique (adj.). From 1771 as "an old and collectible thing."
antique (adj.) Look up antique at
1530s, "aged, venerable;" 1540s, "having existed in ancient times," from Middle French antique "old" (14c.), from Latin antiquus (later anticus) "ancient, former, of olden times; old, long in existence, aged; venerable; old-fashioned," from PIE *anti- "before" (from root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + *okw- "appearance" (from PIE root *okw- "to see").

Originally pronounced in English like its doublet antic, but French pronunciation and spelling were adopted in English from c. 1700. Meaning "not modern" is from 1640s. Related: Antiqueness.
antiquity (n.) Look up antiquity at
late 14c., "olden times," from Old French antiquitet (11c.; Modern French antiquité) "olden times; great age; old age," from Latin antiquitatem (nominative antiquitas) "ancient times, antiquity, venerableness," noun of quality from stem of antiquus "ancient, of olden times; long in existence" (see antique (adj.)). Specific reference to ancient Greece and Rome is from mid-15c.; meaning "quality of being old" is from about the same time. Antiquities "relics of ancient days" is from 1510s.
antisepsis (n.) Look up antisepsis at
"exclusion of micro-organisms which produce disease, etc., from places where they may thrive," 1875; see anti- "against" + sepsis "putrefaction."
antiseptic (adj.) Look up antiseptic at
also anti-septic, "inimical to micro-organisms which cause disease, putrefaction, etc.," 1750, from anti- "against" + septic "pertaining to putrefaction." Figurative use by 1820. As a noun meaning "an antiseptic substance" by 1803.
antisocial (adj.) Look up antisocial at
also anti-social, "unsocial, averse to social intercourse," 1797, from anti- + social (adj.). Meaning "hostile to social order or norms" is from 1802.
antistrophe (n.) Look up antistrophe at
part of an ancient Greek choral ode, 1610s, from Latin, from Greek antistrophe "the returning of the chorus," "answering to a previous [strophe], except that they now moved from left to right instead of from right to left" [Liddell & Scott], literally "a turning about, a turning back," from antistrephein, from anti "opposite, in opposition to; in return" (see anti-) + strephein "to turn" (from PIE root *streb(h)- "to wind, turn"). Related: Antistrophic.
antitheism (n.) Look up antitheism at
also anti-theism, "opposition to theism; opposition to belief in God or gods," 1788; see anti- + theism.
antitheist (n.) Look up antitheist at
also anti-theist, "one opposed to belief in the existence of a god," 1813; see anti- "opposite to, against" + theist. Related: Antitheistic. Greek antitheos meant "equal to the gods, god-like," from a different sense of anti.
antitheses (n.) Look up antitheses at
plural of antithesis.
antithesis (n.) Look up antithesis at
1520s, "opposition, contrast," originally in rhetoric, "the bringing of contrary ideas or terms in close opposition;" 1530s as "that which is in (rhetorical) opposition or contrast," from Late Latin antithesis, from Greek antithesis "opposition, resistance," literally "a placing against," also a term in logic and rhetoric, noun of action from antitithenai "to set against, oppose," a term in logic, from anti "against" (see anti-) + tithenai "to put, place," from reduplicated form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put."

The extended sense of "direct or striking opposition" is from 1630s; as "that which is the direct opposite" from 1831.
antithetic (adj.) Look up antithetic at
"containing an antithesis," c. 1600, from Greek antithetikos "contrasting, setting in opposition," from antithetos "placed in opposition," from antithesis "opposition, resistance," literally "a placing against" (see antithesis).
antithetical (adj.) Look up antithetical at
"of the nature of or containing a (rhetorical) antithesis," 1580s, from Greek antithetikos "setting in opposition," from antithetos "placed in opposition," from antithesis "opposition, resistance," literally "a placing against" (see antithesis) + -al (1). General sense of "characterized by direct opposition" is from 1848. Related: Antithetically.
antitoxic (n.) Look up antitoxic at
"substance which counteracts a poison," 1860; from anti- "against" + toxic. As an adjective, "counteracting a poison," from 1862.
antitoxin (n.) Look up antitoxin at
"substance neutralizing poisons," 1892, from anti- "against" + toxin. Coined in 1890 by German bacteriologist Emil von Behring (1854-1917). Antitoxic "substance which counteracts a poison" is from 1860 in English.
antitype (n.) Look up antitype at
also anti-type, 1610s, "that which is prefigured," especially of that which in the Gospel is foreshadowed in the Old Testament, from Greek antitypos "corresponding in form" (as the impression to the die), from anti "in return, compared with, counter-" (see anti-) + typos "a model, type," literally "a blow, a mark" (see type (n.)). Related: Antitypical.
antivenin (n.) Look up antivenin at
1894, from anti- + venin, from venom + chemical suffix -in (2). Perhaps immediately from French antivenin.