arcade (n.) Look up arcade at
1731 (as arcado, from 1640s), from Italian arcata "arch of a bridge," from arco "arc," from Latin arcus (see arc). Applied to passages formed by a succession of arches, avenues of trees, and ultimately to any covered avenue, especially one lined with shops (1731) or amusements; hence arcade game (1977).
Arcadia Look up Arcadia at
see Arcadian.
Arcadian Look up Arcadian at
"ideally rustic or rural; an idealized rustic," 1580s, from Greek Arkadia, district in the Peloponnesus, taken by poets as an ideal region of rural felicity, traditionally from Arkas (genitive Arkadas), son of Zeus, name of the founder and first ruler of Arcadia.
arcana (n.) Look up arcana at
"hidden things, mysteries," 1590s, a direct adoption of the Latin plural of arcanum "a secret, a mystery," from neuter of adjective arcanus "secret, hidden, private, concealed" (see arcane). Occasionally mistaken for a singular and pluralized as arcanas because arcana is far more common than arcanum.
arcane (adj.) Look up arcane at
1540s, from Latin arcanus "secret, hidden, private, concealed," from arcere "close up, enclose, contain," from arca "chest, box, place for safe-keeping," from PIE *ark- "to hold, contain, guard" (source also of Greek arkos "defense," arkein "to ward off;" Armenian argel "obstacle;" Lithuanian raktas "key," rakinti "to shut, lock").
arcanum (n.) Look up arcanum at
proper singular form of arcana.
arch (n.) Look up arch at
c. 1300, from Old French arche "arch of a bridge" (12c.), from Latin arcus "a bow" (see arc). Replaced native bow (n.1). Originally architectural in English; transferred by early 15c. to anything having this form (eyebrows, etc.).
arch (v.) Look up arch at
early 14c., "to form an arch" (implied in arched); c. 1400, "to furnish with an arch," from arch (n.). Related: Arching.
arch (adj.) Look up arch at
1540s, "chief, principal," from prefix arch-; used in 12c. archangel, etc., but extended to so many derogatory uses (arch-rogue, arch-knave, etc.) that by mid-17c. it acquired a meaning of "roguish, mischievous," since softened to "saucy." Also found in archwife (late 14c.), variously defined as "a wife of a superior order" or "a dominating woman, virago."
arch- Look up arch- at
also archi-, word-forming element meaning "chief, principal; extreme, ultra; early, primitive," from Latinized form of Greek arkh-, arkhi- "first, chief, primeval," comb. form of arkhos "chief" (see archon).
Archaean (adj.) Look up Archaean at
"of the earliest geological age," 1872, from Greek arkhaios "ancient," from arkhe "beginning" (see archon).
archaebacteria (n.) Look up archaebacteria at
plural of archaebacterium (1977), from archaeo- + bacterium (see bacteria).
archaeo- Look up archaeo- at
before vowels archae-, word-forming element meaning "ancient, olden, primitive, primeval, from the beginning," from Latinized form of Greek arkhaio-, comb. form of arkhaios "ancient," from arkhe "beginning" (see archon).
archaeoastronomy (n.) Look up archaeoastronomy at
1971, from archaeo- + astronomy.
archaeologist (n.) Look up archaeologist at
1824; see archaeology + -ist.
archaeology (n.) Look up archaeology at
c. 1600, "ancient history," from French archéologie (16c.) or directly from Greek arkhaiologia "the study of ancient things;" see archaeo- + -ology. Meaning "scientific study of ancient peoples" recorded by 1825. Related: Archaeological; archaeologically.
archaeopteryx (n.) Look up archaeopteryx at
oldest known fossil bird, 1859, Modern Latin, from archaeo- "ancient, primitive" + Greek pteryx "wing" (see pterodactyl).
archaic (adj.) Look up archaic at
1810, from or by influence of French archaique (1776), ultimately from Greek arkhaikos "old-fashioned," from arkhaios "ancient," from arkhe "beginning" (see archon). Archaical is attested from 1799.
archaism (n.) Look up archaism at
1640s, "retention of what is old and obsolete," from Modern Latin archaismus, from Greek arkhaismos, from arkhaizein "to copy the ancients" (in language, etc.); see archaic. Meaning "an archaic word or expression" is from c. 1748.
archangel (n.) Look up archangel at
late 12c., from Old French archangel (12c.) or directly from Late Latin archangelus, from Greek arkhangelos "chief angel," from arkh- "chief, first" (see archon) + angelos (see angel). Replaced Old English heah encgel.
archangelic (adj.) Look up archangelic at
mid-15c.; see archangel + -ic.
archbishop (n.) Look up archbishop at
Old English ærcebiscop, from Late Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek arkhi- "chief" (see archon) + episkopos "bishop," literally "overseer." Replaced earlier Old English heah biscop (see bishop). The spelling conformed to Latin from 12c.
archbishopric (n.) Look up archbishopric at
Old English arcebiscoprice, from archbishop + rice "realm, dominion, province" (see regal).
archdeacon (n.) Look up archdeacon at
Old English arcediacon, from Church Latin archidiaconus, from Ecclesiastical Greek arkhidiakonon "chief deacon;" see arch- + deacon.
archdiocese (n.) Look up archdiocese at
1762, from arch- + diocese.
archduchess (n.) Look up archduchess at
1610s; see arch- + duchess. Also compare archduke.
archduke (n.) Look up archduke at
1520s, from Middle French and Old French archeduc, from Merovingian Latin archiducem (c.750); see arch- + duke (n.). Formerly the title of the rulers of Austrasia, Lorraine, Brabant, and Austria; later the titular dignity of the sons of the Emperor of Austria. Related: Archducal; archduchy.
archenemy (n.) Look up archenemy at
also arch-enemy, 1540s, from arch- + enemy.
archeological (adj.) Look up archeological at
alternative spelling of archaeological (see archaeology). Also see ae.
archeologist (n.) Look up archeologist at
alternative spelling of archaeologist. Also see ae.
archeology (n.) Look up archeology at
alternative spelling of archaeology. Also see ae.
archer (n.) Look up archer at
late 13c., from Anglo-French archer, Old French archier "archer, bowmaker," from Latin arcarius, from arcus "bow" (see arc). Also a 17c. name for the bishop in chess.
archery (n.) Look up archery at
c. 1400, from Anglo-French archerye, Old French archerie, from archier "archer" (see archer).
archetypal (adj.) Look up archetypal at
1640s, from Latin archetypum (see archetype) + -al (1). Jungian sense is from 1923.
archetype (n.) Look up archetype at
"original pattern from which copies are made," 1540s [Barnhart] or c. 1600 [OED], from Latin archetypum, from Greek arkhetypon "pattern, model, figure on a seal," neuter of adjective arkhetypos "first-moulded," from arkhe- "first" (see archon) + typos "model, type, blow, mark of a blow" (see type). Jungian psychology sense of "pervasive idea or image from the collective unconscious" is from 1919. Jung defined archetypal images as "forms or images of a collective nature which occur practically all over the earth as constituents of myths and at the same time as autochthonous individual products of unconscious origin." ["Psychology and Religion" 1937]
archfiend (n.) Look up archfiend at
1667, from arch (adj.) + fiend (n.). Originally and typically Satan (arch-foe "Satan" is from 1610s).
So stretcht out huge in length the Arch-fiend lay. ["Paradise Lost," 1667]
Archibald Look up Archibald at
masc. proper name, from Old High German Erchanbald, literally "genuine bold," from erchan "genuine" + bald (see bold). Archie, British World War I military slang for "German anti-aircraft fire" (1915) supposedly is from black humor of airmen dodging hostile fire and thinking of the refrain of a popular music hall song, "Archibald, certainly not!"
archipelago (n.) Look up archipelago at
c. 1500, from Italian arcipelago "the Aegean Sea" (13c.), from Greek arkhipelagos, from arkhi- "chief" (see archon) + pelagos "sea" (see pelagic). The Aegean Sea being full of island chains, the meaning was extended in Italian to "any sea studded with islands." Klein, noting the absence of arkhipelagos in ancient or Medieval Greek (the modern word in Greek is borrowed from Italian) believe it is an Italian mistake for Aigaion pelagos "Aegean Sea" (Medieval Latin Egeopelagus), or influenced by that name.
architect (n.) Look up architect at
1550s, from Middle French architecte, from Latin architectus, from Greek arkhitekton "master builder, director of works," from arkhi- "chief" (see archon) + tekton "builder, carpenter" (see texture). An Old English word for it was heahcræftiga "high-crafter."
architectonic (adj.) Look up architectonic at
1670s (architectonical is from c. 1600), "pertaining to architecture," from Latin architectonicus, from Greek arkhitektonikos "pertaining to a master builder," from arkhitekton (see architect). Metaphysical sense, "pertaining to systematization of knowledge," is from 1801.
architectural (adj.) Look up architectural at
1762; see architecture + -al (1). Related: Architecturally.
architecture (n.) Look up architecture at
1560s, from Middle French architecture, from Latin architectura, from architectus "architect" (see architect).
architrave (n.) Look up architrave at
1560s, from Italian architrave, from archi- "beginning, origin" (see archon) + trave "beam," from Latin trabem (nominative trabs) "beam, timber," from PIE *treb- "dwelling" (see tavern).
archival (adj.) Look up archival at
1800; see archives + -al (1). Related: Archivally.
archive (v.) Look up archive at
1819 (implied in archived), from archives. Related: Archiving.
archives (n.) Look up archives at
c. 1600, from French archif (16c.), from Late Latin archivum (singular), from Greek ta arkheia "public records," plural of arkheion "town hall," from arkhe "government," literally "beginning, origin, first place" (see archon).
archivist (n.) Look up archivist at
1753, from Medieval Latin or Italian archivista or French archiviste (see archives).
archon (n.) Look up archon at
one of the nine chief magistrates of ancient Athens, 1650s, from Greek arkhon "ruler," noun use of present participle of arkhein "to rule," from PIE *arkhein- "to begin, rule, command," a "Gk. verb of unknown origin, but showing archaic Indo-European features ... with derivatives arkhe, 'rule, beginning,' and arkhos, 'ruler' " [Watkins].
archrival (n.) Look up archrival at
by 1805, from arch- + rival (n.).
archway (n.) Look up archway at
1802, from arch (n.) + way (n.).