art brut (n.) Look up art brut at
art done by prisoners, lunatics, etc., 1955, French, literally "raw art" (see art (n.) + brute (adj.)).
art deco (n.) Look up art deco at
decorative and architectural style popular from 1925-1940, attested from 1966, from shortening of French art décoratif, literally "decorative art" (see decorative); the French phrase is from the title of L'Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, held in Paris 1925.
art nouveau Look up art nouveau at
1900, from French l'art nouveau (by 1895), literally "new art" (see novel (adj.)). Called in German Jugendstil.
art-form (n.) Look up art-form at
1855, from art (n.) + form (n.).
Artaxerxes Look up Artaxerxes at
Persian masc. proper name, in classical history a son of Xerxes II, also a son of Darius, from Greek Artaxerxes, from Old Persian Artaxšaca, literally "having a kingdom of justice," from arta- "justice" + xšaca "kingdom."
artefact (n.) Look up artefact at
older and alternative spelling of artifact (n.). Related: Artefactual; artefactually.
Artemis Look up Artemis at
Greek goddess of the moon, wild animals, hunting, childbirth, etc. (identified by the Romans with their Diana); daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo; her name is of unknown origin.
arterial (adj.) Look up arterial at
early 15c., "of or pertaining to an artery," from French artérial (Modern French artériel), from Latin arteria "an artery; the windpipe" (see artery). Meaning "resembling an artery system, having a main channel and many branches" is from 1831.
arterio- Look up arterio- at
word-forming element meaning "arterial," from Latinized form of Greek arteria "windpipe; artery" (see artery).
arteriole (n.) Look up arteriole at
"small artery," by 1808, from Modern Latin arteriola, diminutive of arteria "an artery" (see artery).
arteriosclerosis (n.) Look up arteriosclerosis at
"hardening of the arteries," 1885, medical Latin, from arterio- + sclerosis.
artery (n.) Look up artery at
late 14c., "an arterial blood vessel," from Anglo-French arterie, Old French artaire (13c.; Modern French artère), and directly from Latin arteria, from Greek arteria "windpipe," also "an artery," as distinct from a vein; related to aeirein "to raise" (see aorta).

They were regarded by the ancients as air ducts because the arteries do not contain blood after death, and 14c.-16c. artery in English also could mean "trachea, windpipe." Medieval writers, based on Galen, generally took them as a separate blood system for the "vital spirits." The word is used in reference to artery-like systems of major rivers from 1805; of railways from 1844.
artesian (adj.) Look up artesian at
1830, literally "pertaining to Artois," originally in artesian well, from French puits artésien "wells of Artois," the French province where such wells were first bored 18c. by French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor (1698-1761). The place name is from Old French Arteis, from Atrebates, a tribe that lived in northwestern Gallia (compare Arras). In a true artesian well the water rises naturally to the surface, but this depends on peculiarities of local geology; in the U.S. the term was used of any deep-bored well, even if the water must be pumped to the surface.
artesian well (n.) Look up artesian well at
see artesian
artful (adj.) Look up artful at
1610s, "learned, well-versed in the (liberal) arts," also "characterized by technical skill, artistic," from art (n.) + -ful. Meaning "cunning, crafty, skilled in adapting means to ends" is from 1739. Related: Artfully; artfulness. The Artful Dodger (Jack Dawkins) is from Dickens' "Oliver Twist" (1837-39).
arthralgia (n.) Look up arthralgia at
"pain in a joint," 1848, earlier in French and German, from Greek arthron "joint" (from PIE root *ar- "to fit together") + -algia "pain." Related: Arthralgic.
arthritic (adj.) Look up arthritic at
mid-14c., artetyk, "pertaining to arthritis," also as a noun, from Old French artetique (12c., Modern French arthritique), corresponding to Latin arthriticus, from Greek arthritikos, from arthritis (see arthritis). The spelling gradually was restored to Latin form in 17c.
arthritis (n.) Look up arthritis at
"inflammation of a joint," 1540s, from medical Latin arthritis, from Greek (nosos) arthritis "(disease) of the joints," from arthritis, fem. of arthrites (adj.) "pertaining to joints" (Greek nosos is a fem. noun), from arthron "a joint," from PIE root *ar- "to fit together." The older noun form was arthetica (late 14c.).
arthro- Look up arthro- at
before vowels arth-, word-forming element meaning "pertaining to the joints," from Greek arthron "joint," from PIE *ar(ə)-dhro-, suffixed form of root *ar- "to fit together."
arthropod (n.) Look up arthropod at
1862, from Modern Latin Arthropoda, literally "those with jointed feet," biological classification of the phylum of segmented, legged invertebrates (see Arthropoda). As an adjective from 1865.
Arthropoda (n.) Look up Arthropoda at
phylum of articulated invertebrates, 1849, Modern Latin, literally "those with jointed feet," coined 1845 by German zoologist Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold (1804-1885) from Greek arthron "a joint" (from PIE root *ar- "to fit together") + podos genitive of pous "foot" (from PIE root *ped- "foot"). They comprise the vast majority of animals, including insects, spiders, and crustaceans.
arthroscopic (adj.) Look up arthroscopic at
1979; see arthroscopy + -ic.
arthroscopy (n.) Look up arthroscopy at
by 1977, from arthro- + -scopy.
Arthur Look up Arthur at
masc. proper name, from Medieval Latin Arthurus/Arturus, usually said to be from Welsh arth "bear," cognate with Greek arktos, Latin ursus (see arctic).
Arthurian (adj.) Look up Arthurian at
"pertaining to the series of tales of British King Arthur and his knights," 1793, from Arthur + -ian.
artichoke (n.) Look up artichoke at
"thistle-like plant," also "the head of the flower stem, used as food," 1530s, from articiocco, Northern Italian variant of Italian arcicioffo, from Old Spanish alcarchofa, from Arabic al-hursufa "artichoke." The Northern Italian variation probably is from influence of ciocco "stump."

Folk etymology has twisted the word in English; the ending is probably influenced by choke, and early forms of the word in English include archecokk, hortichock, artychough, hartichoake, reflecting various folk-etymologies from French and Latin words. The plant is native to the Mediterranean and was known to the Romans and Greeks (see cardoon); the modern, improved variant seems to have been bred in North Africa (hence the new, Arabic name) and reached Italy by mid-15c. It was introduced into England in the reign of Henry VIII. French artichaut (16c.), German Artischocke (16c.) are from Italian, and from the same source come Russian artishoku, Polish karczock.
article (n.) Look up article at
c. 1200, "separate parts of anything written" (such as the statements in the Apostles' Creed, the clauses of a statute or contract), from Old French article (13c.), from Latin articulus "a part, a member," also "a knuckle; the article in grammar," diminutive of artus "a joint," from PIE *ar(ə)-tu-, suffixed form of root *ar- "to fit together."

Meaning "literary composition in a journal, etc." (independent and on a specific topic, but part of a larger work) is first recorded 1712. The older sense is preserved in Articles of War "military regulations" (1716), Articles of Confederation (U.S. history), etc. Extended meaning "piece of property, material thing, commodity" (clothing, etc.) first attested 1796, originally in rogue's cant. Grammatical sense of "word used attributively, to limit the application of a noun to one individual or set of individuals" is from 1530s, from this sense in Latin articulus, translating Greek arthron.
articular (adj.) Look up articular at
"involving joints," early 15c., from Latin articularis "pertaining to the joints," from articulus "a joint" (see article).
articulate (v.) Look up articulate at
1590s, "to divide speech into distinct parts" (earlier in a now-obsolete sense "to formally bring charges against," 1550s), from Latin articulatus, past participle of articulare "to separate into joints," also "to utter distinctly," from articulus "a part, a member, a joint" (see article).

Generalized sense of "express in words" is from 1690s. In a physical sense, "to join, to attach by joints," it is attested from 1610s. Earlier sense "to set forth in articles" (1560s) now is obsolete or nearly so. Related: Articulated; articulating.
articulate (adj.) Look up articulate at
1580s in the speech sense, "divided into distinct parts," hence "clear, distinct" (1570s as "set forth in articles"), from Latin articulatus "separated into joints" (see articulate (v.)). Compare Latin articulatim (adv.) "distinctly, in clear sequence." Physical meaning "composed of segments united by joints" in English is from c. 1600. The general sense of "speaking accurately" is short for articulate-speaking (1829). Related: Articulately.
articulated (adj.) Look up articulated at
"jointed," 1610s, past participle adjective from articulate (v.) in the sense "unite by means of joints." Earlier, "set forth in articles" (1550s). In reference to speech, 1704. Meaning "made distinct" is from 1855.
articulation (n.) Look up articulation at
early 15c., "a joint or joining; setting of bones," from Old French articulation, from Medieval Latin articulationem (nominative articulatio) "separation into joints," noun of action from past participle stem of articulare "to separate (meat) into joints," also "to utter distinctly," from articulus, diminutive of artus "joint" (see article). Meaning "the uttering of articulate sounds" is from 1610s.
artifact (n.) Look up artifact at
1821, artefact, "artificial production, anything made or modified by human art," from Italian artefatto, from Latin arte "by skill" (ablative of ars "art;" see art (n.)) + factum "thing made," from facere "to make, do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). The word is attested in German from 1791. The English spelling with -i- is attested by 1884, by influence of the Latin stem (as in artifice). Originally a word in anatomy to denote artificial conditions caused by operation, etc.; archaeological application in English dates from 1885 (in German from 1875).
artifactual (adj.) Look up artifactual at
also artefactual, "not natural, of the nature of an artifact," 1914, from artifact + -ual as in factual. Earlier artefact was used as an adjective (1909).
artifice (n.) Look up artifice at
1530s, "workmanship, the making of something by craft or skill," from Middle French artifice "skill, cunning" (14c.), from Latin artificium "a profession, trade, employment, craft; a making by art; a work of art," from artifex (genitive artificis) "craftsman, artist, master of an art" (music, acting, sculpting, etc.), from stem of ars "art" (see art (n.)) + facere "to make, do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Meaning "crafty device, trick" is from 1650s.
artificer (n.) Look up artificer at
late 14c., "one who makes by art or skill," agent noun from artifice. Especially an inventor of devious artifices (c. 1600). Military sense "soldier-mechanic" dates from 1758.
artificial (adj.) Look up artificial at
late 14c., "not natural or spontaneous," from Old French artificial, from Latin artificialis "of or belonging to art," from artificium "a work of art; skill; theory, system," from artifex (genitive artificis) "craftsman, artist, master of an art" (music, acting, sculpting, etc.), from stem of ars "art" (see art (n.)) + -fex "maker," from facere "to do, make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").

Earliest use in English is in the phrase artificial day "part of the day from sunrise to sunset" (as opposed to the natural day of 24 hours). Meaning "made by man, contrived by human skill and labor" is from early 15c. The word was applied from 16c. to anything made in imitation of, or as a substitute for, what is natural, whether real (light, tears) or not (teeth, flowers). Meaning "fictitious, assumed, not genuine" is from 1640s; that of "full of affectation, insincere" is from 1590s. Artificial insemination dates from 1894. Artificial intelligence "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines" was coined in 1956.
artificiality (n.) Look up artificiality at
1763; see artificial + -ity. Earlier was artificialness (1590s); Middle English had artificy (early 15c.).
artificiality (n. Look up artificiality at
artificially (adv.) Look up artificially at
early 15c.; see artificial + -ly (2).
artillerist (n.) Look up artillerist at
"person skilled in gunnery," 1778; see artillery + -ist. Artilleryman is from 1630s. Middle English had artiller "maker of arms" (mid-15c.), from Old French artiller.
artillery (n.) Look up artillery at
late 14c., "warlike munitions," especially ballistic engines, from Anglo-French artillerie, Old French artillerie (14c.), from artillier "to provide with engines of war" (13c.), which probably is from Medieval Latin articulum "art, skill," a diminutive of Latin ars (genitive artis) "art." But some would connect it to Latin articulum "joint," others to Latin apere "to attach, join," and still others to Old French atillier "to equip," altered by influence of arte.

Originally any engine for discharging missiles (catapults, slings, bows, etc.); modern restriction to "ordnance, large guns" is from 16c. Technically, "all firearms discharged from carriages," as opposed to small arms, discharged by hand. As a branch of the army, from 1786.
artisan (adj.) Look up artisan at
1859, from artisan (n.) or from adjectival use of the noun in French.
artisan (n.) Look up artisan at
1530s, "one skilled in any mechanical art, craftsman," from Italian artigiano, from Vulgar Latin artitianus, from Latin artitus "skilled," past participle of artire "to instruct in the arts," from ars (genitive artis) "art" (see art (n.)). Barnhart reports Middle French artisan, often given as the direct source of the English word, is attested too late to be so.
artist (n.) Look up artist at
1580s, "one who cultivates one of the fine arts," from Middle French artiste (14c.), from Italian artista, from Medieval Latin artista, from Latin ars (see art (n.)).

Originally especially of the arts presided over by the Muses (history, poetry, comedy, tragedy, music, dancing, astronomy), but also used 17c. for "one skilled in any art or craft" (including professors, surgeons, craftsmen, cooks). Since mid-18c. especially of "one who practices the arts of design or visual arts."
artiste (n.) Look up artiste at
"one skillful in some art not considered one of the fine arts," 1819 in English, from 1804 as a French word, from French artiste; a reborrowing of artist, at first in a foreign context, later used to fill the gap after the sense of artist had become limited toward the visual arts and especially painting.
Artiste: an admirable word (albeit somewhat Frenchified) of late applied, with nice discrimination, to every species of exhibitor, from a rope-dancer down to a mere painter or sculptor. On looking into little Entick (my great authority in these matters), I find we have already the word artist; but with stupid English perversity, we have hitherto used that in a much more restricted sense than its newly-imported rival, which it is becoming the excellent fashion to adopt. ["Paul Pry's Journal of a Residence at Little-Pedlington," Philadelphia, 1836]
artistic (adj.) Look up artistic at
1753, from French artistique, from artiste (see artist). Native artist-like was recorded from 1711; artistly from 1754; artistical from 1798. Related: Artistically.
artistry (n.) Look up artistry at
"artistic quality," 1837, from artist + -ry; as chemistry from chemist, etc.
artless (adj.) Look up artless at
1580s, "unskillful," from art (n.) + -less. Later also "uncultured, rude" (1590s); then "unartificial, natural" (1670s) and "guileless, ingenuous" (1713). Related: Artlessly; artlessness.
artsy (adj.) Look up artsy at
"pretentiously artistic," 1902, from arts (see art (n.)); originally artsy-craftsy, with reference to the arts and crafts movement; always more or less dismissive or pejorative; artsy-fartsy was in use by 1971.