barque (n.) Look up barque at Dictionary.com
variant of bark (n.2).
barrack (n.) Look up barrack at Dictionary.com
1680s, "temporary hut for soldiers during a siege," from French barraque, from Spanish barraca (mid-13c. in Medieval Latin) "soldier's tent," literally "cabin, hut," perhaps from barro "clay, mud," which is probably of Celt-Iberian origin. Meaning "permanent building for housing troops" (usually in plural) is attested from 1690s.
barracks (n.) Look up barracks at Dictionary.com
plural, and usual, form of barrack (q.v.).
barracuda (n.) Look up barracuda at Dictionary.com
1670s, from American Spanish barracuda, perhaps from a Carib word.
barrage (n.) Look up barrage at Dictionary.com
1859, "action of barring; man-made barrier in a stream," from French barrer "to stop," from barre "bar," from Old French barre (see bar (n.1)). Artillery sense is 1916, from World War I French phrase tir de barrage "barrier fire" intended to isolate the objective. As a verb by 1917. Related: Barraged; barraging.
barratry (n.) Look up barratry at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "sale of ecclesiastical or state offices," from Old French baraterie "deceit, guile, trickery," from barat "malpractice, fraud, deceit, trickery," which is of unknown origin, perhaps from Celtic. In marine law, "wrongful conduct by a ship's crew or officer, resulting in loss to owners," from 1620s. Meaning "offense of habitually starting legal suits" is from 1640s. Sense somewhat confused with that of Middle English baratri "combat, fighting" (c. 1400), from Old Norse baratta "fight, contest strife." This was an active word in Middle English, with forms such as baraten "to disturb the peace" (mid-15c.); baratour "inciter to riot, bully" (late 14c., mid-13c. as a surname). Barataria Bay, Louisiana, U.S., is from Spanish baratear "to cheat, deceive," cognate of the French word; the bay so called in reference to the difficulty of its entry passages.
barre Look up barre at Dictionary.com
1876, in reference to chords played on a guitar, etc., from French, literally "bar" (see bar (n.1)).
barrel (n.) Look up barrel at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, from Old French baril (12c.) "barrel, cask, vat," with cognates in all Romance languages (such as Italian barile, Spanish barril), but origin uncertain; perhaps from Gaulish, perhaps somehow related to bar (n.1). Meaning "metal tube of a gun" is from 1640s. Barrel roll in aeronautics is from 1927.
barrel (v.) Look up barrel at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "to put in barrels," from barrel (n.). Meaning "to move quickly" is 1930, American English slang, perhaps suggestive of a rolling barrel. Related: Barreled; barreling.
barrelful (n.) Look up barrelful at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from barrel (n.) + -ful.
barrelhouse (n.) Look up barrelhouse at Dictionary.com
"cheap saloon, often with an associated brothel," by 1875, American English, so called in reference to the barrels of beer or booze typically stacked along the wall. See barrel (n.) + house (n.).
Q. What was this place you rented? -- A. It was a room adjoining a barrel-house.
Q. What is a barrel house? -- A. It is a room where barrels of whisky are tapped, a very inferior kind of whisky, and the whisky is sold by the glassful right out of the barrel. It is a primitive coffee house. [Committee Report of the 43rd Congress, Select Committee on Conditions of the South, 1874-75]
barren (adj.) Look up barren at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, from Old French baraigne, baraing "sterile, barren" (12c.), perhaps originally brahain, of obscure derivation, perhaps from a Germanic language. In England, originally used of women, of land in France. Of land in English from late 14c. As a noun, mid-13c., "a barren woman;" later of land.
BARRENS. Elevated lands, or plains upon which grow small trees, but never timber. [Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1848]
barrenness (n.) Look up barrenness at Dictionary.com
late 14c., literal; mid-14c., figurative (of spiritual emptiness), from barren + -ness.
barret (n.) Look up barret at Dictionary.com
type of flat cap, 1828, from French barrette, cognate with Spanish birreta, Italian beretta (see biretta).
barrette (n.) Look up barrette at Dictionary.com
"bar clip for women's hair," 1901, from French barrette, diminutive of barre "bar" (see bar (n.1)).
barricade (v.) Look up barricade at Dictionary.com
1590s, from Middle French barricader "to barricade" (1550s), from barrique "barrel," from Spanish barrica "barrel," from baril (see barrel). Revolutionary associations began during 1588 Huguenot riots in Paris, when large barrels filled with earth and stones were set up in the streets. Related: Barricaded; barricading.
barricade (n.) Look up barricade at Dictionary.com
1640s, from barricade (v.). Earlier was barricado (1580s) with false Spanish ending (see -ado).
barrier (n.) Look up barrier at Dictionary.com
early 14c., barere, from Anglo-French barrere, Old French barriere "obstacle, gatekeeper," from barre "bar" (see bar (n.1)). First record of barrier reef is from 1805.
barring (n.) Look up barring at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "act of fastening with a bar," verbal noun from bar (v.). Meaning "exclusion" is from 1630s. As a preposition, "excepting, excluding," it is from late 15c. Schoolhouse prank of barring out the teacher was in use before 1728.
barrio (n.) Look up barrio at Dictionary.com
1841, "ward of a Spanish or Spanish-speaking city," sometimes also used of rural settlements, from Spanish barrio "district, suburb," from Arabic barriya "open country" (fem.), from barr "outside" (of the city). Main modern sense of "Spanish-speaking district in a U.S. city" is 1939; original reference is to Spanish Harlem in New York City.
barrister (n.) Look up barrister at Dictionary.com
1540s, "a student of law who has been called to the bar," from bar (n.3) in the legal sense + -ster. Also see attorney. The second element is obscure.
barroom (n.) Look up barroom at Dictionary.com
1797, from bar (n.2) + room (n.).
barrow (n.1) Look up barrow at Dictionary.com
"vehicle for carrying a load," c. 1300, barewe, probably from an unrecorded Old English *bearwe "basket, barrow," from beran "to bear, to carry" (see bear (v.)). The original had no wheel and required two persons to carry it.
barrow (n.2) Look up barrow at Dictionary.com
"mound," Old English beorg (West Saxon), berg (Anglian) "barrow, mountain, hill, mound," from Proto-Germanic *bergaz (source also of Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old High German berg "mountain," Old North bjarg "rock"), from PIE root *bhergh- (2) "high, elevated" (source also of Old Church Slavonic bregu "mountain, height;" Old Irish brigh "mountain;" Welsh bera "stack, pyramid;" Sanskrit b'rhant "high," brmhati "strengthens, elevates;" Avestan brzant- "high," Old Persian bard- "be high;" Greek Pergamos, name of the citadel of Troy). Obsolete except in place-names and southwest England dialect by 1400; revived by modern archaeology.
In place-names used of small continuously curving hills, smaller than a dun, with the summit typically occupied by a single farmstead or by a village church with the village beside the hill, and also of burial mounds. [Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names]
Meaning "mound erected over a grave" was a specific sense in late Old English. Barrow-wight first recorded 1869 in Eirikr Magnusson and William Morris's translation of the Icelandic saga of Grettir the Strong.
barstool (n.) Look up barstool at Dictionary.com
also bar-stool, bar stool, 1910, from bar (n.2) + stool.
bart. Look up bart. at Dictionary.com
abbreviation of baronet. Attested from c. 1771.
bartender (n.) Look up bartender at Dictionary.com
also bar-tender; 1836, American English, from bar (n.2) + agent noun of tend (v.2).
barter (v.) Look up barter at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., apparently from Old French barater "to barter, cheat, deceive, haggle" (also, "to have sexual intercourse"), 12c., which is of uncertain origin, perhaps from a Celtic language (compare Irish brath "treachery"). Connection between "trading" and "cheating" exists in several languages. Related: Bartered; bartering. The noun is first recorded 1590s, from the verb.
Bartholomew Look up Bartholomew at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, from Old French Barthelemieu, from Latin Bartholomæus, from Greek Bartholomaios, from Aramaic (Semitic) bar Talmay, literally "son of Talmai," from the proper name Talmai, "abounding in furrows." One of the 12 Apostles, his festival is Aug. 24. On this date in 1572 took place the massacre of Protestants in France. Bartholomew Fair was held annually from 1133 to 1855 at West Smithfield.
bas-relief (n.) Look up bas-relief at Dictionary.com
1660s, from French bas-relief, a loan-translation of Italian basso-rilievo "low relief, raised work."
basal (adj.) Look up basal at Dictionary.com
"relating to a base," 1828, from base (n.) + -al (1).
basalt (n.) Look up basalt at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from Late Latin basaltes, misspelling of Latin basanites "very hard stone," from Greek basanites "a species of slate used to test gold," from basanos "touchstone." Not connected with salt. Said by Pliny ["Historia," 36.58] to be an African word, perhaps Egyptian bauhan "slate." Any hard, very dark rock would do as a touchstone; the assayer compared the streak left by the alleged gold with that of real gold or baser metals. Hence Greek basanizein "to be put to the test, examined closely, cross-examined, to be put to torture."
base (adj.) Look up base at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "low, of little height," from Old French bas "low, lowly, mean," from Late Latin bassus "thick, stumpy, low" (used only as a cognomen in classical Latin, humilis being there the usual word for "low in stature or position"), possibly from Oscan, or Celtic, or related to Greek basson, comparative of bathys "deep." Figurative sense of "low in the moral scale" is first attested 1530s in English, earlier "servile" (1520s). Base metals (c. 1600) were worthless in contrast to noble or precious metals.
base (v.) Look up base at Dictionary.com
"to place on a foundation," 1841, from base (n.). Related: Based; basing.
base (n.) Look up base at Dictionary.com
"bottom, foundation, pedestal," early 14c., from Old French bas "depth" (12c.), from Latin basis "foundation," from Greek basis "step, pedestal," from bainein "to go, walk, step," from PIE root *gwā- "to go, to come" (see come). The military sense is from 1860. The chemical sense (1810) was introduced in French 1754 by French chemist Guillaume-François Rouelle (1703-1770). Sporting sense of "starting point" is from 1690s, also "destination of a runner" (1812). As a "safe" spot in a tag-like game, suggested from mid-15c. (as the name of the game later called prisoner's base).
baseball (n.) Look up baseball at Dictionary.com
in the modern sense, 1845, American English, from base (n.) + ball (n.1). Earlier references, such as in Jane Austen's "Northanger Abbey," refer to the game of "rounders," of which baseball is a more elaborate variety. Legendarily invented 1839 by Abner Doubleday in Cooperstown, N.Y. Base was used for "start or finish line of a race" from 1690s; and the sense of "safe spot" found in modern children's game of tag can be traced to 14c. (the sense in baseball is from 1868).
baseboard (n.) Look up baseboard at Dictionary.com
1854, from base (n.) + board (n.1).
Basel Look up Basel at Dictionary.com
city in northwestern Switzerland, founded 44 C.E. as Robur (from Latin roburetum "oak grove"); renamed 374 as Basilia (from Greek basilea "royal") when it became the "royal" fortress of Valentinian I.
baseless (adj.) Look up baseless at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from base (n.) + -less. Related: Baselessly; baselessness.
baseline (n.) Look up baseline at Dictionary.com
also base-line, 1750, originally in surveying, from base (n.) + line (n.). Baseball diamond sense is from 1867. Baseline estimate in use by 1983.
basement (n.) Look up basement at Dictionary.com
"lowest story of a building except the cellar," 1730, from base (v.) + -ment.
baseness (n.) Look up baseness at Dictionary.com
1550s, from base (adj.) + -ness.
bash (v.) Look up bash at Dictionary.com
"to strike violently," 1640s, perhaps of Scandinavian origin, from Old Norse *basca "to strike" (source also of Swedish basa "to baste, whip, flog, lash," Danish baske "to beat, strike, cudgel"); or the whole group might be independently derived and echoic. Figurative sense of "abuse verbally or in writing" is from 1948. Related: Bashed; bashing.
bash (n.) Look up bash at Dictionary.com
"a heavy blow," 1805, from bash (v.). Meaning "an attempt" is attested by 1948. On a bash "on a drunken spree" is slang from 1901, which gave the word its sense of "party."
bashaw (n.) Look up bashaw at Dictionary.com
1530s, earlier Englishing of pasha.
basher (n.) Look up basher at Dictionary.com
1882, agent noun from bash (v.).
bashful (adj.) Look up bashful at Dictionary.com
1540s, with -ful + baishen "to be filled with consternation or dismay" (mid-14c.), from Old French baissier "bring down, humiliate" (see abash). An unusual case of this suffix attached to a verbal stem in the passive sense. Related: Bashfully; bashfulness (1530s).
basic (adj.) Look up basic at Dictionary.com
1832, originally in chemistry, from base (n.) + -ic.
BASIC Look up BASIC at Dictionary.com
computer language, 1964, initialism (acronym) for Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; invented by Hungarian-born U.S. computer scientist John G. Kemeny (1926-1992) and U.S. computer scientist Thomas E. Kurtz (b.1928).
basically (adv.) Look up basically at Dictionary.com
1903, from basic (adj.) + -ly (2).