cartouche (n.) Look up cartouche at Dictionary.com
1610s, "scroll-like ornament," also "paper cartridge," from French cartouche, the French form of cartridge (q.v.). Application to Egyptian hieroglyphics dates from 1830, on resemblance to rolled paper cartridges.
cartridge (n.) Look up cartridge at Dictionary.com
1570s, cartage, corruption of French cartouche "a full charge for a pistol," originally wrapped in paper (16c.), from Italian cartoccio "roll of paper," an augmentative form of Medieval Latin carta "paper" (see card (n.)). The notion is of a roll of paper containing a charge for a firearm. The modern form of the English word is recorded from 1620s. Extended broadly 20c. to other small containers and their contents.
cartwheel (n.) Look up cartwheel at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "wheel of a cart," from cart (n.) + wheel (n.). Meaning "lateral somersault" is recorded from 1861; as a verb from 1907. Related: Cartwheeled; cartwheeling.
cartwright (n.) Look up cartwright at Dictionary.com
"carpenter who makes carts," early 15c. (late 13c. as a surname), from cart (n.) + wright (n.).
carve (v.) Look up carve at Dictionary.com
Old English ceorfan (class III strong verb; past tense cearf, past participle corfen) "to cut, cut down, slay; to carve, cut out, engrave," from West Germanic *kerfan (cognates: Old Frisian kerva, Middle Dutch and Dutch kerven, German kerben "to cut, notch"), from PIE root *gerbh- "to scratch," making carve the English cognate of Greek graphein "to write," originally "to scratch" on clay tablets with a stylus.

Once extensively used, most senses now usurped by cut (v.). Meaning specialized to sculpture, meat, etc., by 16c. Related: Carved; carving. Original strong conjugation has been abandoned, but archaic carven lingers.
carver (n.) Look up carver at Dictionary.com
late 14c. (late 13c. as a surname), "one who carves" (in some sense); agent noun from carve (v.). In a set of dining chairs, the one with the arms, usually at the head of the table, is the carver (1927), reserved for the one who carves.
carving (n.) Look up carving at Dictionary.com
c.1200, verbal noun from carve.
caryatid (n.) Look up caryatid at Dictionary.com
"carved female figure used as a column," 1560s, from Middle French cariatide, from Latin caryatides, from Greek Karyatides (singular Karyatis) "priestesses of Artemis at Caryae" (Greek Karyai), a town in Laconia where dance festivals were held in Artemis' temple. Male figures in a like situation are Atlantes, plural of Atlas.
casaba (n.) Look up casaba at Dictionary.com
1889, from Kasaba, old name of Turgutlu, in Aegean Turkey, whence the melons were imported to U.S. The old name is literally "the town."
Casablanca Look up Casablanca at Dictionary.com
city in Morocco, Spanish, literally "white house" (see casino, blank (adj.)).
Casanova (n.) Look up Casanova at Dictionary.com
"man of carnal adventures, connoisseur of seduction," 1888, from Giacomo Girolamo Casanova de Seignalt (1725-1798), the infamous debaucher. His name could be Englished as Jacob Jerome Newhouse, which is somewhat less romantic.
casbah (n.) Look up casbah at Dictionary.com
1738, from French casbah, from North African Arabic dialect kasba "fortress."
cascade (n.) Look up cascade at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French cascade (17c.), from Italian cascata "waterfall," from cascare "to fall," from Vulgar Latin *casicare, frequentative of Latin casum, casus, past participle of cadere "to fall" (see case (n.1)).
cascade (v.) Look up cascade at Dictionary.com
1702, from cascade (n.). In early 19c. slang, "to vomit." Related: Cascaded; cascading.
case (n.1) Look up case at Dictionary.com
early 13c., "what befalls one; state of affairs," from Old French cas "an event, happening, situation, quarrel, trial," from Latin casus "a chance, occasion, opportunity; accident, mishap," literally "a falling," from cas-, past participle stem of cadere "to fall, sink, settle down, decline, perish" (used widely: of the setting of heavenly bodies, the fall of Troy, suicides), from PIE root *kad- "to lay out, fall or make fall, yield, break up" (cognates: Sanskrit sad- "to fall down," Armenian chacnum "to fall, become low," perhaps also Middle Irish casar "hail, lightning"). The notion being "that which falls" as "that which happens" (compare befall).

Meaning "instance, example" is from c.1300. Meaning "actual state of affairs" is from c.1400. Given widespread extended and transferred senses in English in law (16c.), medicine (18c.), etc.; the grammatical sense (late 14c.) was in Latin. U.S. slang meaning "person" is from 1848. In case "in the event" is recorded from mid-14c. Case history is from 1879, originally medical; case study "study of a particular case" is from 1879, originally legal.
case (n.2) Look up case at Dictionary.com
"receptacle," early 14c., from Anglo-French and Old North French casse (Old French chasse "case, reliquary;" Modern French châsse), from Latin capsa "box, repository" (especially for books), from capere "to take, hold" (see capable).

Meaning "outer protective covering" is from late 14c. Also used from 1660s with a sense "frame" (as in staircase, casement). Artillery sense is from 1660s, from case-shot "small projectiles put in cases" (1620s). Its application in the printing trade (first recorded 1580s) to the two trays where compositors keep their types in separate compartments for easy access led to upper-case letter for a capital (1862) and lower-case for small letters.
"The cases, or receptacles, for the type, which are always in pairs, and termed the 'upper' and the 'lower,' are formed of two oblong wooden frames, divided into compartments or boxes of different dimensions, the upper case containing ninety-eight and the lower fifty-four. In the upper case are placed the capital, small capital, and accented letters, also figures, signs for reference to notes &c.; in the lower case the ordinary running letter, points for punctuation, spaces for separating the words, and quadrats for filling up the short lines." ["The Literary Gazette," Jan. 29, 1859]
case (v.) Look up case at Dictionary.com
"enclose in a case," 1570s, from case (n.2). Related: Cased; casing. Meaning "examine, inspect" (usually prior to robbing) is from 1915, American English slang, perhaps from the notion of giving a place a look on all sides (compare technical case (v.) "cover the outside of a building with a different material," 1707).
case-work (n.) Look up case-work at Dictionary.com
1896, from case (n.1) in the clinical sense + work (n.). Related: Case-worker (1909).
casein (n.) Look up casein at Dictionary.com
principal protein-constituent of milk, forming the basis of cheese, 1841, from French caséine, from Latin caseus "cheese" (see cheese (n.1)) + chemical suffix -ine (2).
casement (n.) Look up casement at Dictionary.com
type of hinged sash-window that swings open like doors, early 15c., "hollow molding," probably a shortening of Old French dialectal enchassement "window frame" (Modern French enchâssement), from en- "in," prefix forming verbs, + casse "case, frame" (see case (n.2)) + -ment. Or possibly from Anglo-Latin cassementum, from casse. The "window" sense is from 1550s in English. Old folk etymology tended to make it gazement.

The Irish surname is originally Mc Casmonde (attested from 1429), from Mac Asmundr, from Irish mac "son of" + Old Norse Asmundr "god protector."
caseous (adj.) Look up caseous at Dictionary.com
"cheese-like," 1660s, from Latin caseus "cheese" (see cheese (n.1)) + -ous.
cash (n.) Look up cash at Dictionary.com
1590s, "money box;" also "money in hand, coin," from Middle French caisse "money box" (16c.), from Provençal caissa or Italian cassa, from Latin capsa "box" (see case (n.2)); originally the money box, but the secondary sense of the money in it became sole meaning 18c. Cash crop is attested from 1831; cash flow from 1954; the mechanical cash register from 1878.

Like many financial terms in English (bankrupt, etc.), ultimately from Italian. Not related to (but influencing the form of) the colonial British cash "Indian monetary system, Chinese coin, etc.," which is from Tamil kasu, Sanskrit karsha, Sinhalese kasi.
cash (v.) Look up cash at Dictionary.com
"to convert to cash" (as a check, etc.), 1811, from cash (n.). Encash (1865) also was sometimes used. Related: Cashed; cashing.
cashew (n.) Look up cashew at Dictionary.com
1703, a shortening of French acajou, from older Portuguese acajú from Tupi (Brazil) acajuba, name of the tree that produces the nut.
cashier (n.) Look up cashier at Dictionary.com
"person in charge of money," 1590s, from Middle French caissier "treasurer," from caisse "money box" (see cash (n.)). The immediate source of the English word might be Middle Dutch kassier.
cashier (v.) Look up cashier at Dictionary.com
"dismiss," 1590s, from Middle Dutch casseren, kaseeren "to cast off, discharge," from French casser "to discharge, annul," from Late Latin cassare "annul," from Latin cassus "void, empty" (see caste (n.)). Related: Cashiered; cashiering.
cashmere (n.) Look up cashmere at Dictionary.com
1680s, "shawl made of cashmere wool," from the old spelling of Kashmir, Himalayan kingdom where wool was obtained from long-haired goats. As a name for this kind of woolen fabric, favored for shawls, etc., it is attested from 1822.
Casimir Look up Casimir at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, from Medieval Latin Casimirus from Polish Kazimierz, literally "proclaimer of peace," from kazać "to preach" + mir "peace" (see Mir).
casing (n.) Look up casing at Dictionary.com
1570s, "action of fitting with a case," verbal noun from case (v.). Meaning "a covering" is from 1839.
casino (n.) Look up casino at Dictionary.com
1744, "public room for music or dancing," from Italian casino, literally "a little house," diminutive of casa "house," from Latin casa "hut, cottage, cabin," of uncertain origin. The card game (also cassino) is attested by that name from 1792. Specifically as "building for aristocratic gambling" by 1820, first in an Italian context.
[T]he term Casino [is] indiscriminately applied to a set of farm offices, a country-seat, a gambling house, and a game of cards ... [Jane Waldie Watts, "Sketches Descriptive of Italy in the Years 1816 and 1817," London 1820]
cask (n.) Look up cask at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Middle French casque "cask; helmet," from Spanish casco "skull, cask, helmet," originally "potsherd," from cascar "to break up," from Vulgar Latin *quassicare, frequentative of Latin quassare "to shake, shatter" (see quash). The sense evolution is unclear.
casket (n.) Look up casket at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "small box for jewels, etc.," possibly a diminutive of English cask, or from a corruption of Middle French casset (see cassette). Meaning "coffin" is American English, probably euphemistic, attested by 1832.
Caskets! a vile modern phrase, which compels a person ... to shrink ... from the idea of being buried at all. [Hawthorne, "Our Old Home," 1863]
Caspian Look up Caspian at Dictionary.com
inland sea of central Asia, 1580s, from Latin Caspius, from Greek Kaspios, named for native people who lived on its shores (but who were said to be originally from the Caucasus), Latin Caspii, from a native self-designation, perhaps literally "white."
casque (n.) Look up casque at Dictionary.com
"armor for the head," 1570s, from French casque (see cask).
Cassandra Look up Cassandra at Dictionary.com
fem. proper name, from Greek Kasandra, Kassandra, daughter of Priam of Troy, seduced by Apollo who gave her the gift of prophecy, but when she betrayed him he amended it so that, though she spoke truth, none would believe her. Used figuratively since 1660s.

The name is of uncertain origin, though the second element looks like a fem. form of Greek andros "of man, male human being." Watkins suggests PIE *(s)kand- "to shine" as source of second element, hence possibly "praise of men."
cassation (n.) Look up cassation at Dictionary.com
"anullment," early 15c., from Old French cassation, from casser, from Late Latin cassare, from Latin quassare (see quash).
cassava (n.) Look up cassava at Dictionary.com
1560s, from French cassave, Spanish casabe, or Portuguese cassave, from Taino (Haiti) caçabi. Earlier in English as cazabbi (1550s).
casserole (n.) Look up casserole at Dictionary.com
1706, "stew pan," from French casserole "sauce pan" (16c.), diminutive of Middle French casse "pan" (14c.), from Provençal cassa "melting pan," from Medieval Latin cattia "pan, vessel," possibly from Greek kyathion, diminutive of kyathos "cup for the wine bowl." Originally the pan, since c.1930 also of the dishes cooked in it, via cookery phrases such as en casserole, à la casserole.
cassette (n.) Look up cassette at Dictionary.com
1793, "little box," from French cassette, from Middle French casset, diminutive of Old North French casse "box" (see case (n.2)). Meaning "magnetic tape recorder cartridge" is from 1960.
cassia (n.) Look up cassia at Dictionary.com
cinnamon-like plant, late Old English, from Latin cassia, from Greek kasia, from Hebrew q'tsi-ah "cassia," from qatsa "to cut off, strip off bark."
Cassiopeia (n.) Look up Cassiopeia at Dictionary.com
northern constellation, in Greek mythology queen of Ethiopia and mother of Andromeda, from Latinized form of Greek Kassiepeia, Kassiopeia, of unknown etymology. Related: Cassiopeian.
cassis (n.) Look up cassis at Dictionary.com
black currant liquor, 1907, from French cassis (16c.) "black currant," apparently from Latin cassia (see cassia). The modern liqueur dates from mid-19c.
Cassius Look up Cassius at Dictionary.com
Roman gens, one of the oldest families of Rome. The conspirator against Caesar was C. Cassius Longinus.
cassock (n.) Look up cassock at Dictionary.com
1540s, "long loose gown," from Middle French casaque "long coat" (16c.), probably ultimately from Turkish quzzak "nomad, adventurer," (the source of Cossack), from their typical riding coat. Or perhaps from Arabic kazagand, from Persian kazhagand "padded coat," from kazh "raw silk" + agand "stuffed." Chiefly a soldier's cloak 16c.-17c.; ecclesiastical use is from 1660s.
cassowary (n.) Look up cassowary at Dictionary.com
1610s, via French or Dutch, from Malay kasuari.
cast (v.) Look up cast at Dictionary.com
c.1200, "to throw, fling, hurl," from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse kasta "to throw" (cognate with Swedish kasta, Danish kaste, North Frisian kastin), of uncertain origin. Meaning "to form in a mold" is late 15c. In the sense of "warp, turn" it replaced Old English weorpan (see warp (v.)), and itself largely has been superseded now by throw, though cast still is used of fishing lines and glances. Meaning "calculate, find by reckoning; chart (a course)" is from c.1300.
cast (n.) Look up cast at Dictionary.com
mid-13c., "a throw, an act of throwing," from cast (v.). In early use especially of dice, hence figurative uses relating to fortune or fate. Meaning "that which is cast" is from c.1550s. Meaning "dash or shade of color" is from c.1600. The sense of "a throw" carried an idea of "the form the thing takes after it has been thrown," which led to widespread and varied meanings, such as "group of actors in a play" (1630s). OED finds 42 distinct noun meaning and 83 verbal ones, with many sub-definitions. Many of the figurative senses converged in a general meaning "sort, kind, style" (mid-17c.). A cast in the eye (early 14c.) preserves the older verbal sense of "warp, turn."
cast iron (n.) Look up cast iron at Dictionary.com
1660s, from cast (past participle adjective) "made by melting and being left to harden in a mold" (1530s), from past participle of cast (v.) in sense "to throw something in a particular way" (c.1300), especially "form metal into a shape by pouring it molten" (1510s). From 1690s as an adjective, cast-iron.
cast-off (n.) Look up cast-off at Dictionary.com
1741, from verbal phrase (c.1400), from cast (v.) + off (adv.). From 1746 as a past participle adjective.
castanet (n.) Look up castanet at Dictionary.com
usually castanets, 1640s, from French castagnette or directly from Spanish castañeta diminutive of castaña "chestnut," from Latin castanea (see chestnut).