celebrated (adj.)
"much-talked-about," 1660s, past participle adjective from celebrate (v.).
celebration (n.)
1520s, "honoring of a day or season by appropriate festivities," formed in English from celebrate, or else from Latin celebrationem (nominative celebratio) "numerous attendance" (especially upon a festival celebration), noun of action from past participle stem of celebrare. Meaning "performance of a religious ceremony" (especially the Eucharist) is from 1570s; that of "extolling in speeches, etc." is from 1670s.
celebratory (adj.)
1855, from celebrate + -ory.
celebrity (n.)
late 14c., "solemn rite or ceremony," from Old French celebrité "celebration" or directly from Latin celibritatem (nominative celebritas) "multitude, fame," from celeber "frequented, populous" (see celebrate). Meaning "condition of being famous" is from c.1600; that of "famous person" is from 1849.
When the old gods withdraw, the empty thrones cry out for a successor, and with good management, or even without management, almost any perishable bag of bones may be hoisted into the vacant seat. [E.R. Dodds, "The Greeks and the Irrational"]
celerity (n.)
late 15c., from Old French celeritee (14c., Modern French célérité), from Latin celeritatem (nominative celeritas) "swiftness," from celer "swift," from possible PIE root *kel- "to drive, set in swift motion" (cognates: Sanskrit carati "goes," Greek keles "fast horse or ship," keleuthos "journey, road," Lithuanian sulys "a gallop," Old High German scelo "stallion").
celery (n.)
1660s, from French céleri (17c., originally sceleri d'Italie), said by French sources to be from Italian (Lombard dialect) seleri (singular selero), from Late Latin selinon, from Greek selinon "parsley," of uncertain origin.
[O]ne day, in a weak and hungry moment, my roommate and I succumbed to a bit of larceny. A greengrocer's truck had parked down the street and was left unattended. We grabbed the first crate we could off the back. It turned out to be celery. For two days we ate nothing but celery and used up more calories chewing than we realized in energy. "Damn it," I said to my roommate, "What're we going to do? We can't starve." "That's funny," he replied. "I thought we could." [Chuck Jones, "Chuck Amuck," 1989]
Celeste
fem. proper name, from French céleste (11c.) "sky, heaven," from Latin caelestis "heavenly" (see celestial).
celestial (adj.)
late 14c., "pertaining to heaven," from Old French celestial "celestial, heavenly, sky-blue," from Latin caelestis "heavenly, pertaining to the sky," from caelum "heaven, sky; abode of the gods; climate," of uncertain origin; perhaps from PIE *kaid-slo-, perhaps from a root also found in Germanic and Baltic meaning "bright, clear" (compare Lithuanian skaidrus "shining, clear;" Old English hador, German heiter "clear, shining, cloudless," Old Norse heið "clear sky").

The Latin word is the source of the usual word for "sky" in most of the Romance languages, such as French ciel, Spanish cielo, Italian cielo. General sense of "heavenly, very delightful" in English is from early 15c.
Celia
fem. proper name, from Italian Celia, from Latin Caelia, fem. of Caelius, name of a Roman gens. Sheila is a variant.
celiac (adj.)
alternative spelling of coeliac (q.v.); also see oe.
celibacy (n.)
1660s, formed in English, with -cy + Latin caelibatus "state of being unmarried," from caelebs "unmarried," probably from PIE root *kaiwelo- "alone" + lib(h)s- "living."
celibate (n.)
1610s, "state of celibacy" (especially as mandated to clergy in the Catholic church) from French célibat (16c.), from Latin caelibatus (see celibacy). This was the only sense until early 19c. The adjective meaning "unmarried, sworn to remain single" is recorded from 1825. As a noun, one who is sworn to such a condition, from 1838.
cell (n.)
early 12c., "small monastery, subordinate monastery" (from Medieval Latin in this sense), later "small room for a monk or a nun in a monastic establishment; a hermit's dwelling" (c.1300), from Latin cella "small room, store room, hut," related to Latin celare "to hide, conceal."

The Latin word represents PIE root *kel- (2) "to cover, conceal" (cognates: Sanskrit cala "hut, house, hall;" Greek kalia "hut, nest," kalyptein "to cover," koleon "sheath," kelyphos "shell, husk;" Latin clam "secret;" Old Irish cuile "cellar," celim "hide," Middle Irish cul "defense, shelter;" Gothic hulistr "covering," Old English heolstor "lurking-hole, cave, covering," Gothic huljan "cover over," hulundi "hole," hilms "helmet," halja "hell," Old English hol "cave," holu "husk, pod").

Sense of monastic rooms extended to prison rooms (1722). Used in 14c., figuratively, of brain "compartments;" used in biology by 17c. of various cavities (wood structure, segments of fruit, bee combs), gradually focusing to the modern sense of "basic structure of living organisms" (which OED dates to 1845).

Electric battery sense is from 1828, based on original form. Meaning "small group of people working within a larger organization" is from 1925. Cell body is from 1851; cell division from 1846; cell membrane from 1837 (but cellular membrane is 1732); cell wall from 1842.
cellar (n.)
early 13c., "store room," from Anglo-French celer, Old French celier "cellar, underground passage" (12c., Modern French cellier), from Latin cellarium "pantry, storeroom," literally "group of cells;" which is either directly from cella (see cell), or from noun use of neuter of adjective cellarius "pertaining to a storeroom," from cella. The sense in late Middle English gradually shifted to "underground room." Cellar door attested by 1640s.
celled (adj.)
in compounds, "having cells" (of a certain number or type), from late 18c., from cell (n.).
cellist (n.)
1880, short for violoncellist on model of cello.
cello (n.)
1857, shortening of violoncello (q.v.).
cellophane (n.)
1912, trademark name for a flexible, transparent product made from regenerated cellulose, coined by the inventor, Swiss chemist Jacques E. Brandenberger (1872-1954), probably from cell(ulose) + o + phane, from Greek phainein "to appear" (see phantasm).
cellphone (n.)
also cell phone, 1984, short for cellular phone.
cellular (adj.)
1753, with reference to cellular tissue, from Modern Latin cellularis "of little cells," from cellula "little cell," diminutive of cella (see cell). Of mobile phone systems (in which the area served is divided into "cells" of a few square miles served by transmitters), 1977. Related: Cellularity.
cellulite (n.)
"lumpy, dimpled fat," 1968, from French cellulite, from cellule "a small cell" (16c., from Latin cellula "little cell," diminutive of cella; see cell) + -ite (see -ite (1)).
cellulitis (n.)
1832, from Latin cellula, diminutive of cella "cell" (see cell) + -itis.
celluloid (n.)
transparent plastic made from nitro-celluloses and camphor, 1871, trademark name (reg. U.S.), a hybrid coined by U.S. inventor John Wesley Hyatt (1837-1900) from cellulose + Greek-based suffix -oid. Used figuratively for "motion pictures" from 1934. Abbreviated form cell "sheet of celluloid" is from 1933 (see cel).
cellulose (n.)
1840, from French cellulose, coined c.1835 by French chemist Anselme Payen (1795-1871) and confirmed 1839, from noun use of adjective cellulose "consisting of cells," 18c., from Latin cellula (see cellulite) + -ose (see -ose (2)).
Celsius
1850, for Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744) inventor of the centigrade scale in 1742.
celt (n.)
"stone chisel," 1715, from a Latin ghost word (apparently a misprint of certe) in Job xix:24 in Vulgate: "stylo ferreo, et plumbi lamina, vel celte sculpantur in silice;" translated, probably correctly, in KJV as, "That they were graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock for ever." But assumed by others to be a genuine carving tool, partly because it was in the Bible, and thereafter adapted by archaeologists as a name for a class of prehistoric implements.
Celt (n.)
also Kelt, c.1600, from Latin Celta, singular of Celtae, from Greek Keltoi, Herodotus' word for the Gauls (who also were called Galatai). Used by the Romans of continental Gauls but apparently not of the British Celtic tribes. Originally in English in reference to ancient peoples; extention to their modern descendants is from mid-19c., from French usage.
Celt-Iberian (adj.)
also Celtiberian, c.1600, from Celt + Iberian.
Celtic (adj.)
also Keltic, 1650s, of archaeology or history, from French Celtique or Latin Celticus "pertaining to the Celts" (see Celt). In reference to languages, from 1707; of other qualities, 19c. The Boston basketball team was founded 1946. Celtic twilight is from Yeats's name for his collection of adapted Irish folk tales (1893).
cement (n.)
c.1300, from Old French ciment "cement, mortar, pitch," from Latin cæmenta "stone chips used for making mortar" (singular caementum), from caedere "to cut down, chop, beat, hew, fell, slay" (see -cide). The sense evolution from "small broken stones" to "powdered stones used in construction" took place before the word reached English.
cement (v.)
c.1400, from cement (n.) or Old French cimenter. Figurative use from c.1600. Related: Cemented; cementing.
cementation (n.)
1590s, from cement + -ation.
cemetery (n.)
late 14c., from Old French cimetiere "graveyard" (12c.), from Late Latin coemeterium, from Greek koimeterion "sleeping place, dormitory," from koiman "to put to sleep," keimai "I lie down," from PIE root *kei- "to lie, rest," also "bed, couch," hence secondary sense of "beloved, dear" (cognates: Greek keisthai "to lie, lie asleep," Old Church Slavonic semija "family, domestic servants," Lithuanian šeima "domestic servants," Lettish sieva "wife," Old English hiwan "members of a household," higid "measure of land," Latin cunae "a cradle," Sanskrit Sivah "propitious, gracious"). Early Christian writers were the first to use it for "burial ground," though the Greek word also had been anciently used in reference to the sleep of death. An Old English word for "cemetery" was licburg.
cenacle (n.)
c.1400, from Old French cenacle, variant of cenaille (14c., Modern French cénacle), from Latin cenaculum "dining room," from cena "mid-day meal, afternoon meal," literally "portion of food," from PIE *kert-sna-, from root *(s)ker- (1) "to cut" (see shear (v.)). Latin cenaculum was used in the Vulgate for the "upper room" where the Last Supper was eaten.
cenobite (n.)
also coenobite, "member of a communal religious order," 1630s, from Church Latin coenobita "a cloister brother," from coenobium "a convent," from Greek koinobion "life in community, monastery," from koinos "common" (see coeno-) + bios "life" (see bio-).
cenotaph (n.)
c.1600, from French cénotaphe (16c.), from Latin cenotaphium, from Greek kenotaphion, from kenos "empty" (see keno-) + taphos "tomb, burial, funeral," from PIE root *dhembh- "to bury."
Cenozoic (adj.)
1841, Cainozoic, from Latinized form of Greek kainos "new, fresh, recent, novel" (see recent) + zoon "animal" (see zoo). The era that began with the demise of the dinosaurs and the rise of "recent" species.
cense (v.)
"to perfume with burning incense," late 14c., a shortened form of incense. Related: Censed; censing.
censer (n.)
"vessel used for burning incense," mid-13c., from Old French censier, a shortened form of encensier, from encens "incense" (see incense (n.)).
censor (n.)
1530s, "Roman magistrate who took censuses and oversaw public morals," from Middle French censor and directly from Latin censor, from censere "to appraise, value, judge," from PIE root *kens- "speak solemnly, announce" (cognates: Sanskrit śamsati "recites, praises," śasa "song of praise").

There were two of them at a time in classical times, usually patricians, and they also had charge of public finances and public works. Transferred sense of "officious judge of morals and conduct" in English is from 1590s. Roman censor also had a transferred sense of "a severe judge; a rigid moralist; a censurer." Of books, plays (later films, etc.), 1640s. By the early decades of the 19c. the meaning of the English word had shaded into "state agent charged with suppression of speech or published matter deemed politically subversive." Related: Censorial.
censor (v.)
1833 of media, from censor (n.). Related: Censored; censoring.
censorious (adj.)
"fond of criticizing," 1530s, from Latin censorius "pertaining to a censor," also "rigid, severe," from censor (see censor (n.)). Related: Censoriously; censoriousness.
censorship (n.)
1590s, "office of a censor," from censor (n.) + -ship. Meaning "action of censoring" is from 1824.
censurable (adj.)
1630s, from censure + -able. Related: Censurability.
censure (n.)
late 14c., originally ecclesiastical, from Latin censura "judgment, opinion," also "office of a censor," from census, past participle of censere "appraise, estimate, assess" (see censor (n.)). General sense of "a finding of fault and an expression of condemnation" is from c.1600.
censure (v.)
1580s, from censure (n.) or else from French censurer, from censure (n.). Related: Censured; censuring.
Such men are so watchful to censure, that the have seldom much care to look for favourable interpretations of ambiguities, to set the general tenor of life against single failures, or to know how soon any slip of inadvertency has been expiated by sorrow and retractation; but let fly their fulminations, without mercy or prudence, against slight offences or casual temerities, against crimes never committed, or immediately repented. [Johnson, "Life of Sir Thomas Browne," 1756]
census (n.)
1610s, from Latin census "the enrollment of the names and property assessments of all Roman citizens," originally past participle of censere "to assess" (see censor (n.)). The modern census begins in the U.S., 1790., and Revolutionary France. Property for taxation was the primary purpose in Rome, hence Latin census also was used for "one's wealth, one's worth, wealthiness."
cent (n.)
late 14c., from Latin centum "hundred" (see hundred). Middle English meaning was "one hundred," but it shifted 17c. to "hundredth part" under influence of percent. Chosen in this sense in 1786 as a name for a U.S. currency unit by Continental Congress. The word first was suggested by Robert Morris in 1782 under a different currency plan. Before the cent, Revolutionary and colonial dollars were reckoned in ninetieths, based on the exchange rate of Pennsylvania money and Spanish coin.
centaur (n.)
late 14c., from Latin centaurus, from Greek Kentauros, origin disputed. In early Greek literature they were a savage, horse-riding tribe from Thessaly; later they were monsters half horse, half man. The southern constellation of Centaurus is attested in English from 1550s but was known by that name to the Romans and known as a centaur to the Greeks. It has often been confused since classical times with Sagittarius.
centaury (n.)
small plant with red flowers (now usually erythraea Centaureum), late 14c., from Medieval Latin centaurea, from Latin centaureum, from Greek kentaureion, from kentauros "centaur" (see centaur), so called according to Pliny because the plant's medicinal properties were discovered by Chiron the centaur.

German Tausendgüldenkraut is based on a mistranslation of the Latin word, as if from centum + aurum (the similarity might be the result of Roman folk etymology).