centaury (n.) Look up centaury at Dictionary.com
small plant with red flowers (now usually erythraea Centaureum), late 14c., from Medieval Latin centaurea, from Latin centaureum, from Greek kentaureion, from kentauros "centaur" (see centaur), so called according to Pliny because the plant's medicinal properties were discovered by Chiron the centaur.

German Tausendgüldenkraut is based on a mistranslation of the Latin word, as if from centum + aurum (the similarity might be the result of Roman folk etymology).
centenarian (n.) Look up centenarian at Dictionary.com
1805, "person 100 years old," from centenary + -ian. As an adjective, "pertaining to a person 100 years old," recorded from 1806.
centenary (adj.) Look up centenary at Dictionary.com
c.1600, "period of 100 years," from Latin centenarius "of a hundred, relating to a hundred," from centenai "a hundred each," from centum "hundred" (see hundred). As a noun, "100th anniversary," from 1788.
centennial (adj.) Look up centennial at Dictionary.com
1789, from Latin centum "one hundred" (see hundred) + ending from biennial. As a noun, "hundredth anniversary celebration," from 1876; the older noun is centenary.
center (n.) Look up center at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "middle point of a circle; point round which something revolves," from Old French centre (14c.), from Latin centrum "center," originally fixed point of the two points of a drafting compass, from Greek kentron "sharp point, goad, sting of a wasp," from kentein "stitch," from PIE root *kent- "to prick" (cognates: Breton kentr "a spur," Welsh cethr "nail," Old High German hantag "sharp, pointed").

Figuratively from 1680s. Meaning "the middle of anything" attested from 1590s. Spelling with -re popularized in Britain by Johnson's dictionary (following Bailey's), though -er is older and was used by Shakespeare, Milton, and Pope. Center of gravity is recorded from 1650s. Center of attention is from 1868.
center (v.) Look up center at Dictionary.com
1590s, "to concentrate at a center," from center (n.). Related: Centered; centering. Meaning "to rest as at a center" is from 1620s. Sports sense of "to hit toward the center" is from 1890. To be centered on is from 1713. In combinations, -centered is attested by 1958.
centerfield (n.) Look up centerfield at Dictionary.com
also center field, 1857 in baseball, from center (n.) + field (n.). Related: Center-fielder.
centerfold (n.) Look up centerfold at Dictionary.com
also center-fold, "fold-out center spread of a magazine or newspaper," 1950, from center (n.) + fold (n.2). "Playboy" debuted December 1953, and the word came to be used especially for illustrations of comely women, hence "woman who poses as a centerfold model" (by 1965).
centerpiece (n.) Look up centerpiece at Dictionary.com
also center-piece, 1800, from center + piece (n.). Figurative sense is recorded from 1937.
centi- Look up centi- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "one hundred" or "one hundredth part," used in English from c.1800, from the French metric system, from Latin centi-, comb. form of centum "one hundred" (see hundred).
centigrade (adj.) Look up centigrade at Dictionary.com
1799, from French; see centi- "hundred" + Latin gradus "degree" (see grade (n.)).
centigram (n.) Look up centigram at Dictionary.com
also centigramme, 1801, from French centigramme; see centi- + gram.
centiliter (n.) Look up centiliter at Dictionary.com
also centilitre, 1801, from French centilitre; see centi- + liter.
centillion (n.) Look up centillion at Dictionary.com
1846, from centi- + ending from million, etc. Compare French centillion (by 1841). Related: Centillionth.
centime (n.) Look up centime at Dictionary.com
1801, from French centime, from cent (see centi-) on analogy of décime (pars).
centimeter (n.) Look up centimeter at Dictionary.com
also centimetre, 1801, from French centimètre (18c.), coined from Latin centum "hundred" (see hundred) + French mètre (see meter (n.2)).
centipede (n.) Look up centipede at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French centipède, from Latin centipeda "many-footed insect," from centum "hundred" (see hundred) + pedis, genitive of pes "foot" (see foot (n.)).
central (adj.) Look up central at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French central or directly from Latin centralis "pertaining to a center," from centrum (see center (n.)). Centrally is attested perhaps as early as early 15c., which might imply a usage of central earlier than the attested date.

Slightly older is centric (1580s). As a U.S. colloquial noun for "central telephone exchange," first recorded 1889 (hence, "Hello, Central?"). Central processing unit attested from 1961. Central America is attested from 1826.
centrality (n.) Look up centrality at Dictionary.com
1640s; see central (adj.) + -ity.
centralization (n.) Look up centralization at Dictionary.com
1801, especially of administrative power, originally with reference to Napoleonic France and on model of French centralisation. See centralize + -ation.
centralize (v.) Look up centralize at Dictionary.com
1795, "to bring to a center;" 1800, "come to a center," from central + -ize, on model of French centraliser (1790). A word from the French Revolution. Related: Centralized; centralizing.
Government should have a central point throughout its whole periphery. The state of the monthly expences amounted to four hundred millions; but within these seven months, it is reduced to one hundred and eighty millions. Such is the effect of the centralization of government; and the more we centralize it, the more we shall find our expenses decrease. [Saint-Just, "Discourse on the State of the Finances"]
centre Look up centre at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of center (q.v.); for ending, see -re.
centrifugal (adj.) Look up centrifugal at Dictionary.com
1690s, with adjectival suffix -al (1) + Modern Latin centrifugus, 1687, coined by Sir Isaac Newton (who wrote in Latin) in "Principia" (which is written in Latin), from Latin centri- alternative comb. form of centrum "center" (see center (n.)) + fugere "to flee" (see fugitive). Centrifugal force is Newton's vis centrifuga.
centrifuge (n.) Look up centrifuge at Dictionary.com
1887, "a centrifuge machine," originally a machine for separating cream from milk, from French centrifuge, from noun use of adjective meaning "centrifugal" (1801), from Modern Latin centrifugus (see centrifugal).
centriole (n.) Look up centriole at Dictionary.com
1896, from German centriol (1895), from Modern Latin centriolum, diminutive of centrum (see center (n.)).
centripetal (adj.) Look up centripetal at Dictionary.com
1709, from Modern Latin, coined 1687 by Sir Isaac Newton (who wrote in Latin), from Latin centri- alternative comb. form of centrum "center" (see center (n.)) + petere "to make for, go to; seek, strive after" (see petition (n.)). Centripetal force is Newton's vim ... centripetam.
centrism (n.) Look up centrism at Dictionary.com
1935, from centre + -ism (also see centrist).
centrist (n.) Look up centrist at Dictionary.com
1872, from French centriste, from centre (see center (n.)). Originally in English with reference to French politics; general application to other political situations is from 1890.
Where M. St. Hilaire is seen to most advantage, however, is when quietly nursing one of that weak-kneed congregation who sit in the middle of the House, and call themselves "Centrists." A French Centrist is--exceptis eoccipiendis--a man who has never been able to make up his mind, nor is likely to. ["Men of the Third Republic," London, 1873]
centrosome (n.) Look up centrosome at Dictionary.com
1889, from German centrosoma (1888), coined by German zoologist Theodor Boveri (1862-1915), from centro- (see center (n.)) + -some (3)).
centurion (n.) Look up centurion at Dictionary.com
late 13c., from Latin centurionem (nominative centurio), "Roman army officer, head of a centuria" (a group of one hundred); see century.
century (n.) Look up century at Dictionary.com
1530s, "one hundred (of anything)," from Latin centuria "group of one hundred" of things of one kind (including a measure of land and a division of the Roman army, one-sixteenth of a legion, headed by a centurion), from centum "hundred" (see hundred) on analogy of decuria "a company of ten."

Used in Middle English from late 14c. as a division of land, from Roman use. The Modern English meaning is attested from 1650s, short for century of years (1620s). The older, general sense is preserved in the meaning "score of 100 points" in cricket and some other sports. Related: Centurial.
CEO (n.) Look up CEO at Dictionary.com
by 1984; abbreviation of chief executive officer.
cephalic (adj.) Look up cephalic at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to the head," early 15c., from Latin cephalicus, from Greek kephalikos "pertaining to the head," from kephale (see cephalo-).
cephalization (n.) Look up cephalization at Dictionary.com
1864, coined by U.S. zoologist James D. Dana (1813-1895) from Greek kephale "head" (see cephalo-) on model of specialization, etc.
cephalo- Look up cephalo- at Dictionary.com
before vowels, cephal-, word-forming element meaning "head, skull, brain," Modern Latin combining form of Greek kephale "head," perhaps from PIE *ghebh-el-.
cephalopod (n.) Look up cephalopod at Dictionary.com
1825, from French cephalopode, from Modern Latin Cephalopoda (the class name), from Greek kephale "head" (see cephalo-) + pod-, stem of pous "foot" (see foot (n.)).
cephalothorax (n.) Look up cephalothorax at Dictionary.com
1829, from cephalo- + thorax. Perhaps from French or German.
Cepheid (n.) Look up Cepheid at Dictionary.com
type of variable star, 1904, from Delta Cephi, the name of the first such star identified, which is in the dim northern constellation Cephus, named for Greek Kepheus, a mythical king. With -id.
ceraceous (adj.) Look up ceraceous at Dictionary.com
"waxy," 1738, from Latin cera "wax" (see cere (n.)) + -aceous.
ceramic (adj.) Look up ceramic at Dictionary.com
1850, keramic, from Greek keramikos, from keramos "potter's clay, pottery, tiles," perhaps from a pre-Hellenic word. Watkins suggests possible connection with Latin cremare "to burn," but Klein's sources are firmly against this. Spelling influenced by French céramique (1806). Related: ceramist (1855). Ceramics is attested from 1857.
cerato- Look up cerato- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "horn," from Latinized comb. form of Greek keras "horn" (see kerato-).
ceratosaurus (n.) Look up ceratosaurus at Dictionary.com
1884, from cerato- + -saurus.
Cerberus Look up Cerberus at Dictionary.com
"watch-dog guardian of Hades," late 14c., Latinized form of Greek Kerberos, of unknown origin, according to Klein perhaps cognate with Sanskrit karbarah, sabalah "spotted, speckled;" Sabalah was the name of one of the two dogs of Yama.
cere (n.) Look up cere at Dictionary.com
late 15c., from French cire "wax" (12c.), from Latin cera "wax, wax seal, wax writing tablet," related to Greek keros "beeswax," of unknown origin.
cereal (n.) Look up cereal at Dictionary.com
1832, "grass yielding edible grain," originally an adjective (1818) "having to do with edible grain," from French céréale (16c., "of Ceres;" 18c. in grain sense), from Latin Cerealis "of grain," originally "of Ceres," from Ceres, Italic goddess of agriculture, from PIE *ker-es-, from root *ker- (3) "to grow" (see crescent). The application to breakfast food cereal made from grain is American English, 1899.
cerebellum (n.) Look up cerebellum at Dictionary.com
1560s, from Latin cerebellum "a small brain," diminutive of cerebrum "brain" (see cerebral).
cerebral (adj.) Look up cerebral at Dictionary.com
1816, "pertaining to the brain," from French cérébral (16c.), from Latin cerebrum "the brain" (also "the understanding"), from PIE *keres-, from root *ker- (1) "top of the head" (see horn (n.)). Meaning "intellectual, clever" is from 1929. Cerebral palsy attested from 1824, originally a general term for cases of paralysis that seemed to be traceable to "a morbid state of the encephalon." Later used in a more specific sense from c.1860, based on the work of English surgeon Dr. William Little.
cerebration (n.) Look up cerebration at Dictionary.com
1853, coined by English physiologist Dr. William B. Carpenter (1813-1885) from Latin cerebrum "brain" (see cerebral) + -ation. Related: Cerebrate (v.); cerebrated.
cerebrovascular (adj.) Look up cerebrovascular at Dictionary.com
1935, from cerebro-, comb. form of Latin cerebrum (see cerebral) + vascular.
cerebrum (n.) Look up cerebrum at Dictionary.com
1610s, from Latin cerebrum "brain" (see cerebral).