chronicler (n.)
early 15c., agent noun from chronicle (v.).
chrono-
before vowels chron-, word-forming element meaning "time," from Latinized form of Greek khrono-, comb. form of khronos "time, a defined time, a lifetime, a season, a while," which is of uncertain origin.
chronograph (n.)
"precise time-measuring device," 1868, from chrono- "time" + -graph "instrument for recording; something written." Compare Greek khronographos "recording time and events" (adj.); "a chronicler" (n.).
chronological (adj.)
"arranged in order by time," 1610s, from chronology + -ical. Chronological order is attested by 1754. Related: Chronologic (1610s); chronologically.
chronology (n.)
1590s, from Middle French chronologie or directly from Modern Latin chronologia; see chrono- + -logy. Related: Chronologer (1570s).
chronometer (n.)
1735, from chrono- "time" + -meter. Related: Chronometric.
chrysalid (adj.)
"pertaining to a chrysalis," c.1810, see chrysalis. As a noun variant of chrysalis, 1620s, perhaps from Middle French chrysalide.
chrysalis (n.)
c.1600, from Latin chrysallis, from Greek khrysallis (genitive khrysallidos) "golden colored pupa of the butterfly," from khrysos "gold," perhaps of Semitic origin (compare Hebrew and Phoenician harutz "gold") + second element meaning something like "sheath." Seeking a plural, OED leans toward the classically correct chrysalides.
chrysanthemum (n.)
1550s, from Latin chrysanthemum, from Greek khrysanthemon "marigold," literally "golden flower," from khrysos "gold" (see chrysalis) + anthemon "a flower," from PIE *andh- "bloom" (see anther).
chryselephantine (adj.)
"overlaid with gold and ivory," 1816, probably via German, from Latinized form of Greek khryselephantinos, from khrysos "gold" (see chrysalis) + elephantinos "made of ivory," from elephans (genitive elephantos) "elephant; ivory" (see elephant).
Chrysler
U.S. automobile corporation, organized 1925 as Chrysler Corporation by Walter P. Chrysler (1875-1940) out of the old Maxwell Motor Co. (Maxwell produced a car named Chrysler in 1924). The name is a spelling variant of German Kreisler, perhaps related to kreisel "spinning top," but the sense connection is unclear.
chthonian (adj.)
1804, from Latinized form of Greek khthonios (see chthonic) + -an.
chthonic (adj.)
1882, with suffix -ic, from Greek khthonios "of the earth, in the earth," from khthon "the earth, solid surface of the earth" (mostly poetic) from PIE root *dhghem- (cognates: Greek khamai "on the ground," first element in chameleon; also Latin humus "earth, soil," humilis "low;" Lithuanian žeme, Old Church Slavonic zemlja "earth;" Sanskrit ksam- "earth" (opposed to "sky"); Old Irish du, genitive don "place," earlier "earth").
chub (n.)
type of river fish, mid-15c., chubbe, of unknown origin. In Europe, a kind of carp; in U.S., the black bass.
chubbiness (n.)
1805, from chubby + -ness.
chubby (adj.)
1610s, literally "resembling a chub," from chub, the short, thick type of fish + -y (2). Perhaps influenced by Old Norse kumba "log," kumben "stumpy."
ME chubbe ... was also used of a "lazy, spiritless fellow; a rustic, simpleton; dolt, fool" (1558), whilst Bailey has "Chub, a Jolt-head, a great-headed, full-cheeked Fellow," a description reminiscent of that of the chevin, another name for the chub ... Thus the nickname may have meant either "short and thick, dumpy like a chub," or "of the nature of a chub, dull and clownish." ["Dictionary of English Surnames"]
chuck (v.1)
"to throw," 1590s, variant of chock "give a blow under the chin" (1580s), possibly from French choquer "to shock, strike against," imitative (see shock (n.1)). Related: Chucked; chucking.
chuck (n.1)
"piece of wood or meat," 1670s, probably a variant of chock (n.) "block." "Chock and chuck appear to have been originally variants of the same word, which are now somewhat differentiated." Specifically of shoulder meat from early 18c. American English chuck wagon (1880) is from the meat sense.
chuck (n.2)
"slight blow under the chin," 1610s, from chuck (v.1). Meaning "a toss, a throw" is from 1862. Related: Chucked; chucking.
chuckle (v.)
1590s, frequentative of Middle English chukken "make a clucking noise" (late 14c.), of echoic origin. It originally meant "noisy laughter." Related: Chuckled; chuckling.
chuckle (n.)
1754, from chuckle (v.).
chucklehead (n.)
also chuckle-head, "blockhead, dolt," (18c.), with head (n.), the first element perhaps from chuck (n.1).
chuff
"pleased, happy," c.1860, British dialect, from obsolete chuff "swollen with fat" (1520s). A second British dialectal chuff has an opposite meaning, "displeased, gruff" (1832), from chuff "rude fellow," or, as Johnson has it, "a coarse, fat-headed, blunt clown" (mid-15c.), of unknown origin. Related: Chuffed.
chug (n.)
1866, echoic of a working steam engine. As a verb, from 1884. Related: Chugged; chugging. Drinking sense attested by 1940s (chug-a-lug), probably imitative of the sound of swallowing.
chukker (n.)
also chucker, "period in a polo game," 1898, from Hindi chakkar, from Sanskrit cakra "circle, wheel" (see chakra).
chum (n.1)
"friend," 1680s, originally university slang for "roommate," from alternative spelling of cham, short for chamber(mate); typical of the late-17c. fondness for clipped words. Among derived forms used 19c. were chumship; chummery "shared bachelor quarters," chummage "system of quartering more than one to a room."
chum (n.2)
"fish bait," 1857, perhaps from Scottish chum "food."
chummy (adj.)
1874, from chum (n.1) + -y (2). Related: Chumminess. Previously it was a noun, a common name for a chimney sweep, as a corruption of chinmey.
chump (n.)
1703, "short, thick lump of wood," akin to Old Norse kumba "block of wood." Meaning "blockhead" is first attested 1883. Chump change attested by 1950.
chunder (v.)
"vomit," 1950, Australian slang, of unknown origin.
chunk (n.)
"thick block" of something, 1690s, probably a nasalized variant of chuck (n.1) "cut of meat;" meaning "large amount" is 1883, American English.
chunk (v.)
"to throw," 1835, American English, from chunk (n.) or by similar mutation from chuck (v.1). Related: Chunked; chunking.
chunky (adj.)
"thickset," 1751, from chunk + -y (2). Originally U.S. colloquial. Related: Chunkiness.
Chunnel (n.)
1928, a blend of (English) Channel + tunnel (n.).
church (n.)
Old English cirice, circe "church, public place of worship; Christians collectively," from Proto-Germanic *kirika (cognates: Old Saxon kirika, Old Norse kirkja, Old Frisian zerke, Middle Dutch kerke, Dutch kerk, Old High German kirihha, German Kirche), probably [see note in OED] from Greek kyriake (oikia), kyriakon doma "Lord's (house)," from kyrios "ruler, lord," from PIE root *keue- "to swell" ("swollen," hence "strong, powerful"); see cumulus. Phonetic spelling from c.1200, established by 16c. For vowel evolution, see bury. As an adjective from 1570s.

Greek kyriakon (adj.) "of the Lord" was used of houses of Christian worship since c.300, especially in the East, though it was less common in this sense than ekklesia or basilike. An example of the direct Greek-to-Germanic progress of many Christian words, via the Goths; it probably was used by West Germanic people in their pre-Christian period.

Also picked up by Slavic, probably via Germanic (Old Church Slavonic criky, Russian cerkov). Finnish kirkko, Estonian kirrik are from Scandinavian. Romance and Celtic languages use variants of Latin ecclesia (such as French église, 11c.).

Church-bell was in late Old English. Church-goer is from 1680s. Church key is early 14c.; slang use for "can or bottle opener" is by 1954, probably originally U.S. college student slang. Church-mouse, proverbial in many languages for its poverty, is 1731 in English.
church (v.)
"to bring or lead to church," mid-14c., from church (n.). Related: Churched.
churchman (n.)
mid-13c., from church (n.) + man (n.).
churchyard (n.)
early 12c., from church + yard (n.1).
churl (n.)
Old English ceorl "peasant, freeman, man without rank," from Proto-Germanic *kerlaz, *karlaz (cognates: Old Frisian zerl "man, fellow," Middle Low German kerle, Dutch kerel "freeman of low degree," German Kerl "man, husband," Old Norse karl "old man, man").

It had various meaning in early Middle English, including "man of the common people," "a country man," "husbandman," "free peasant;" by 1300, it meant "bondman, villain," also "fellow of low birth or rude manners." For words for "common man" that acquire an insulting flavor over time, compare boor, villain. In this case, however, the same word also has come to mean "king" in many languages (such as Lithuanian karalius, Czech kral, Polish król) via Charlemagne.
churlish (adj.)
late Old English cierlisc "of or pertaining to churls," from churl + -ish. Meaning "deliberately rude" is late 14c. Related: Churlishly; churlishness.
churn (n.)
Old English cyrin, from Proto-Germanic *kernjon (cognates: Old Norse kirna, Swedish kärna, Danish kjerne, Dutch karn, Middle High German kern); probably akin to cyrnel "kernel" (see kernel) and describing the "grainy" appearance of churned cream.
churn (v.)
mid-15c., chyrnen, from churn (n.). Extended senses are from late 17c. Intransitive sense is from 1735. Related: Churned; churning. To churn out, of writing, is from 1902.
chute (n.1)
1725, American English, "fall of water" (earlier shoot, 1610s), from French chute "fall," from Old French cheoite "a fall," fem. past participle of cheoir "to fall," from Latin cadere (see case (n.1)). Meaning "inclined tube, trough" is from 1804; that of "narrow passage for cattle, etc." first recorded 1881. In North America, absorbing some senses of similar-sounding shoot (n.1).
chute (n.2)
short for parachute (n.), attested from 1920.
chutney (n.)
1813, from Hindi chatni.
chutzpah (n.)
also hutzpah, 1892, from Yiddish khutspe "impudence, gall." from Hebrew hutspah. The classic definition is that given by Leo Rosten: "that quality enshrined in a man who, having killed his mother and father, throws himself on the mercy of the court because he is an orphan."
chyle (n.)
1540s, from Late Latin chylus, from Greek khylos "juice" (of plants, animals, etc.), from stem of khein "to pour, gush forth," from PIE *ghus-mo-, from root *gheu- "to pour, pour a libation" (see found (v.2)). Compare also chyme.
chyme (n.)
early 15c., "bodily fluid;" c.1600 in specific sense of "mass of semi-liquid food in the stomach," from Latin chymus, from Greek khymos, nearly identical to khylos (see chyle) and meaning essentially the same thing. Differentiated by Galen, who used khymos for "juice in its natural or raw state," and khylos for "juice produced by digestion," hence the modern distinction.
CIA
U.S. civilian espionage agency, initialism (acronym) of Central Intelligence Agency, founded 1947 as successor to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS).
ciabatta (n.)
type of Italian bread, c.1990, from Italian ciabatta, literally "carpet slipper," so called for its shape; from the same source that produced French sabot, Spanish zapata (see sabotage (n.)).