colitis (n.) Look up colitis at
1860, from combining form of colon (n.2) + -itis "inflammation."
collaborate (v.) Look up collaborate at
1871, back-formation from collaborator. Given a bad sense in World War II. Related: Collaborated; collaborating.
collaboration (n.) Look up collaboration at
1860, from French collaboration, noun of action from Latin collaborare (see collaborate). In a bad sense, "tratorious cooperation with an occupying enemy," it is recorded from 1940; earliest references are to the Vichy Government of France.
collaborator (n.) Look up collaborator at
1802, from French collaborateur, from Latin collaboratus, past participle of collaborare "work with," from com- "with" (see com-) + labore "to work" (see labor (v.)).
collage (n.) Look up collage at
1919, from French collage "a pasting," from Old French coller "to glue," from Greek kolla "glue," a word of uncertain origin, perhaps Pre-Greek. Earliest reference is in Wyndham Lewis.
collagen (n.) Look up collagen at
structural protein of connective tissue, 1843, from French collagène, from Greek kolla "glue" + -gen "giving birth to" (see -gen).
collapsable (adj.) Look up collapsable at
1843, from collapse (v.) + -able.
collapse (n.) Look up collapse at
1801, from collapse (v.).
collapse (v.) Look up collapse at
1732, from Latin collapsus, past participle of collabi "fall together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + labi "to fall, slip" (see lapse (n.)). The adjective collapsed is attested from c. 1600, from Latin collapsus, and perhaps this suggested a verb. Related: Collapsing.
collapsible (adj.) Look up collapsible at
1875, alternative spelling of collapsable.
collar (v.) Look up collar at
1550s, "to grab (someone) by the collar or neck," from collar (n.). Meaning "to capture" is attested from 1610s. Related: Collared; collaring. As a past participle adjective, collared "wearing a collar" is from late 14c.
collar (n.) Look up collar at
c. 1300, "neck armor, gorget," from Old French coler "neck, collar" (12c., Modern French collier), from Latin collare "necklace, band or chain for the neck," from collum "the neck," from PIE *kwol-o- "neck" (source also of Old Norse and Middle Dutch hals "neck"), literally "that on which the head turns," from root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round." Late 14c. as "border at the neck of a garment."
collarbone (n.) Look up collarbone at
c. 1500, from collar (n.) + bone (n.).
collard (n.) Look up collard at
1755, American English, corruption of colewort (Middle English) "cabbage," later especially "kale, greens;" first element related to the cole in coleslaw; for second element, see wort.
collate (v.) Look up collate at
1610s, from Latin collatus, irregular past participle of conferre "to bring together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + latus "borne, carried" (see oblate (n.)), serving as past participle of ferre "to bear" (from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry"). Related: Collated; collating.
collateral (n.) Look up collateral at
16c., "colleague, associate," from collateral (adj.). Meaning "thing given as security" is from 1832, American English, from phrase collateral security (1720).
collateral (adj.) Look up collateral at
late 14c., "accompanying," also "descended from the same stock," from Old French collateral (13c.), from Medieval Latin collateralis "accompanying," literally "side by side," from assimilated form of Latin com "with, together" (see com-) + lateralis "of the side," from latus "a side" (see oblate (n.)). Literal sense of "parallel, along the side of" attested in English from mid-15c. Related: Collaterally.
collateral damage (n.) Look up collateral damage at
by 1873 in legal cases; in modern use, generally a euphemism for "the coincidental killing of civilians," U.S. coinage, c. 1968, at first generally with reference to nuclear weapons.
collation (n.) Look up collation at
late 14c., "act of bringing together," from Old French collation (13c.) "collation, comparison, discussion" (also "a light supper"), from Latin collationem (nominative collatio), noun of action from collatus, irregular past participle of conferre "to bring together" (see collate). The word has had many meanings over the centuries. As the title of a popular 5c. religious work by John Cassian, "Collation" was sometimes translated into Old English as Þurhtogenes.
colleague (n.) Look up colleague at
1530s, from Middle French collègue (16c.), from Latin collega "partner in office," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + leg-, stem of legare "to choose," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather." So, "one chosen to work with another," or "one chosen at the same time as another."
collect (v.) Look up collect at
early 15c. (transitive), from Old French collecter "to collect" (late 14c.), from Latin collectus, past participle of colligere "gather together," from com- "together" (see com-) + legere "to gather," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather." The intransitive sense is attested from 1794. Related: Collected; collecting. As an adjective meaning "paid by the recipient" it is attested from 1893, originally with reference to telegrams.
collectible (adj.) Look up collectible at
also collectable, 1650s, "that may be collected," from collect + -ible. Meaning "sought-after by collectors of relics, souveniers, etc." is recorded from 1888.
collectibles (n.) Look up collectibles at
also collectables, "things worth collecting," 1952, American English, from collectible.
collection (n.) Look up collection at
late 14c., "action of collecting," from Old French collection (14c.), from Latin collectionem (nominative collectio) "a gathering together," noun of action from colligere (see collect). Especially of money gathered for religious or charitable purposes from 1530s. Meaning "a group of objects viewed as a whole" is from c. 1400.
collective (adj.) Look up collective at
early 15c., from Middle French collectif, from Latin collectivus, from collectus, past participle of colligere "gather together," from com- "together" (see com-) + legere "to gather," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather."

As a noun, short for collective farm (in the USSR) it dates from 1925. collective farm first attested 1919 in translations of Lenin. Collective bargaining coined 1891 by Beatrice Webb; defined in U.S. 1935 by the Wagner Act. Collective noun is recorded from 1510s; collective security first attested 1934 in speech by Winston Churchill.
collectivism (n.) Look up collectivism at
1880, in socialist theory, from collective + -ism. Related: Collectivist (1882 as both noun and adjective); collectivization (1890).
collector (n.) Look up collector at
late 14c., "gatherer of taxes, etc.," from Anglo-French collectour "collector" (of money or taxes; Old French collector, Modern French collecteur), from Late Latin collector, agent noun from colligere (see collect). Fem. form collectress is attested from 1825.
Colleen Look up Colleen at
fem. proper name, from Irish cailin "girl," diminutive of caile "girl, woman."
college (n.) Look up college at
"body of scholars and students within a university," late 14c., from Old French college "collegiate body" (14c.), from Latin collegium "community, society, guild," literally "association of collegae," plural of collega "partner in office," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + leg-, stem of legare "to choose," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather." At first meaning any corporate group, the sense of "academic institution" attested from 1560s became the principal sense in 19c. via use at Oxford and Cambridge.
collegial (adj.) Look up collegial at
mid-14c., from Middle French collégial, from Latin collegialis, from collegium "community, society, guild," literally "association of collegae," plural of collega "partner in office," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + leg-, stem of legare "to choose," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather." Related: Collegially; collegiality.
collegian (n.) Look up collegian at
late 14c., from college + -ian.
collegiate (adj.) Look up collegiate at
mid-15c., from Latin collegiatus "member of a college or corporation," in Medieval Latin, "of or pertaining to a college," from collegium "community, society, guild" (see college).
collet (n.) Look up collet at
1520s, from French collet "little collar," diminutive of col "neck," from Latin collum "neck" (see collar (n.)).
collide (v.) Look up collide at
1620s, from Latin collidere "strike together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + laedere "to strike, injure by striking," which is of unknown origin. For Latin vowel change, see acquisition. Related: Collided; colliding.
collie (n.) Look up collie at
1650s, possibly from dialectal coaly "coal-black," the color of some breeds (compare colley, "sheep with black face and legs," attested from 1793; Middle English colfox, "coal-fox," a variety of fox with tail and both ears tipped with black; and colley, Somerset dialectal name for "blackbird"). Or from Scandinavian proper name Colle, which is known to have been applied to dogs in Middle English ("Ran Colle our dogge, and Talbot, and Gerlond" [Chaucer]); or perhaps a convergence of the two.
collier (n.) Look up collier at
late 13c., collere "charcoal maker and seller," agent noun from Middle English col (see coal). They were notorious for cheating their customers. Sense of "ship for hauling coal" is from 1620s.
colliery (n.) Look up colliery at
1630s, "coal mine," see collier + -y (1).
colligate (v.) Look up colligate at
1540s, from Latin colligatus, past participle of colligare "to bind together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + ligare "to bind" (see ligament). As a concept in logic, from 1837; in linguistics, from 1953. Related: Colligation.
collin (n.) Look up collin at
1882, from Greek kolla "glue" + chemical suffix -in (2).
collinear (adj.) Look up collinear at
1863, from col- + linear.
Collins (n.) Look up Collins at
"iced gin drink served in a tall glass" (called a Collins glass), 1940, American English; earlier Tom Collins (by 1878), of uncertain origin. Popular in early 1940s; bartending purists at the time denied it could be based on anything but gin. The surname (12c.) is from a masc. proper name, a diminutive of Col, itself a pet form of Nicholas.
collision (n.) Look up collision at
early 15c., from Middle French collision (15c.), from Latin collisionem (nominative collisio) "a dashing together," noun of action from collidere (see collide).
collocate (v.) Look up collocate at
1510s, from Latin collocatus, past participle of collocare "to arrange, place together, set in a place," from com- "together" (see com-) + locare "to place," from locus "a place" (see locus). Meaning "conference, consultation" is mid-14c. Related: collocated; collocating.
collocation (n.) Look up collocation at
mid-15c., from Latin collocationem (nominative collocatio), noun of action from past participle stem of collocare (see collocate). Linguistics sense is attested from 1940.
collogue (v.) Look up collogue at
1590s (implied in colloguing) "to flatter, curry favor," which is of unknown origin; perhaps from French colloque "conference, consultation" (16c., from Latin colloquium) and influenced by dialogue.
colloid (n.) Look up colloid at
1847, from French colloide (1845), from Greek kolla "glue" + -oeides "form" (see -oid).
colloidal (adj.) Look up colloidal at
1861, from colloid + -al (1).
colloquia (n.) Look up colloquia at
Latin plural of colloquium (q.v.).
colloquial (adj.) Look up colloquial at
"spoken," 1751, from colloquy "a conversation" + -al (1). Related: Colloquially.
colloquialism (n.) Look up colloquialism at
1810, "a colloquial word or phrase," from colloquial + -ism.