Crohn's disease Look up Crohn's disease at
1935, for U.S. pathologist B.B. Crohn (1884-1983), one of the team that wrote the article describing it in 1932.
croissant (n.) Look up croissant at
1899, see crescent.
cromlech (n.) Look up cromlech at
c. 1600, from Welsh, from crom, fem. of crwm "crooked, bent, concave" + llech "(flat) stone." Applied in Wales and Cornwall to what in Brittany is a dolmen; a cromlech there is a circle of standing stones.
crone (n.) Look up crone at
late 14c., from Anglo-French carogne, from Old North French carogne, term of abuse for a cantankerous or withered woman, literally "carrion," from Vulgar Latin *caronia (see carrion).
Cronus Look up Cronus at
from Greek Kronos, youngest of the first generation of Titans, and their leader; a name of uncertain origin but probably not related to Khronos, personification of time, except in folk-etymology.
crony (n.) Look up crony at
1660s, Cambridge student slang, probably from Greek khronios "long-lasting," from khronos "time" (see chrono-), and with a sense of "old friend," or "contemporary."
cronyism (n.) Look up cronyism at
1840, "friendship," from crony + -ism. Meaning "appointment of friends to important positions, regardless of ability" is originally American English, from c. 1950.
crook (n.) Look up crook at
early 13c., "hook-shaped instrument or weapon," from Old Norse krokr "hook, corner," cognate with Old High German kracho "hooked tool," of obscure origin but perhaps related to a widespread group of Germanic kr- words meaning "bent, hooked." Meaning "swindler" is American English, 1879, from crooked in figurative sense of "dishonest" (1708). Crook "dishonest trick" was in Middle English.
croon (v.) Look up croon at
c. 1400, originally Scottish, from Middle Dutch kronen "to lament, mourn," perhaps imitative. Originally "to bellow like a bull" as well as "to utter a low, murmuring sound" (mid-15c.). Popularized by Robert Burns. Sense evolved to "lament," then to "sing softly and sadly." Related: Crooned; crooning.
crooner (n.) Look up crooner at
type of popular singer, 1930, agent noun from croon.
crop (n.) Look up crop at
Old English cropp "bird's craw," also "head or top of a sprout or herb." The common notion is "protuberance." Cognate with Old High German kropf, Old Norse kroppr. Meaning "harvest product" is c. 1300, probably through the verbal meaning "cut off the top of a plant" (c. 1200).
crop (v.) Look up crop at
"cut off the top of a plant," c. 1200, from crop (n.). The general meaning of "to cut off" is mid-15c. Related: Cropped; cropping. Women's fashion crop top is attested from 1984.
croquet (n.) Look up croquet at
1858, from Northern French dialect croquet "hockey stick," from Old North French "shepherd's crook," from Old French croc (12c.), from Old Norse krokr "hook" (see crook). Game originated in Brittany, popularized in Ireland c. 1830, England c. 1850, where it was very popular until 1872.
croquette (n.) Look up croquette at
1706, from French croquette (17c.), from croquer "to crunch" (imitative) + diminutive suffix -ette.
cross (n.) Look up cross at
Old English cros "instrument of Christ's crucifixion; symbol of Christianity" (mid-10c.), from Old Irish cros, probably via Scandinavian, from Latin crux (accusative crucem, genitive crucis) "stake, cross" on which criminals were impaled or hanged (originally a tall, round pole); hence, figuratively, "torture, trouble, misery." The word is possibly of Phoenician origin. Replaced Old English rood.

Also from Latin crux are Italian croce, French croix, Spanish and Portuguese cruz, Dutch kruis, German Kreuz.

By c. 1200 as "ornamental likeness of the cross, something resembling or in the form of a cross; sign of the cross made with the right hand or with fingers." From mid-14c. as "small cross with a human figure attached; a crucifix;" late 14c. as "outdoor structure or monument in the form of a cross." Also late 14c. as "a cross formed by two lines drawn or cut on a surface; two lines intersecting at right angles; the shape of a cross without regard to religious signification." From late 12c. as a surname.

From c. 1200 in the figurative sense "the burden of a Christian; suffering; a trial or affliction; penance in Christ's name," from Matthew x.38, xvi.24, etc. Theological sense "crucifixion and death of Christ as a necessary part of his mission" is from late 14c.

As "a mixing of breeds in the production of animals" from 1760, hence broadly "a mixture of the characteristics of two different things." In pugilism, 1906, from the motion of the blow (1880s as a verb; cross-counter (n.) is from 1883).
cross (v.) Look up cross at
c. 1200, "make the sign of a cross," from cross (n.) and in part from French croiser. Sense of "to go across, pass from side to side of, pass over" is from c. 1400; that of "to cancel by drawing crossed lines over" is from mid-15c.

From late 14c. as "lie across; intersect;" also "place (two things) crosswise of each other; lay one thing across another." From early 15c. as "mark a cross on." Also in Middle English in now-archaic sense "crucify" (mid-14c.), hence, figuratively, crossed "carrying a cross of affliction or penance." Meaning "thwart, obstruct, hinder, oppose" is from 1550s; that of "cause to interbreed" is from 1754. In telegraphy, electricity, etc., in reference to accidental contact of two wires on different circuits or different parts of a circuit that allows part of the current to flow from one to the other, from 1884. Meaning "to cheat" is by 1823.

Cross my heart as a vow is from 1898. To cross over as euphemistic for "to die" is from 1930. To cross (someone's) path is from 1818. Of ideas, etc., to cross (someone's) mind is from 1768; the notion is of something entering the mind as if passing athwart it. Related: Crossed; crossing.
cross (adj.) Look up cross at
developed in early Modern English from the adverb (see cross (adv.)). Earliest sense is "falling athwart, lying athwart the main direction" (1520s). Meaning "intersecting, lying athwart each other" is from c. 1600.

Sense of "adverse, opposed, contrary, opposite" is from 1560s; of persons, "peevish, ill-tempered," from 1630s, probably from the earlier senses of "contrary, athwart," especially with reference to winds and sailing ships. A 19c. emphatic form was cross as two sticks (1807), punning on the verb.

Cross-purposes "contradictory intentions" is from 1660s. Cross-legged is from 1520s; cross-grained is from 1670s of wood; as "opposed in nature or temper" from 1640s.
cross (adv.) Look up cross at
c. 1400, "to the side," from on cros, variant of across.
cross- Look up cross- at
word-forming element typically representing cross as a verb, adverb, adjective, and in many words a confluence of them.
cross-beam (n.) Look up cross-beam at
c. 1400, from cross- + beam (n.).
cross-check (n.) Look up cross-check at
1903 in research and accounting, from the verbal phrase, from cross (adv.) + check (v.1). As a verb in hockey, from 1901. As a noun, 1968.
cross-country (adj.) Look up cross-country at
also cross country, crosscountry; 1767, of roads, from cross- + country, or short for across-country. Of flights, from 1909.
cross-dressing (n.) Look up cross-dressing at
also crossdressing, cross dressing, 1911, from cross- + dressing; a translation of German Transvestismus (see transvestite).
cross-examination (n.) Look up cross-examination at
also cross examination; 1827, "an examination of a witness by the other side, to 'check' the effects of previous questioning," from cross (adj.) + examination. Related: Cross-examine (1660s).
cross-eye Look up cross-eye at
also crosseye, 1770 (implied in cross-eyed), from cross- + eye (n.).
cross-fire (n.) Look up cross-fire at
also crossfire, 1763, from cross- + fire (n.).
cross-hair (n.) Look up cross-hair at
also crosshair, cross-hairs, 1755, of a telescope, 1780 in gunnery, from cross- + hair (n.). Also often in early 19c. spider-line, spider's-line (1819).
cross-over (n.) Look up cross-over at
also crossover, 1795, as a noun, a term in textiles, from the verbal phrase; see cross (v.) + over (adv.). From 1884 in railroading; from 1912 in biology. As a general adjective from 1893; specifically of musicians and genres from 1971.
cross-patch (n.) Look up cross-patch at
"peevish person," usually female, c. 1700, from cross (adj.) + patch (n.1) "piece."
cross-pollination (n.) Look up cross-pollination at
also cross pollination, 1882, from cross- + pollination.
cross-reference (n.) Look up cross-reference at
also crossreference, cross reference, 1834, from cross- + reference (n.). As a verb by 1902.
cross-section (n.) Look up cross-section at
also cross section, 1748, originally in engineering sketches, from cross (adj.) + section (n.). Figurative sense of "representative sample" is from 1903.
cross-stitch (n.) Look up cross-stitch at
1710, from cross- + stitch (n.). As a verb from 1794.
cross-street (n.) Look up cross-street at
1704, from cross- + street.
cross-walk (n.) Look up cross-walk at
also crosswalk, 1744 a type of garden path that crosses others; 1853 as "pedestrian crossing," from cross- + walk (n.).
cross-wind (n.) Look up cross-wind at
1725, from cross- + wind (n.1).
crossbar (n.) Look up crossbar at
mid-15c., from cross- + bar (n.1).
crossbow (n.) Look up crossbow at
mid-15c., from cross (n.) + bow (n.1).
crossing (n.) Look up crossing at
1530s, "a marking with a cross," verbal noun from cross (v.). From 1570s as "action of passing across;" 1630s as "place where (a river, a road, etc.) is crossed;" from 1690s as "intersection" (originally of streets). Meaning "action of crossing out by drawing crossed lines through" is from 1650s. Crossing-gate is from 1876.
crossly (adv.) Look up crossly at
"irritably," 1590s, from cross (adj.) + -ly (2).
crossroad (n.) Look up crossroad at
also cross-road, 1680s, from cross- + road. Figurative use from 1733.
crossroads (n.) Look up crossroads at
1795, in figurative sense of "a turning point, a moment of decision;" from crossroad. In U.S., used for "a crossroads and little more; small, dull town" by 1845.
crossword (n.) Look up crossword at
1925, short for crossword puzzle (q.v.).
crossword (adj.) Look up crossword at
January 1914, from cross (adj.) + word (n.). The first one ran in the "New York World" newspaper Dec. 21, 1913, but was called word-cross.
crotch (n.) Look up crotch at
1530s, original meaning "pitchfork," from Old North French croche "shepherd's crook," variant of croc "hook" (see crochet); meaning "region where the body forks" is 1590s.
crotchet (n.) Look up crotchet at
late 14c., "crocket," later "small hook" (early 15c.), from Old French crochet (pronounced "crotchet") "hook" (see crochet). As a surgical instrument, from 1750. Figurative use in musical notation is from mid-15c., from the shape of the notes. Meaning "whimsical fancy" is from 1570s; perhaps from the same mechanical image in crank; but other authorities link this sense to the musical notation one.
crotchety (adj.) Look up crotchety at
1825, from crotchet "whim or fancy" + -y (2). But the sense evolution is obscure.
crouch (v.) Look up crouch at
late 14c., probably from Old French crochir "become bent, crooked," from croche "hook" (see crochet). Related: Crouched; crouching. As a noun, from 1590s.
croup (n.) Look up croup at
"coughing illness," 1765, from obsolete verb croup "to cry hoarsely, croak" (1510s), probably echoic. This was the local name of the disease in southeastern Scotland, given wide currency by Dr. Francis Home (1719-1813) of Edinburgh in his 1765 article on it. Related: Croupy.
croupier (n.) Look up croupier at
"one who clears the winnings from the table in gambling," 1731, from French croupier (17c.), originally one who rides behind another, on the croup or "rump" of a horse (a word of Germanic origin); hence extended to any one who backs up another; a "second."