- dissimulation (n.)
- late 14c., from Old French dissimulation (12c.), from Latin dissimulationem (nominative dissimulatio) "a disguising, concealment," noun of action from past participle stem of dissimulare "make unlike, conceal, disguise," from dis- "completely" + simulare "pretend, assume, simulate" (see simulation).
- dissipate (v.)
- early 15c., from Latin dissipatus, past participle of dissipare "to spread abroad, scatter, disperse; squander, disintegrate," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + supare "to throw, scatter," from PIE *swep- "to throw, sling, cast" (cognates: Lithuanian supu "to swing, rock," Old Church Slavonic supo "to strew"). Related: Dissipated; dissipates; dissipating.
- dissipation (n.)
- early 15c., "act of scattering," from Latin dissipationem (nominative dissipatio), noun of action from past participle stem of dissipare (see dissipate). Meaning "intemperate mode of living" is from 1784.
- dissociate (v.)
- 1610s (implied in dissociated), from Latin dissociatus, past participle of dissociare "to separate from companionship, disunite, set at variance," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + sociare "to join," from socius "companion" (see social (adj.)). Attested from 1540s as a past participle adjective meaning "separated."
- dissociation (n.)
- 1610s, from French dissociation, from Latin dissociationem (nominative dissociatio), noun of action from past participle stem of dissociare (see dissociate).
- dissolute (adj.)
- late 14c., "loose, negligent, morally or religiously lax," from Latin dissolutus "loose, disconnected," past participle of dissolvere "loosen up" (see dissolve). A figurative use of the classical Latin word. Related: Dissolutely; dissoluteness.
- dissolution (n.)
- late 14c., "separation into parts," also "frivolity, moral laxness, dissolute living," from Old French dissolution (12c.) and directly from Latin dissolutionem (nominative dissolutio) "a dissolving, destroying, interruption, dissolution," noun of action from past participle stem of dissolvere (see dissolve).
- dissolve (v.)
- late 14c. (transitive and intransitive) "to break up" (of material substances), from Latin dissolvere "to loosen up, break apart," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + solvere "to loose, loosen" (see solve). Meaning "to disband" (an assembly) is early 15c. Related: Dissolved; dissolving.
- dissonance (n.)
- early 15c., "disagreement," from Middle French dissonance and directly from Late Latin dissonantia, from Latin dissonantem (see dissonant). Figurative use dates from 1875.
- dissonant (adj.)
- early 15c., from Middle French dissonant and directly from Latin dissonantem (nominative dissonans), present participle of dissonare "differ in sound," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + sonare "to sound" (see sonata).
- dissuade (v.)
- 1510s, from Middle French dissuader and directly from Latin dissuadere "to advise against, oppose by argument," from dis- "off, against" (see dis-) + suadere "to urge" (see suasion). Related: Dissuaded; dissuading.
- dissuasion (n.)
- early 15c., from Latin dissuasionem (nominative dissuasio) "an advice to the contrary," noun of action from past participle stem of dissuadere (see dissuade).
- distaff (n.)
- Old English distæf "stick that holds flax for spinning," from dis- "bunch of flax" (cognates: Middle Low German dise, Low German diesse "a bunch of flax on a distaff;" see bedizen) + stæf "stick, staff" (see staff).
A synonym in English for "the female sex, female authority in the family," since at least the late 1400s, probably because in the Middle Ages spinning was typically done by women. St. Distaff's Day was Jan. 7, when "women resumed their spinning and other ordinary employments after the holidays" [OED].
- distal (adj.)
- 1808, formed from distant + -al (1) on model of central, dorsal, ventral, etc.
- distance (v.)
- 1570s (transitive); 1640s (intransitive), from distance (n.). Related: Distanced; distancing.
- distance (n.)
- late 13c., "quarrel, estrangement, discord, strife," from Old French destance (13c.), from Latin distantia "a standing apart," from distantem (nominative distans) "standing apart, separate, distant," present participle of distare "stand apart," from dis- "apart, off" (see dis-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *stā- "to stand, set down, make or be firm" (see stet).
Meaning "remoteness, space between things or places" is late 14c. The figurative sense of "aloofness" is the same as in stand-offish. Phrase go the distance (1930s) seems to be originally from the prize ring, where the word meant "scheduled length of a bout."
- distant (adj.)
- late 14c., from Old French distant (14c.), from Latin distantem (nominative distans), present participle of distare "to stand apart, be remote" (see distance (n.)). Related: Distantly.
- distaste (n.)
- 1590s, from dis- + taste.
- distasteful (adj.)
- c. 1600, from distaste + -ful. Related: Distastefully; distastefulness.
- distelfink (n.)
- Pennsylvania Dutch ornamental bird design, from German Distelfink "goldfinch," literally "thistle-finch," from Old High German distilvinko, from distil "thistle" (see thistle) + Old High German finco "finch," from PIE *(s)ping- "sparrow, finch" (see finch). The bird so called because it feeds on thistle seeds. Compare Old French chardonel "goldfinch," from chardon "thistle."
- distemper (v.)
- mid-14c., "to disturb," from Old French destemprer, from Medieval Latin distemperare "vex, make ill," literally "upset the proper balance (of bodily humors)," from dis- "un-, not" (see dis-) + Latin temperare "mingle in the proper proportion" (see temper (v.)). Related: Distempered.
- distemper (n.)
- 1550s, from distemper (v.); in reference to a disease of dogs, from 1747.
- distend (v.)
- c. 1400, from Latin distendere "to swell or stretch out, extend," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + tendere "to stretch" (see tenet). Related: Distended; distending.
- distention (n.)
- also distension, early 15c., from Middle French distension and directly from Latin distensionem (nominative distensio, distentio), noun of action from past participle stem of distendere (see distend).
- distill (v.)
- also distil, late 14c., from Old French distiller (14c.), from Latin distillare "trickle down in minute drops," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + stillare "to drip, drop," from stilla "drop." Related: Distilled; distilling.
- distillate (n.)
- "product of distillation," 1864; see distill + -ate (1).
- distillation (n.)
- late 14c., "process of distilling," from Late Latin distillationem (nominative distillatio), noun of action from past participle stem of distillare (see distill). Meaning "product of distilling" is from 1590s.
- distiller (n.)
- 1570s, agent noun from distill.
- distillery (n.)
- 1670s, "act of distilling;" see distill + -ery. Meaning "place for distilling" is from 1759.
- distinct (adj.)
- late 14c., originally past participle of distincten (c. 1300) "to distinguish," from Old French distincter, from Latin distinctus, past participle of distinguere (see distinguish). Related: Distinctness.
- distinction (n.)
- c. 1200, "one of the parts into which something is divided;" mid-14c. as "action of distinguishing," from Old French distinction and directly from Latin distinctionem (nominative distinctio) "separation, distinction, discrimination," noun of action from past participle stem of distinguere (see distinguish). Meaning "distinctive nature or character" is late 14c. Meaning "excellence or eminence" (what distinguishes from others) is first recorded 1690s.
- distinctive (adj.)
- early 15c., from Old French distinctif and directly from Medieval Latin distinctivus, from Latin distinct-, past participle of distinguere (see distinguish). Meaning "markedly individual" is from 1580s. Related: Distinctively; distinctiveness.
- distinctly (adv.)
- late 14c., from distinct + -ly (2).
[D]istinctly, in the sense really quite, is the badge of the superior person indulgently recognizing unexpected merit in something that we are to understand is not quite worthy of his notice. [Fowler]
- distingue (adj.)
- "having an air of distinction," 1813 (in Byron), from French distingué, literally "distinguished," past participle of distinguer (see distinguish).
The girls I knew had sad and sullen gray faces
With distingué traces
That used to be there -- You could see where they'd been washed away
By too many through the day
Twelve o'clock tales.
["Lush Life," Billy Strayhorn, age 17]
- distinguish (v.)
- 1560s, from Middle French distinguiss-, stem of distinguer, or directly from Latin distinguere "to separate between, keep separate, mark off, distinguish," perhaps literally "separate by pricking," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + -stinguere "to prick" (compare extinguish and Latin instinguere "to incite, impel").
Watkins says "semantic transmission obscure;" the sense might be from "pricking out" as the old way to make punctuation in parchment or some literal image, but de Vaan derives the second element from a different PIE root meaning "to push, thrust."
The meanings of ex- and restinguere 'to extinguish' and distinguere seem quite distinct, but can be understood if the root meant 'to press' or 'push': ex-stinguere 'to put a fire out', re-stinguere 'to push back, suppress', and dis-stinguere 'to push apart [thence] distinguish, mark off ...."
The suffix -ish is due to the influence of many verbs in which it is the equivalent of Old French -iss-, ultimately from Latin inchoative suffix -iscere (this is also the case in extinguish, admonish, and astonish). Related: Distinguishing. The earlier form of the verb was distinguen (mid-14c.).
- distinguishable (adj.)
- 1590s; see distinguish + -able. Related: Distinguishably.
- distinguished (adj.)
- c. 1600, "separate," past participle adjective from distinguish. Sense of "famous, celebrated," recorded from 1714; meaning "having an air of distinction" is from 1748.
- distort (v.)
- 1580s, from Latin distortus, past participle of distorquere "to twist different ways, distort," from dis- "completely" + torquere "to twist" (see torque (n.)). Related: Distorted; distorting.
- distortion (n.)
- 1580s, "action of distorting," from Latin distortionem (nominative distortio), noun of action from past participle stem of distorquere (see distort). Figurative use (of words, etc.) from 1640s.
- distract (v.)
- mid-14c., "to draw asunder or apart, to turn aside" (literal and figurative), from Latin distractus, past participle of distrahere "draw in different directions," from dis- "away" (see dis-) + trahere "to draw" (see tract (n.1)).
Sense of "to throw into a state of mind in which one knows not how to act" is from 1580s. Related: Distracted; distracting; distractedly; distractedness.
- distraction (n.)
- mid-15c., "the drawing away of the mind," from Latin distractionem (nominative distractio) "a pulling apart, separating," noun of action from past participle stem of distrahere (see distract). Meaning "mental disturbance" (in driven to distraction, etc.) is c. 1600. Meaning "a thing or fact that distracts" is from 1610s.
- distraught (adj.)
- late 14c., alteration (Englishing) of earlier distract (perhaps by association with other past participle forms in -ght, such as caught, bought, brought), mid-14c., past participle of distracten "derange the intellect of, drive mad" (see distract).
- distress (v.)
- late 14c., from Old French destresser, from Vulgar Latin *districtiare (see distress (n.)). Related: Distressed; distressing.
- distress (n.)
- late 13c., "circumstance that causes anxiety or hardship," from Old French destresse, from Vulgar Latin *districtia "restraint, affliction, narrowness, distress," from Latin districtus, past participle of distringere "draw apart, hinder," also, in Medieval Latin "compel, coerce," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + stringere "draw tight, press together" (see strain (v.)). Meaning "anguish, suffering; grief" is from c. 1300.
- distressed (adj.)
- past participle adjective from distress. In reference to furniture, by 1940.
- distressful (adj.)
- 1590s, from distress + -ful. Related: Distressfully; distressfulness.
- distribute (v.)
- early 15c., "to deal out or apportion," from Latin distributus, past participle of distribuere "to divide, distribute" (see distribution). Related: Distributable; distributed; distributing.
- distribution (n.)
- mid-14c., from Old French distribution (13c.) and directly from Latin distributionem (nominative distributio) "a division, distribution," noun of action from past participle stem of distribuere "deal out in portions," from dis- "individually" + tribuere "assign, allot" (see tribute).
- distributive (adj.)
- mid-15c., from Middle French distributif, from Late Latin distributivus, from Latin distribut-, past participle stem of distribuere (see distribution). Related: Distributively.
- distributor (n.)
- 1520s, distributer (Latinized form is from 1570s), agent noun from Latin distribuere (see distribution). As a part in an internal combustion engine, from 1905.