energizer (n.)
1750, agent noun from energize.
energy (n.)
1590s, "force of expression," from Middle French énergie (16c.), from Late Latin energia, from Greek energeia "activity, operation," from energos "active, working," from en "at" (see en- (2)) + ergon "work, that which is wrought; business; action" (see organ).

Used by Aristotle with a sense of "force of expression;" broader meaning of "power" is first recorded in English 1660s. Scientific use is from 1807. Energy crisis first attested 1970.
enervate (v.)
c.1600, from Latin enervatus, past participle of enervare "to weaken" (see enervation). Related: Ennervated; ennervating.
enervation (n.)
early 15c., from Middle French énervation, from Late Latin enervationem (nominative enervatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin enervare "weaken," literally "cut the sinews of," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + nervus "sinew" (see nerve). Figurative sense is from 1550s.
enfant terrible (n.)
1851, French, literally "terrible child" (see infant + terrible). One whose unorthodox or shocking speech or manners embarrass his associates as a naughty child embarrasses his elders. French also has enfant gâté, "spoiled child," hence "person given excessive adulation."
enfeeble (v.)
mid-14c., from Old French enfeblir "become weak," from en- (see en- (1)) + feble (see feeble). Related: Enfeebled; enfeebling.
Enfield
type of rifle, 1854, named for government works in Enfield, Middlesex, England, where it was manufactured.
enfilade (n.)
1706, from French enfilade, from Old French enfiler (13c.) "to thread (a needle) on a string, pierce from end to end," from en- "put on" (see en- (1)) + fil "thread" (see file (v.)).

Used of rows of apartments and lines of trees before modern military sense came to predominate. As a verb from 1706. Related: Enfiladed; enfilading.
enfold (v.)
also infold, early 15c., from en- (1) "make, put in" + fold. Related: Enfolded; enfolding.
enforce (v.)
early 14c., "to drive by physical force;" mid-14c., "make an effort; strengthen a place; compel," from Old French enforcier or from en- (1) "make, put in" + force. Related: Enforced; enforcing.
enforceable (adj.)
1580s, from enforce + -able. Related: Enforceability.
enforcement (n.)
late 15c., from Old French enforcement "strengthening, fortification; rape, compulsion, coercion;" from enforcer; see enforce + -ment.
enforcer (n.)
1570s, agent noun from enforce. Meaning "intimidator" is from 1934, U.S. underworld slang.
enfranchise (v.)
early 15c., "to set free," from Old French enfranchiss-, present participle stem of enfranchir "to set or make free; grant a franchise to;" from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + franc "free" (see franchise).

Meaning "to admit to membership in a state" (generally with reference to voting privileges) is from 1680s. Related: Enfranchised; enfranchisement.
engage (v.)
early 15c., "to pledge," from Middle French engagier, from Old French en gage "under pledge," from en "make" + gage "pledge," through Frankish from Proto-Germanic *wadiare "pledge" (see wed).

It shows the common evolution of Germanic -w- to French -g-, as in Guillaume from Wilhelm). Meaning "attract the attention of" is from 1640s; that of "employ" is from 1640s, from notion of "binding as by a pledge." Specific sense of "promise to marry" is 1610s (implied in engaged).
engagement (n.)
c.1600, "formal promise," from engage + -ment. Meaning "battle, fight" is from 1660s; promise-of-marriage sense is from 1742; meaning "appointment" is from 1806.
engaging (adj.)
"interesting," 1650s (implied in engagingly), present participle adjective from engage.
engender (v.)
early 14c., "beget, procreate," from Old French engendrer (12c.) "engender, beget, bear; cause, bring about," from Latin ingenerare "to implant, engender, produce," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + generare "beget, create" (see generation). Meaning "cause, produce" is mid-14c. Related: Engendered; engendering.
engine (n.)
c.1300, "mechanical device," also "skill, craft," from Old French engin "skill, cleverness," also "trick, deceit, stratagem; war machine" (12c.), from Latin ingenium "inborn qualities, talent" (see ingenious). At first meaning a trick or device, or any machine (especially military); sense of "device that converts energy to mechanical power" is 18c., especially of steam engines.
engineer (n.)
early 14c., "constructor of military engines," from Old French engigneor, from Late Latin ingeniare (see engine); general sense of "inventor, designer" is recorded from early 15c.; civil sense, in reference to public works, is recorded from c.1600. Meaning "locomotive driver" is first attested 1832, American English. A "maker of engines" in ancient Greece was a mekhanopoios.
engineer (v.)
1843 (but see engineering), from engineer (n.). Figurative sense of "arrange, contrive" is attested from 1864, originally in a political context. Related: Engineered.
engineering (n.)
1680s, from engineer (n.). Meaning "work done by an engineer" is from 1720. As a field of study, attested from 1792. An earlier word was engineership (1640s); engineery was attempted in 1793, but it did not stick.
England (n.)
Old English Engla land, literally "the land of the Angles" (see English (n.1)), used alongside Angelcynn "the English race," which, with other forms, shows Anglo-Saxon persistence in thinking in terms of tribes before place. By late Old English times both words had come to be used with a clear sense of place; a Dane, Canute, is first to call himself "King of England." The loss of one of the duplicate syllables is a case of haplology.
English (n.1)
"people of England; the speech of England," Old English Englisc (contrasted to Denisc, Frencisce, etc.), from Engle (plural) "the Angles," the name of one of the Germanic groups that overran the island 5c., supposedly so-called because Angul, the land they inhabited on the Jutland coast, was shaped like a fish hook (see angle (n.)).

The term was used from earliest times without distinction for all the Germanic invaders -- Angles, Saxon, Jutes (Bede's gens Anglorum) -- and applied to their group of related languages by Alfred the Great. After 1066, of the population of England (as distinguished from Normans and French), a distinction which lasted only about a generation.

In pronunciation, "En-" has become "In-," but the older spelling has remained. Meaning "English language or literature as a subject at school" is from 1889. As an adjective, "of or belonging to England," from late 13c. Old English is from early 13c.
English (n.2)
"spin imparted to a ball" (as in billiards), 1860, from French anglé "angled" (see angle (n.)), which is similar to Anglais "English."
Englishman
Old English Engliscman, from English (n.1) + man (n.). Englishwoman is from c.1400. Englander "native of England" is from 1820; in some cases from German Engländer.
engorge (v.)
1510s, from French engorger "to obstruct, block, congest," Old French engorgier "to swallow, devour," from en- (see en- (1)) + gorge "throat" (see gorge (n.)). Probably originally in reference to hawks. Related: Engorged; engorging.
engorgement (n.)
1610s, from engorge + -ment.
engraft (v.)
1580s, from en- (1) + graft (v.). Related: Engrafted; engrafting.
engrain (v.)
late 14c., originally "(dye) in grain," from French phrase en graine, from graine "seed of a plant," also "cochineal" (the source of the dye was thought to be berries), thus "fast-dyed." Later associated with grain in the sense of "the fiber of a thing." Related: Engrained.
engrave (v.)
late 15c. (implied in ingraved), from en- (1) + obsolete verb grave "carve" (see grave (v.)). Related: Engraved; engraving.
engraver (n.)
1580s, agent noun from engrave.
engross (v.)
c.1400, "to buy up the whole stock of" (in Anglo-French from c.1300), from Old French en gros "in bulk, in a large quantity, at wholesale," as opposed to en detail. See gross.

Figurative sense of "absorb the whole attention" is first attested 1709. A parallel engross, meaning "to write (something) in large letters," is from Anglo-French engrosser, from Old French en gros "in large (letters)." Related: Engrossed; engrossing.
engulf (v.)
1550s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + gulf. Related: Engulfed; engulfing.
enhance (v.)
late 13c., anhaunsen "to raise, make higher," from Anglo-French enhauncer, probably from Old French enhaucier "make greater, make higher or louder; fatten, foster; raise in esteem," from Vulgar Latin *inaltiare, from Late Latin inaltare "raise, exalt," from altare "make high," from altus "high" (see old).

Meaning "raise in station, wealth, or fame" attested in English from c.1300. The -h- in Old French supposedly from influence of Frankish *hoh "high." Related: Enhanced; enhancing.
enhancement (n.)
1570s, from enhance + -ment.
enharmonic (adj.)
c.1600, from Late Latin enharmonicus, from Greek enharmonikos, from en (see en- (2)) + harmonikos (see harmonic).
ENIAC
acronym from "electronic numeral integrator and computer," device built 1946 at University of Pennsylvania by John W. Mauchly Jr., J. Presper Eckert Jr., and J.G. Brainerd. It cost $400,000, used 18,000 radio tubes, and was housed in a 30-foot-by-50-foot room.
Enid
fem. proper name, from Middle Welsh eneit, "purity," literally "soul," from PIE *ane-tyo-, from root *ane- "to breathe" (see animus).
enigma (n.)
1580s, earlier enigmate (mid-15c.), from Latin aenigma "riddle," from Greek ainigma (plural ainigmata), from ainissesthai "speak obscurely, speak in riddles," from ainos "fable, riddle," of unknown origin.
enigmatic (adj.)
1640s, from Late Latin aenigmaticus, from aenigmat-, stem of aenigma (see enigma). Enigmatical in the same sense is from 1570s. Related: Enigmatically.
enjambment (n.)
also enjambement, 1837, from French enjambement or from enjamb (c.1600), from French enjamber "to stride over," from en- (see en- (1)) + jambe "leg" (see jamb).
enjoin (v.)
early 13c., engoinen, from stem of Old French enjoindre (12c.) "impose (on), inflict; subject to; assign (to)," from Latin iniungere "to join, fasten, attach;" figuratively "to inflict, to attack, impose," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + iungere "to join" (see jugular). Related: Enjoined; enjoining.
enjoy (v.)
late 14c., "rejoice, be glad" (intransitive), from Old French enjoir "to give joy, rejoice, take delight in," from en- "make" (see en- (1)) + joir "enjoy," from Latin gaudere "rejoice" (see joy); Sense of "have the use or benefit of" first recorded early 15c. (replacing Old English brucan; see brook (v.)).

Meaning "take pleasure in" is mid-15c. In modern use it has a tendency to lose its connection with pleasure: newspaper photo captions say someone enjoys an ice cream cone, etc., when all she is doing is eating it, and Wright's "English Dialect Dictionary" (1900) reports widespread use in north and west England of the phrase to enjoy bad health for one who has ailments. Related: Enjoyed; enjoying; enjoys.
enjoyable (adj.)
1640s, "capable of being enjoyed," from enjoy + -able. Meaning "affording pleasure" is from 1744. Related: Enjoyably; enjoyableness.
enjoyment (n.)
1550s, from enjoy + -ment.
enkindle (v.)
1540s (literal), 1580s (figurative), from en- (1) + kindle. Related: Enkindled; enkindling.
enlace (v.)
late 14c., from Old French enlacer, from Late Latin *inlaciare, from in- + *lacius, from Latin laqueus "noose" (see lace (n.)). Related: Enlaced; enlacing.
enlarge (v.)
mid-14c., "grow fat, increase;" c.1400, "make larger," from Old French enlargier "to make large," from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + large (see large). Related: Enlarged; enlarging.
enlargement (n.)
1540s, from enlarge + -ment. Photographic sense is from 1866.