endospore (n.) Look up endospore at Dictionary.com
1859, perhaps from French, from endo- + spore.
endothermic (adj.) Look up endothermic at Dictionary.com
1866, from French endothermique; see endo- + thermal.
endow (v.) Look up endow at Dictionary.com
late 14c., indowen "provide an income for," from Anglo-French endover, from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + Old French douer "endow," from Latin dotare "bestow" (see dowry). Related: Endowed; endowing.
endowed (adj.) Look up endowed at Dictionary.com
1700, past participle adjective from endow.
endowment (n.) Look up endowment at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "action of endowing," from endow + -ment. Meaning "property with which an institution or person is endowed" is from 1590s; that of "gift, power, advantage" is early 17c.
endpoint (n.) Look up endpoint at Dictionary.com
also end-point, 1844, originally in geometry, later chemistry; from end (n.) + point (n.). General use by 1920s.
endue (v.) Look up endue at Dictionary.com
also indue, c.1400, "invest (with) some gift, quality, or power" (usually passive), from Old French enduire, induire "lead, drive, initiate, indoctrinate" (12c.) and directly from Latin inducere "to lead" (see induce). Related: Endued.
endurable (adj.) Look up endurable at Dictionary.com
c.1600, "able to endure," from endure + -able, or from French endurable. Meaning "able to be endured" is from 1744. Related: Endurably.
endurance (n.) Look up endurance at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "continued existence in time;" see endure + -ance. Meaning "ability to bear suffering, etc." is from 1660s.
endure (v.) Look up endure at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "to undergo or suffer" (especially without breaking); also "to continue in existence," from Old French endurer (12c.) "make hard, harden; bear, tolerate; keep up, maintain," from Latin indurare "make hard," in Late Latin "harden (the heart) against," from in- (see in- (2)) + durare "to harden," from durus "hard," from PIE *dru-ro-, from root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast" (see true).

Replaced the important Old English verb dreogan (past tense dreag, past participle drogen), which survives in dialectal dree. Related: Endured; endures.
enduring (adj.) Look up enduring at Dictionary.com
"lasting," 1530s, present participle adjective from endure.
Endymion Look up Endymion at Dictionary.com
beautiful youth, son of Jupiter and Calyce, beloved by Moon-goddess Selene, from Greek, perhaps literally "diver, plunger," from endyein "to enter into, sink into, plunge, dive," which was used in reference to the sun or stars setting into the sea. On this theory, he originally was a solar deity, a personification of the setting sun.
enema (n.) Look up enema at Dictionary.com
early 15c., via Medieval Latin, from Greek enema "injection," from enienai "to send in, inject," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + hienai "send" (cognate of Latin iacere; see jet (v.)).
enemy (n.) Look up enemy at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from Old French enemi (12c.), earlier inimi (9c.) "enemy, adversary, foe, demon, the Devil," from Latin inimicus "hostile, unfriendly; an enemy" (source of Italian nemico, Catalan enamic, Spanish enemigo, Portuguese inimigo), from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + amicus "friend" related to amare "to love" (see Amy).

Most words for "personal enemy" cover also "enemy in war," but certain languages have special terms for the latter, such as Greek polemioi (distinct from ekhthroi), Latin hostis, originally "stranger" (distinct from inimicus), Russian neprijatel' (distinct from vrag).

Russian vrag (Old Church Slavonic vragu) is cognate with Lithuanian vargas "misery" (see urge (v.)), and probably is related to Proto-Germanic *wargoz, source of Old Norse vargr "outlaw," hence "wolf;" Icelandic vargur "fox," Old English wearg "criminal, felon;" which likely were the inspirations for J.R.R. Tolkien's warg "a kind of large ferocious wolf" in "The Hobbit" (1937) and "Lord of the Rings." Related: Enemies.
energetic (adj.) Look up energetic at Dictionary.com
1650s, "powerful," from Greek energetikos "active," from energein "to work, act upon" (see energy). Of persons, "active," in English from 1796 (energetical is from c.1600).
energize (v.) Look up energize at Dictionary.com
1751; see energy + -ize. Related: Energized; energizing.
energizer (n.) Look up energizer at Dictionary.com
1750, agent noun from energize.
energy (n.) Look up energy at Dictionary.com
1590s, "force of expression," from Middle French énergie (16c.), from Late Latin energia, from Greek energeia "activity, operation," from energos "active, working," from en "at" (see en- (2)) + ergon "work, that which is wrought; business; action" (see organ).

Used by Aristotle with a sense of "force of expression;" broader meaning of "power" is first recorded in English 1660s. Scientific use is from 1807. Energy crisis first attested 1970.
enervate (v.) Look up enervate at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from Latin enervatus, past participle of enervare "to weaken" (see enervation). Related: Ennervated; ennervating.
enervation (n.) Look up enervation at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Middle French énervation, from Late Latin enervationem (nominative enervatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin enervare "weaken," literally "cut the sinews of," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + nervus "sinew" (see nerve). Figurative sense is from 1550s.
enfant terrible (n.) Look up enfant terrible at Dictionary.com
1851, French, literally "terrible child" (see infant + terrible). One whose unorthodox or shocking speech or manners embarrass his associates as a naughty child embarrasses his elders. French also has enfant gâté, "spoiled child," hence "person given excessive adulation."
enfeeble (v.) Look up enfeeble at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., from Old French enfeblir "become weak," from en- (see en- (1)) + feble (see feeble). Related: Enfeebled; enfeebling.
Enfield Look up Enfield at Dictionary.com
type of rifle, 1854, named for government works in Enfield, Middlesex, England, where it was manufactured.
enfilade (n.) Look up enfilade at Dictionary.com
1706, from French enfilade, from Old French enfiler (13c.) "to thread (a needle) on a string, pierce from end to end," from en- "put on" (see en- (1)) + fil "thread" (see file (v.)).

Used of rows of apartments and lines of trees before modern military sense came to predominate. As a verb from 1706. Related: Enfiladed; enfilading.
enfold (v.) Look up enfold at Dictionary.com
also infold, early 15c., from en- (1) "make, put in" + fold. Related: Enfolded; enfolding.
enforce (v.) Look up enforce at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "to drive by physical force;" mid-14c., "make an effort; strengthen a place; compel," from Old French enforcier or from en- (1) "make, put in" + force. Related: Enforced; enforcing.
enforceable (adj.) Look up enforceable at Dictionary.com
1580s, from enforce + -able. Related: Enforceability.
enforcement (n.) Look up enforcement at Dictionary.com
late 15c., from Old French enforcement "strengthening, fortification; rape, compulsion, coercion;" from enforcer; see enforce + -ment.
enforcer (n.) Look up enforcer at Dictionary.com
1570s, agent noun from enforce. Meaning "intimidator" is from 1934, U.S. underworld slang.
enfranchise (v.) Look up enfranchise at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "to set free," from Old French enfranchiss-, present participle stem of enfranchir "to set or make free; grant a franchise to;" from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + franc "free" (see franchise).

Meaning "to admit to membership in a state" (generally with reference to voting privileges) is from 1680s. Related: Enfranchised; enfranchisement.
engage (v.) Look up engage at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "to pledge," from Middle French engagier, from Old French en gage "under pledge," from en "make" + gage "pledge," through Frankish from Proto-Germanic *wadiare "pledge" (see wed).

It shows the common evolution of Germanic -w- to French -g-, as in Guillaume from Wilhelm). Meaning "attract the attention of" is from 1640s; that of "employ" is from 1640s, from notion of "binding as by a pledge." Specific sense of "promise to marry" is 1610s (implied in engaged).
engagement (n.) Look up engagement at Dictionary.com
c.1600, "formal promise," from engage + -ment. Meaning "battle, fight" is from 1660s; promise-of-marriage sense is from 1742; meaning "appointment" is from 1806.
engaging (adj.) Look up engaging at Dictionary.com
"interesting," 1650s (implied in engagingly), present participle adjective from engage.
engender (v.) Look up engender at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "beget, procreate," from Old French engendrer (12c.) "engender, beget, bear; cause, bring about," from Latin ingenerare "to implant, engender, produce," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + generare "beget, create" (see generation). Meaning "cause, produce" is mid-14c. Related: Engendered; engendering.
engine (n.) Look up engine at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "mechanical device," also "skill, craft," from Old French engin "skill, cleverness," also "trick, deceit, stratagem; war machine" (12c.), from Latin ingenium "inborn qualities, talent" (see ingenious). At first meaning a trick or device, or any machine (especially military); sense of "device that converts energy to mechanical power" is 18c., especially of steam engines.
engineer (n.) Look up engineer at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "constructor of military engines," from Old French engigneor, from Late Latin ingeniare (see engine); general sense of "inventor, designer" is recorded from early 15c.; civil sense, in reference to public works, is recorded from c.1600. Meaning "locomotive driver" is first attested 1832, American English. A "maker of engines" in ancient Greece was a mekhanopoios.
engineer (v.) Look up engineer at Dictionary.com
1843 (but see engineering), from engineer (n.). Figurative sense of "arrange, contrive" is attested from 1864, originally in a political context. Related: Engineered.
engineering (n.) Look up engineering at Dictionary.com
1680s, from engineer (n.). Meaning "work done by an engineer" is from 1720. As a field of study, attested from 1792. An earlier word was engineership (1640s); engineery was attempted in 1793, but it did not stick.
England (n.) Look up England at Dictionary.com
Old English Engla land, literally "the land of the Angles" (see English (n.1)), used alongside Angelcynn "the English race," which, with other forms, shows Anglo-Saxon persistence in thinking in terms of tribes before place. By late Old English times both words had come to be used with a clear sense of place; a Dane, Canute, is first to call himself "King of England." The loss of one of the duplicate syllables is a case of haplology.
English (n.1) Look up English at Dictionary.com
"people of England; the speech of England," Old English Englisc (contrasted to Denisc, Frencisce, etc.), from Engle (plural) "the Angles," the name of one of the Germanic groups that overran the island 5c., supposedly so-called because Angul, the land they inhabited on the Jutland coast, was shaped like a fish hook (see angle (n.)).

The term was used from earliest times without distinction for all the Germanic invaders -- Angles, Saxon, Jutes (Bede's gens Anglorum) -- and applied to their group of related languages by Alfred the Great. After 1066, of the population of England (as distinguished from Normans and French), a distinction which lasted only about a generation.

In pronunciation, "En-" has become "In-," but the older spelling has remained. Meaning "English language or literature as a subject at school" is from 1889. As an adjective, "of or belonging to England," from late 13c. Old English is from early 13c.
English (n.2) Look up English at Dictionary.com
"spin imparted to a ball" (as in billiards), 1860, from French anglé "angled" (see angle (n.)), which is similar to Anglais "English."
Englishman Look up Englishman at Dictionary.com
Old English Engliscman, from English (n.1) + man (n.). Englishwoman is from c.1400. Englander "native of England" is from 1820; in some cases from German Engländer.
engorge (v.) Look up engorge at Dictionary.com
1510s, from French engorger "to obstruct, block, congest," Old French engorgier "to swallow, devour," from en- (see en- (1)) + gorge "throat" (see gorge (n.)). Probably originally in reference to hawks. Related: Engorged; engorging.
engorgement (n.) Look up engorgement at Dictionary.com
1610s, from engorge + -ment.
engraft (v.) Look up engraft at Dictionary.com
1580s, from en- (1) + graft (v.). Related: Engrafted; engrafting.
engrain (v.) Look up engrain at Dictionary.com
late 14c., originally "(dye) in grain," from French phrase en graine, from graine "seed of a plant," also "cochineal" (the source of the dye was thought to be berries), thus "fast-dyed." Later associated with grain in the sense of "the fiber of a thing." Related: Engrained.
engrave (v.) Look up engrave at Dictionary.com
late 15c. (implied in ingraved), from en- (1) + obsolete verb grave "carve" (see grave (v.)). Related: Engraved; engraving.
engraver (n.) Look up engraver at Dictionary.com
1580s, agent noun from engrave.
engross (v.) Look up engross at Dictionary.com
c.1400, "to buy up the whole stock of" (in Anglo-French from c.1300), from Old French en gros "in bulk, in a large quantity, at wholesale," as opposed to en detail. See gross.

Figurative sense of "absorb the whole attention" is first attested 1709. A parallel engross, meaning "to write (something) in large letters," is from Anglo-French engrosser, from Old French en gros "in large (letters)." Related: Engrossed; engrossing.
engulf (v.) Look up engulf at Dictionary.com
1550s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + gulf. Related: Engulfed; engulfing.