environment (n.) Look up environment at Dictionary.com
c.1600, "state of being environed" (see environ + -ment); sense of "the aggregate of the conditions in which a person or thing lives" first recorded 1827 (used by Carlyle to render German Umgebung); specialized ecology sense first recorded 1956.
environmental (adj.) Look up environmental at Dictionary.com
1887, "environing, surrounding," from environment + -al (1). Ecological sense by 1967. Related: Environmentally (1884).
environmentalism (n.) Look up environmentalism at Dictionary.com
1923, as a psychological theory (in the nature vs. nurture debate), from environmental + -ism. The ecological sense is from 1972. Related: Environmentalist (n.), 1916 in the psychological sense, 1970 in the ecological sense.
environs (n.) Look up environs at Dictionary.com
"outskirts," 1660s, from French environs, plural of Old French environ "compass, circuit," from environ (adv.) "around, round about" (see environ).
envisage (v.) Look up envisage at Dictionary.com
1778, "look in the face of," from French envisager "look in the face of," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + visage "face" (see visage). Hence "to apprehend mentally, contemplate" (1837). Related: Envisaged; envisaging; envisagement.
envision (v.) Look up envision at Dictionary.com
1914, from en- (1) "make, put in" + vision (n.). Related: Envisioned; envisioning. Earlier (1827) is envision'd in sense "endowed with vision."
envoy (n.) Look up envoy at Dictionary.com
"messenger," 1660s, from French envoyé "messenger; a message; a sending; the postscript of a poem," literally "one sent" (12c.), noun use of past participle of envoyer "send," from Vulgar Latin *inviare "send on one's way," from Latin in "on" (see in- (2)) + via "road" (see via (adv.)). The same French word was borrowed in Middle English as envoi in the sense "stanza of a poem 'sending it off' to find readers" (late 14c.).
envy (n.) Look up envy at Dictionary.com
late 13c., from Old French envie "envy, jealousy, rivalry" (10c.), from Latin invidia "envy, jealousy" (source also of Spanish envidia, Portuguese inveja), from invidus "envious, having hatred or ill-will," from invidere "to envy, hate," earlier "look at (with malice), cast an evil eye upon," from in- "upon" (see in- (2)) + videre "to see" (see vision).
Jealousy is the malign feeling which is often had toward a rival, or possible rival, for the possession of that which we greatly desire, as in love or ambition. Envy is a similar feeling toward one, whether rival or not, who already possesses that which we greatly desire. Jealousy is enmity prompted by fear; envy is enmity prompted by covetousness. [Century Dictionary]
Similar formations in Avestan nipashnaka "envious," also "look at;" Old Church Slavonic zavideti "to envy," from videti "to see;" Lithuanian pavydeti "to envy," related to veizdeti "to see, to look at."
envy (v.) Look up envy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French envier "envy, be envious of," from envie (see envy (n.)). Related: Envied; envying.
enwind (v.) Look up enwind at Dictionary.com
also inwind, 1590s (implied in inwinding), from en- (1) + wind (v.). Related: Enwound; enwinding.
enwrap (v.) Look up enwrap at Dictionary.com
also inwrap, late 14c., from en- (1) "make, put in" + wrap (v.). Related: Enwrapped; enwrapping.
enzyme (n.) Look up enzyme at Dictionary.com
1881, as a biochemical term, from German Enzym, coined 1878 by German physiologist Wilhelm Kühne (1837-1900), from Modern Greek enzymos "leavened," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + zyme "leaven" (see zymurgy). Related: Enzymotic.
eo- Look up eo- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element, used from mid-19c. (first in Eocene) in compound words formed by earth-scientists, and meaning "characterized by the earliest appearance of," from Greek eos "dawn, morning, daybreak," also the name of the goddess of the morning, from PIE *aus- (1) "to shine," especially of the dawn (see aurora). Piltdown Man, before exposed as a fraud, was known as Eoanthropus.
Eocene (adj.) Look up Eocene at Dictionary.com
in reference to the second epoch of the Tertiary Period, 1831, from eo- "earliest" + Latinized form of Greek kainos "new" (see recent). Coined in English (along with Miocene and Pliocene) by the Rev. William Whewell (1794-1866), English polymath, and meant as "the dawn of the recent." As a noun from 1851.
Eohippus (n.) Look up Eohippus at Dictionary.com
oldest known genus of the horse family, about the size of a fox and first known from fossil remains found in New Mexico, 1879, Modern Latin, from eo- "earliest" + Greek hippos "horse" (see equine).
eolian (adj.) Look up eolian at Dictionary.com
see Aeolian.
eolithic (adj.) Look up eolithic at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to the early Stone Age," 1890, from French éolithique (1883), from eo- "earliest" (see eo-) + French lithique, as in néolithique (see neolithic). Related: eolith (1890).
eon (n.) Look up eon at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Late Latin aeon, from Greek aion "age, vital force; a period of existence, a lifetime, a generation; a long space of time," in plural, "eternity," from PIE root *aiw- "vital force, life, long life, eternity" (cognates: Sanskrit ayu "life," Avestan ayu "age," Latin aevum "space of time, eternity," Gothic aiws "age, eternity," Old Norse ævi "lifetime," German ewig "everlasting," Old English a "ever, always"). Related: Eonian; eonic.
EPA Look up EPA at Dictionary.com
initialism (acronym) for Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. federal agency proposed by President Richard Nixon and created in December 1970.
epact (n.) Look up epact at Dictionary.com
1550s, "a number attached to a year to show the number of days into the calendar moon on which the solar year begins;" 1580s, "number of days by which the solar year exceeds a lunar one of 12 moons;" from French épacte (12c.), from Late Latin epacta "an intercalary day," from Greek epakte (plural epaktai, in epaktai hemerai "intercalary days"), from fem. of epaktos "brought in, imported, alien," verbal adjective of epagein "to add, bring forward," also "intercalate," from epi "on" (see epi-) + agein "to bring, to lead" (see act (v.)). Related: Epactal.
epaulet (n.) Look up epaulet at Dictionary.com
also epaulette, "shoulder ornament on a uniform," 1783, from French épaulette "an epaulet" (16c.), diminutive of épaule "shoulder," from Old French espaule (12c.), from Latin spatula "flat piece of wood, splint," in Medieval Latin "shoulder blade," diminutive of spatha "broad wooden instrument, broad sword," from Greek spathe "a broad flat sword" (see spade (n.1)).
epee (n.) Look up epee at Dictionary.com
1889, from French épée, literally "sword" from Old French espe (9c., spede) "spear, lance," from Latin spatha (see epaulet).
epeiric (adj.) Look up epeiric at Dictionary.com
in reference to seas covering continental shelves, 1915, from Greek epeiros "mainland, land, continent," from PIE root *apero- "shore" (cognates: Old English ofer "bank, rim, shore," Old Frisian over "bank") + -ic.
As the term "continental deposits" in this sense is now ingrained in Geology, we can no longer use Dana's "continental seas" without raising a question in the mind as to what is meant when their deposits are considered. For this reason we propose here to use epeiric seas (meaning seas that lie upon the continents) for the bodies of water that lie within the continents in the downwarps of the continental masses. [Louis V. Pirsson, "A Text-Book of Geology," 1915]
epexegesis (n.) Look up epexegesis at Dictionary.com
"words added to convey more clearly the meaning intended," 1620s, from Modern Latin, from Greek epexegesis "a detailed account, explanation," from epi "in addition" (see epi-) + exegeisthai "to explain" (see exegesis). Related: Epexegetic; epexegetical.
ephah (n.) Look up ephah at Dictionary.com
Hebrew dry measure, probably of Egyptian origin (compare Coptic epi "measure").
ephebe (n.) Look up ephebe at Dictionary.com
"young man," 1690s, from Greek ephebos (see ephebic).
ephebic (adj.) Look up ephebic at Dictionary.com
1880, from Latinized form of Greek ephebikos "of or for an ephebe," from ephebos "one arrived at puberty, one of age 18-20," from epi "upon" (see epi-) + hebe "early manhood," from PIE *yegw-a- "power, youth, strength." In classical Athens, a youth of 18 underwent his dokimasia, had his hair cut off, and was enrolled as a citizen. His chief occupation for the next two years was garrison duty.
ephedra (n.) Look up ephedra at Dictionary.com
genus of low, branchy desert shrubs, 1914, from Modern Latin (1737) from Greek ephedra, a name given by Pliny to the horsetail, literally "sitting upon," from fem. of ephedros "sitting or seated upon; sitting at or near," from epi "on" (see epi-) + hedra "seat, base, chair; face of a geometric solid" (see sedentary). The reason for the name is not known.
ephedrine (n.) Look up ephedrine at Dictionary.com
1889, named 1887 by Japanese organic chemist Nagai Nagayoshi (1844-1929), from the plant ephedra, from which it was first extracted, + chemical suffix -ine (2).
ephemera (n.) Look up ephemera at Dictionary.com
late 14c., originally a medical term, from Medieval Latin ephemera (febris) "(fever) lasting a day," from fem. of ephemerus, from Greek ephemeros "daily, for the day," also "lasting or living only one day, short-lived," from epi "on" (see epi-) + hemerai, dative of hemera "day," from PIE *amer- "day." Sense extended 17c. to short-lived insects (Modern Latin ephemera musca) and flowers; general sense of "thing of transitory existence" is first attested 1751. Compare Greek ephemeroi "men," literally "creatures of a day."
ephemeral (adj.) Look up ephemeral at Dictionary.com
1560s; see ephemera + -al (1). Originally of diseases and lifespans, "lasting but one day;" extended sense of "transitory" is from 1630s. Related: Ephemerally; ephemerality.
ephemeris (n.) Look up ephemeris at Dictionary.com
table showing predicted positions of heavenly bodies, 1550s, Modern Latin, from Greek ephemeris "diary, journal, calendar," from ephemeros "daily" (see ephemera). The classical plural is ephemerides.
ephemeron (n.) Look up ephemeron at Dictionary.com
"insect which lives for a very short time in its winged state," 1620s, from Greek (zoon) ephemeron, neuter of adjective ephemeros "living but a day" (see ephemera). Figurative use by 1771.
Ephesians (n.) Look up Ephesians at Dictionary.com
New Testament epistle, late 14c., addressed to Christian residents of the Ionian Greek city of Ephesus, in what now is western Turkey.
Ephesus Look up Ephesus at Dictionary.com
Greek city in ancient Asia Minor, center of worship for Artemis, Latinized form of Greek Ephesos, traditionally derived from ephoros "overseer," in reference to its religious significance, but this might be folk etymology. Related: Ephesine.
ephialtes (n.) Look up ephialtes at Dictionary.com
nightmare or demon that causes nightmares, c.1600, from Greek Ephialtes, name of a demon supposed to cause nightmares; the ancient explanation is that it was from ephallesthai "to leap upon," which suits the sense, but OED finds "considerable" phonological difficulties with this.
ephod (n.) Look up ephod at Dictionary.com
Jewish priestly vestment, late 14c., from Hebrew ephod, from aphad "to put on."
ephor (n.) Look up ephor at Dictionary.com
Spartan magistrate, 1580s, from Greek ephoros "overseer," from epi- "over" (see epi-) + horan "to see," possibly from PIE root *wer- (4) "to perceive" (see ward (n.)).
Ephraim Look up Ephraim at Dictionary.com
masc. personal name, in Old Testament the younger son of Joseph, also the name of the tribe descended from him, and sometimes used figuratively for "Kingdom of Israel;" Greek form of Hebrew Ephrayim, a derivative of parah "was fruitful" (related to Aramaic pera "fruit").
epi- Look up epi- at Dictionary.com
before vowels reduced to ep-, before aspirated vowels eph-, word-forming element meaning "on, upon, above," also "in addition to; toward, among," from Greek epi "upon, at, close upon (in space or time), on the occasion of, in addition," from PIE *epi, *opi "near, at, against" (cognates: Sanskrit api "also, besides;" Avestan aipi "also, to, toward;" Armenian ev "also, and;" Latin ob "toward, against, in the way of;" Oscan op, Greek opi- "behind;" Hittite appizzis "younger;" Lithuanian ap- "about, near;" Old Church Slavonic ob "on"). A productive prefix in Greek; also used in modern scientific compounds (such as epicenter).
epic (adj.) Look up epic at Dictionary.com
1580s, "pertaining to or constituting a lengthy heroic poem," via Middle French épique or directly from Latin epicus, from Greek epikos, from epos "a word; a tale, story; promise, prophecy, proverb; poetry in heroic verse," from PIE *wekw- "to speak" (see voice (n.)). Extended sense of "grand, heroic" first recorded in English 1731. From 1706 as a noun in reference to an epic poem, "A long narrative told on a grand scale of time and place, featuring a larger-than-life protagonist and heroic actions" [Miller Williams, "Patterns of Poetry"]. Earlier as "an epic poet" (1630s).
epicene (adj.) Look up epicene at Dictionary.com
"belonging to or including both sexes," mid-15c., epycen, originally a grammatical term for nouns that may denote either gender, from Latin epicoenus "common," from Greek epikoinos "common to many, promiscuous," from epi "on" (see epi-) + koinos "common" (see coeno-). English has no need of it in its grammatical sense. Extended sense of "characteristic of both sexes" first recorded in English c.1600; that of "effeminate" is from 1630s.
epicenter (n.) Look up epicenter at Dictionary.com
1885 in seismology, "point on the earth's surface directly above the center or focus of an earthquake," from Modern Latin epicentrum (1879 in geological use); see epi- + center (n.). Related: Epicentral (1866).
epicentre (n.) Look up epicentre at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of epicenter; for spelling, see -re.
epicure (n.) Look up epicure at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "follower of Epicurus," from Latinized form of Greek Epicouros (341-270 B.C.E.), Athenian philosopher who taught that pleasure is the highest good and identified virtue as the greatest pleasure; the first lesson recalled, the second forgotten, and the name used pejoratively for "one who gives himself up to sensual pleasure" (1560s), especially "glutton, sybarite" (1774). Epicurus's school was opposed by the stoics, who first gave his name a reproachful sense. Non-pejorative meaning "one who cultivates refined taste in food and drink" is from 1580s.
epicurean (n.) Look up epicurean at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "follower of the philosophical system of Epicurus," from Old French Epicurien, or from epicure + -ian. From 1570s as "one devoted to pleasure." As an adjective, attested from 1580s in the philosophical sense and 1640s with the meaning "pleasure-loving."
epicureanism (n.) Look up epicureanism at Dictionary.com
1751, with reference to the philosophical system of Epicurus; 1847 in a general sense "attachment to or indulgence in luxurious habits," from epicurean + -ism. Earlier was epicurism (1570s).
epicureous (adj.) Look up epicureous at Dictionary.com
also epicurious, "epicurean," 1550s, an obsolete word from 16c.-17c., from Latin epicureus, from Greek epikoureios, from epikouros (see epicure).
epicycle (n.) Look up epicycle at Dictionary.com
"small circle moving on or around another circle," late 14c., from Late Latin epicyclus, from Greek epikyklos, from epi (see epi-) + kyklos (see cycle (n.)). Related: Epicyclic.
epidemic (adj.) Look up epidemic at Dictionary.com
c.1600, "common to or affecting a whole people," originally and usually, though not etymologically, in reference to diseases, from French épidémique, from épidemié "an epidemic disease," from Medieval Latin epidemia, from Greek epidemia "a stay in a place; prevalence of an epidemic disease" (especially the plague), from epi "among, upon" (see epi-) + demos "people, district" (see demotic).