estaminet (n.) Look up estaminet at
1814, from French, "a café in which smoking is allowed" (17c.), of unknown origin; some suggest a connection to French estamine, a type of open woolen fabric used for making sieves, etc., from Latin stamineus "made of thread." Or [Watkins] from Walloon stamen "post to which a cow is tied at a feeding trough," from Proto-Germanic *stamniz (see stem (n.)). For the excrescent e-, see e-.
estate (n.) Look up estate at
early 13c., "rank, standing, condition," from Anglo-French astat, Old French estat "state, position, condition, health, status, legal estate" (13c., Modern French état), from Latin status "state or condition, position, place; social position of the aristocracy," from PIE root *sta- "to stand" (see stet).

For the excrescent e-, see e-. Sense of "property" is late 14c., from that of "worldly prosperity;" specific application to "landed property" (usually of large extent) is first recorded in American English 1620s. A native word for this was Middle English ethel (Old English æðel) "ancestral land or estate, patrimony." Meaning "collective assets of a dead person or debtor" is from 1830.

The three estates (in Sweden and Aragon, four) conceived as orders in the body politic date from late 14c. In France, they are the clergy, nobles, and townsmen; in England, originally the clergy, barons, and commons, later Lords Spiritual, Lords Temporal, and commons. For Fourth Estate see four.
esteem (v.) Look up esteem at
mid-15c., from Old French estimer "to estimate, determine" (14c.), from Latin aestimare "to value, determine the value of, appraise," perhaps ultimately from *ais-temos "one who cuts copper," i.e. mints money (but de Vaan finds this "not very credible"). At first used as we would now use estimate; sense of "value, respect" is 1530s. Related: Esteemed; esteeming.
esteem (n.) Look up esteem at
(also steem, extyme), mid-14c., "account, value, worth," from French estime, from estimer (see esteem (v.)). Meaning "high regard" is from 1610s.
esteemed (adj.) Look up esteemed at
"held in high regard, respected, valued," 1540s, past participle adjective from esteem (v.).
Estella Look up Estella at
fem. proper name, Spanish, literally "star," from Latin stella (see star (n.)).
ester (n.) Look up ester at
compound formed by an acid joined to an alcohol, 1852, coined in German in 1848 by German chemist Leopold Gmelin (1788-1853), professor at Heidelberg. The name is "apparently a pure invention" [Flood], perhaps a contraction of or abstraction from Essigäther, the German name for ethyl acetate, from Essig "vinegar" + Äther "ether" (see ether). Essig is from Old High German ezzih, from a metathesis of Latin acetum (see vinegar).
Esth Look up Esth at
from German Esth; see Estonia.
Esther Look up Esther at
fem. proper name, Old Testament wife of the Persian king Ahasuerus, from Greek Esther, from Hebrew Ester, from Persian sitareh "star," related to Avestan star- (see star (n.)).
esthete (n.) Look up esthete at
alternative form of aesthete (q.v.). Also see æ.
esthetic (adj.) Look up esthetic at
alternative form of aesthetic (see aesthetic). Also see æ. Related: esthetical; esthetically; esthetician; esthetics.
Esthonia Look up Esthonia at
old alternative form of Estonia.
estimable (adj.) Look up estimable at
mid-15c., "capable of being estimated," from Old French estimable and directly from Latin aestimabilis "valuable, estimable," from aestimare (see esteem (v.)). Meaning "worthy of esteem" in English is from 1690s.
estimate (n.) Look up estimate at
1560s, "valuation," from Latin aestimatus "determine the value of," figuratively "to value, esteem," verbal noun from aestimare (see esteem (v.)). Earlier in sense "power of the mind" (mid-15c.). Meaning "approximate judgment" is from 1580s. As a builder's statement of projected costs, from 1796.
estimate (v.) Look up estimate at
1530s, "appraise the worth of," from Latin aestimatus, past participle of aestimare "to value, appraise" (see esteem (v.)). Meaning "form an approximate notion" is from 1660s. Related: Estimated; estimates; estimating.
estimation (n.) Look up estimation at
late 14c., "action of appraising; manner of judging; opinion," from Old French estimacion "evaluation, value; calculation, planning," from Latin aestimationem (nominative aestimatio) "a valuation," from past participle stem of aestimare "to value" (see esteem (v.)). Meaning "appreciation" is from 1520s. That of "process of forming an approximate notion" is from c. 1400.
estimator (n.) Look up estimator at
1660s, from Latin aestimator, agent noun from aestimare "to value" (see esteem (v.)).
estivate (v.) Look up estivate at
"to spend the summer," 1650s, from Latin aestivatus, past participle of aestivare "to spend the summer," from aestus "heat," aestas "summer," literally "the hot season," from Proto-Italic *aissat-, from PIE *aidh- "to burn" (see edifice). Related: Estivated; estivating; estivation.
Estonia Look up Estonia at
often said to be from a Germanic source akin to east, but perhaps rather from a native name meaning "waterside dwellers." Related: Estonian.
estop (v.) Look up estop at
in law, "to bar, prevent, preclude," 1530s, from Anglo-French estopper "to stop, bar, hinder" (especially in a legal sense, by one's own prior act or declaration), from Old French estoper "plug, stop up, block; prevent, halt" (also in obscene usage), from estope "tow, oakum," from Latin stuppa "tow" (used as a plug); see stop (v.).
estoppel (n.) Look up estoppel at
1530s, from estop, or from Old French estopail "bung, cork," from estoper.
estrange (v.) Look up estrange at
late 15c., from Middle French estrangier "to alienate," from Vulgar Latin *extraneare "to treat as a stranger," from Latin extraneus "foreign, from without" (see strange). Related: Estranged.
estrangement (n.) Look up estrangement at
1650s, from estrange + -ment.
estrogen (n.) Look up estrogen at
coined 1927 from comb. form of estrus + -gen. So called for the hormone's ability to produce estrus.
estrus (n.) Look up estrus at
1850, "frenzied passion," from Latin oestrus "frenzy, gadfly," from Greek oistros "gadfly; breeze; sting; anything which makes one mad, mad impulse," perhaps from a PIE *eis- (1), forming words denoting passion (see ire). First attested 1890 with specific meaning "rut in animals, sexual heat." Earliest use in English (1690s) was for "a gadfly." Related: Estrous (1900).
estuarine (adj.) Look up estuarine at
1835, from estuary on model of marine (adj.); see -ine (1).
estuary (n.) Look up estuary at
1530s, from Latin aestuarium "a tidal marsh, mudbeds covered by water at high tides; channel inland from the sea," from aestus "boiling (of the sea), tide, heat," from PIE *aidh- "to burn" (see edifice).
esurient (adj.) Look up esurient at
"inclined to eat," 1670s, from Latin esurientem (nominative esuriens), present participle of esurire "be hungry, hunger, desire to eat," from stem of edere "to eat" (see edible). Related: Esurience; esuriency.
et al. Look up et al. at
also et al, 1883, abbreviation of Latin et alii (masc.), et aliæ (fem.), or et alia (neuter), in any case meaning "and others."
et cetera Look up et cetera at
also etcetera, early 15c., from Latin et cetera, literally "and the others," from et "and" + neuter plural of ceterus "the other, other part, that which remains." The common form of the abbreviation before 20c. was &c., but etc. now prevails.
eta (n.) Look up eta at
Greek letter, originally the name of the aspirate, from Phoenician heth.
etagere (n.) Look up etagere at
ornamental piece of furniture consisting of ranks of open shelves to display knick-knacks, etc., 1858, from French étagère (15c.), from étage "shelf, story, abode, stage, floor" (11c., Old French estage), from Vulgar Latin *staticum, from Latin statio "station, post, residence" (see station (n.)).
etaoin shrdlu Look up etaoin shrdlu at
1931, journalism slang, the sequence of characters you get if you sweep your finger down the two left-hand columns of Linotype keys, which is what typesetters did when they bungled a line and had to start it over. It was a signal to cut out the sentence, but sometimes it slipped past harried compositors and ended up in print.
etc. Look up etc. at
see et cetera.
etcetera Look up etcetera at
see et cetera.
etch (v.) Look up etch at
1630s, "to engrave by eating away the surface of with acids," from Dutch etsen, from German ätzen "to etch," from Old High German azzon "give to eat; cause to bite, feed," from Proto-Germanic *atjanan, causative of *etanan "eat" (see eat). Related: Etched; etching. The Etch A Sketch drawing toy was introduced 1960 by Ohio Art Company.
etching (n.) Look up etching at
1630s, verbal noun from etch (v.), also "the art of engraving;" 1760s as "a print, etc., made from an etched plate."
eternal (adj.) Look up eternal at
late 14c., from Old French eternel "eternal," or directly from Late Latin aeternalis, from Latin aeternus "of an age, lasting, enduring, permanent, everlasting, endless," contraction of aeviternus "of great age," from aevum "age" (see eon). Used since Middle English both of things or conditions without beginning or end and things with a beginning only but no end. A parallel form, Middle English eterne, is from Old French eterne (cognate with Spanish eterno), directly from Latin aeternus. Related: Eternally. The Eternal (n.) for "God" is attested from 1580s.
eternity (n.) Look up eternity at
late 14c., "quality of being eternal," from Old French eternité "eternity, perpetuity" (12c.), from Latin aeternitatem (nominative aeternitas), from aeternus "enduring, permanent" (see eternal). Meaning "infinite time" is from 1580s. In the Mercian hymns, Latin aeternum is glossed by Old English ecnisse.
eth (n.) Look up eth at
name of an Anglo-Saxon runic character (Ð, ð) representing the sound "-th-," 1846, from th + e, "the usual assistant vowel in letter-names" [Century Dictionary].
Ethan Look up Ethan at
masc. proper name, from Hebrew ethan "strong, permanent, perennial, ever-flowing" (of rivers).
ethane (n.) Look up ethane at
1873, from ethyl + -ane, the appropriate suffix under Hofmann's system.
ethanol (n.) Look up ethanol at
"ethyl alcohol," 1900, contracted from ethane, to which it is the corresponding alcohol, + -ol, here indicating alcohol.
Ethel Look up Ethel at
fem. proper name, originally a shortening of Old English Etheldred, Ethelinda, etc., in which the first element means "nobility."
Ethelbert Look up Ethelbert at
Anglo-Saxon masc. proper name, Old English Æðelbryht, literally "nobility-bright;" see atheling + bright (adj.).
Etheldred Look up Etheldred at
Anglo-Saxon fem. proper name, Old English Æðelðryð, literally "of noble strength" (see Audrey).
Ethelred Look up Ethelred at
Anglo-Saxon masc. given name, Old English Æðelræd, literally "noble counsel," from æðele "noble" (see atheling) + ræd, red "advice" (see read (v.)).
ether (n.) Look up ether at
late 14c., "upper regions of space," from Old French ether (12c.) and directly from Latin aether "the upper pure, bright air; sky, firmament," from Greek aither "upper air; bright, purer air; the sky" (opposed to aer "the lower air"), from aithein "to burn, shine," from PIE *aidh- "to burn" (see edifice).

In ancient cosmology, the element that filled all space beyond the sphere of the moon, constituting the substance of the stars and planets. Conceived of as a purer form of fire or air, or as a fifth element. From 17c.-19c., it was the scientific word for an assumed "frame of reference" for forces in the universe, perhaps without material properties. The concept was shaken by the Michelson-Morley experiment (1887) and discarded early 20c. after the Theory of Relativity won acceptance, but before it went it gave rise to the colloquial use of ether for "the radio" (1899).

The name also was bestowed c. 1730 (Frobenius; in English by 1757) on a volatile chemical compound known since 14c. for its lightness and lack of color (its anesthetic properties weren't fully established until 1842).
ethereal (adj.) Look up ethereal at
formerly also etherial, 1510s, "of the highest regions of the atmosphere," from ether + -ial; extended sense of "light, airy" is from 1590s. Figurative meaning "spirit-like, immaterial" is from 1640s. Related: Ethereally.
etheric (adj.) Look up etheric at
"pertaining to ether," 1845, from ether + -ic. Related: Etherical (1650s).