extemporize (v.) Look up extemporize at Dictionary.com
1640s (implied in extemporizing), "to speak ex tempore," from extempore + -ize. Related: Extemporized.
extend (v.) Look up extend at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "to value, assess," from Anglo-French estendre (late 13c.), Old French estendre "stretch out, extend, increase," transitive and intransitive (Modern French étendre), from Latin extendere "stretch out, spread out; increase, enlarge, prolong, continue," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + tendere "to stretch" (see tenet).

Original sense in English is obsolete. From late 14c. as "lengthen or extend in time," also "straighten" (an arm, wing. etc.). Meaning "make longer and/or broader in space" is from early 15c., as is intransitive sense of "cover an area, have a certain extent in space;" sense of "expand, grow distended" is from 1753. Related: Extended; extending.
extended (adj.) Look up extended at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "occupying time, made longer," past participle adjective from extend (v.). Meaning "stretched out" in space is from 1550s; extended-play (adj.), in reference to recordings (especially 7-inch, 45 rpm vinyl records) is from 1953; in reference to pinball games by 1943. Extended family (n.) in sociology recorded from 1942.
A challenging question was asked RCA engineers and scientists in 1951. How can we increase the playing time of a 7-inch record, without using a larger disc? Sixteen months of research gave the answer, "45 EP"--Extended Play. [Radio Corporation of America magazine advertisement, May 1953]
extender (n.) Look up extender at Dictionary.com
1610s, agent noun from extend (v.). Middle English had extendour "surveyor, assessor."
extensible (n.) Look up extensible at Dictionary.com
1610s, from French extensible, from stem of Latin extendere (see extend). Earlier was extendible (late 15c.).
extension (n.) Look up extension at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, "swelling, bulging," from Latin extensionem/extentionem (nominative extensio/extentio) "a stretching out, extension," noun of action from past participle stem of extendere (see extend). In a concrete sense, "extended portion of something" (a railroad, etc.), from 1852. Telephone sense is from 1906.
extensive (adj.) Look up extensive at Dictionary.com
"vast, far-reaching;" c. 1600 of immaterial, c. 1700 of material things; from Late Latin extensivus, from extens-, past participle stem of Latin extendere "to stretch out, spread" (see extend). Earlier in a medical sense, "characterized by swelling" (early 15c.). Related: Extensively; extensiveness.
extensor (n.) Look up extensor at Dictionary.com
"muscle which serves to straighten or extend any part of the body," 1713, short for medical Latin musculus extensor, from Late Latin extensor "stretcher," agent noun from Latin extendere "spread out, spread" (see extend).
extent (n.) Look up extent at Dictionary.com
early 14c., from Anglo-French extente, estente "extent, extension;" in law, "valuation of land, stretch of land," from fem. past participle of Old French extendre "extend," from Latin extendere "to spread out, spread" (see extend). Meaning "degree to which something extends" is from 1590s.
extenuate (v.) Look up extenuate at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Latin extenuatus, past participle of extenuare "lessen, make small, reduce, diminish, detract from," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + tenuare "make thin," from tenuis "thin" (see tenet). Used over the years in a variety of literal and figurative senses in English. Related: Extenuated; extenuating. Extenuating circumstances (1660s) are those which lessen the magnitude of guilt (opposed to aggravating).
extenuation (n.) Look up extenuation at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin extenuationem (nominative extenuatio) "a lessening, diminution," noun of action from past participle stem of extenuare "lessen, reduce, diminish" (see extenuate).
exterior (adj.) Look up exterior at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Latin exterior "outward, outer, exterior," comparative of exterus "on the outside, outward, outer, of another country, foreign," itself a comparative of ex "out of" (see ex-). As a noun, "outer surface or aspect" from 1590s.
exterminate (v.) Look up exterminate at Dictionary.com
1540s, "drive away," from Latin exterminatus, past participle of exterminare "drive out, expel, put aside, drive beyond boundaries," also, in Late Latin "destroy," from phrase ex termine "beyond the boundary," from ex- "out of" (see ex-) + termine, ablative of termen "boundary, limit, end" (see terminus).

Meaning "destroy utterly" is from 1640s in English, a sense found in equivalent words in French and in the Vulgate; earlier in this sense was extermine (mid-15c.). Related: Exterminated; exterminating.
extermination (n.) Look up extermination at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "repulsion;" 1540s, "utter destruction, eradication," from Middle French extermination and directly from Latin exterminationem (nominative exterminatio) "ejection, banishment," noun of action from past participle stem of exterminare (see exterminate).
exterminator (n.) Look up exterminator at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, "an angel who expells (people from a country)," from Late Latin exterminator, from past participle stem of Latin exterminare (see exterminate). As a substance for ridding a place of rats, etc., by 1848; as a person whose job it is to do this, by 1938.
extern (n.) Look up extern at Dictionary.com
"outsider," c. 1600, from Middle French externe "outer, outward;" as a noun, "a day-scholar," from Latin externus "outside," also used as a noun (see external). As an adjective in English from 1530s.
external (adj.) Look up external at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Middle French externe or directly from Latin externus "outside, outward" (from exterus; see exterior) + -al (1). This version won out over exterial. Related: Externally.
externality (n.) Look up externality at Dictionary.com
1670s, "state of being external," from external + -ity. From 1839 as "that which is external." From 1833 as "undue regard for externals."
externalization (n.) Look up externalization at Dictionary.com
1803; see external + -ization.
externalize (v.) Look up externalize at Dictionary.com
1846, from external + -ize. Related: Externalized; externalizing.
Self-government begins with a reverential recognition of a supreme law: its process is a constant endeavor to render that law objective, real, operative--to externalize it, if we may use the term. ["American Review," July, 1846]
extinct (adj.) Look up extinct at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "extinguished, quenched," from Latin extinctus/exstinctus, past participle of extinguere/exstinguere "to put out, quench; go out, die out; kill, destroy" (see extinguish). Originally of fires; in reference to the condition of a family or a hereditary title that has "died out," from 1580s; of species by 1768. Shakespeare uses it as a verb. Compare extinction.
extinction (n.) Look up extinction at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "annihilation," from Latin extinctionem/exstinctionem (nominative extinctio/exstinctio) "extinction, annihilation," noun of action from past participle stem of extinguere/exstinguere "quench, wipe out" (see extinguish). Originally of fires, lights; figurative use, the wiping out of a material thing (a debt, a person, a family, etc.) from early 17c.; of species by 1784.
extinguish (v.) Look up extinguish at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Latin extinguere/exstinguere "quench, put out (what is burning), wipe out, obliterate," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + stinguere "quench," apparently an evolved sense from PIE *steig- "to prick, stick, pierce" (see stick (v.)). But see distinguish (v.). Related: Extinguished; extinguishing.
extinguishable (adj.) Look up extinguishable at Dictionary.com
c. 1500; see extinguish + -able.
extinguisher (n.) Look up extinguisher at Dictionary.com
1550s, agent noun from extinguish. As a mechanical device for putting out fires, from 1887.
extirpate (v.) Look up extirpate at Dictionary.com
"root up, root out," 1530s, usually figurative, from Latin extirpatus/exstirpatus, past participle of extirpare/exstirpare "root out, eradicate, pull up by the roots" (see extirpation). Related: Extirpated; extirpating; extirpable.
extirpation (n.) Look up extirpation at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "removal;" 1520s, "rooting out, eradication," from Latin extirpationem/exstirpationem (nominative extirpatio/exstirpatio), noun of action from past participle stem of extirpare/exstirpare "root out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + stirps (genitive stirpis) "a root, stock of a tree."
extol (v.) Look up extol at Dictionary.com
also extoll, c. 1400, "to lift up," from Latin extollere "to place on high, raise, elevate," figuratively "to exalt, praise," from ex- "up" (see ex-) + tollere "to raise," from PIE *tele- "to bear, carry," "with derivatives referring to measured weights and thence money and payment" [Watkins].

Cognates include Greek talantos "bearing, suffering," tolman "to carry, bear," telamon "broad strap for bearing something," talenton "a balance, pair of scales," Atlas "the 'Bearer' of Heaven;" Lithuanian tiltas "bridge;" Sanskrit tula "balance," tulayati "lifts up, weighs;" Latin tolerare "to bear, support," latus "borne;" Old English þolian "to endure;" Armenian tolum "I allow." Figurative sense of "praise highly" in English is first attested c. 1500. Related: Extolled; extolling.
extoll Look up extoll at Dictionary.com
variant of extol.
extort (v.) Look up extort at Dictionary.com
1520s (as a past participle adj. from early 15c.), "obtain by force or compulsion; wrest away by oppressive means," from Latin extortus, past participle of extorquere "obtain by force," literally "wrench out" (see extortion). Related: Extorted; extorting.
extortion (n.) Look up extortion at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, from Latin extortionem (nominative extortio) "a twisting out, extorting," noun of action from past participle stem of extorquere "wrench out, wrest away, to obtain by force," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + torquere "to twist" (see torque (n.)).
extortionate (adj.) Look up extortionate at Dictionary.com
1711, from extortion + -ate. Extortious is from c. 1600.
extortionist (n.) Look up extortionist at Dictionary.com
1824, from extortion + -ist. Earlier in the same sense were extorter (1590s), extortioner (late 14c.).
extra Look up extra at Dictionary.com
1650s as a stand-alone adjective; also used as an adverb and noun in 17c. (see extra-); modern usages -- including sense of "minor performer in a play" (1777) and "special edition of a newspaper" (1793) -- probably all are from shortenings of extraordinary, which in 18c. was used extensively as noun and adverb in places extra would serve today.
extra- Look up extra- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "outside; beyond the scope of; in addition to what is usual or expected," in classical Latin recorded only in extraordinarius, but more used in Medieval Latin and modern formations; it represents Latin extra (adv.) "on the outside, without, except," the old fem. ablative singular of exterus "outward, outside," comparative of ex "out of" (see ex-).
extra-curricular (adj.) Look up extra-curricular at Dictionary.com
also extracurricular, 1911, from extra- + curricular. As a noun by 1957.
extra-special (adj.) Look up extra-special at Dictionary.com
1841, from extra- + special (adj.). Originally of legislative sessions, later (1880s) of certain editions of daily newspapers.
extract (v.) Look up extract at Dictionary.com
late 15c., from Latin extractus, past participle of extrahere "draw out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + trahere "to draw" (see tract (n.1)). Related: Extracted; extracting.
extract (n.) Look up extract at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "digest or summary of something which has been written at greater length," from Late Latin extractum, noun use of neuter of extractus, past participle of extrahere "to draw out" (see extract (v.)). Physical sense of "that which is extracted," especially "something drawn from a substance by distillation or other chemical process" is from 1580s.
extraction (n.) Look up extraction at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "process of withdrawing or obtaining" (something, from something else), from Old French estraction "extraction, origin" (12c.) or directly from Medieval Latin extractionem (nominative extractio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin extrahere "to draw out" (see extract (v.)). Meaning "that which is extracted" is from 1590s. Meaning "descent, lineage" is from late 15c.
extradite (v.) Look up extradite at Dictionary.com
1864, back-formation from extradition. Related: Extradited; extraditing; extraditable.
extradition (n.) Look up extradition at Dictionary.com
1833, from French extradition (18c.), apparently a coinage of Voltaire's, from Latin ex "out" (see ex-) + traditionem (nominative traditio) "a delivering up, handing over," noun of action from tradere "to hand over" (see tradition).
This word might be adopted in our language with advantage, as we have none which conveys the same meaning. Extradition signifies the delivering up of criminals who may have sought refuge in any country, to the government whose subjects they are, on a claim being made to this effect. [from a footnote to the word extradition in the translation of "Memoirs of Marshal Ney" published in London in 1833]
extrajudicial (adj.) Look up extrajudicial at Dictionary.com
also extra-judicial, 1580s (implied in extrajudicially); see extra- + judicial.
extramarital (adj.) Look up extramarital at Dictionary.com
also extra-marital, by 1844, from extra- + marital.
extramural (adj.) Look up extramural at Dictionary.com
1854, from extra- + ending from intermural.
extraneous (adj.) Look up extraneous at Dictionary.com
1630s, from Latin extraneus "external, strange," literally "that is without, from without" (as a noun, "a stranger"), from extra "outside of" (see extra-). A doublet of strange. Related: Extraneously.
extraordinaire (adj.) Look up extraordinaire at Dictionary.com
1940, from French extraordinaire (14c.), literally "extraordinary, unusual, out of the ordinary," but used colloquially as a superlative; see extraordinary, which represents an older borrowing of the same word.
extraordinary (adj.) Look up extraordinary at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin extraordinarius "out of the common order," from extra ordinem "out of order," especially the usual order, from extra "out" (see extra-) + ordinem, accusative of ordo "order" (see order (n.)). Related: Extraordinarily; extraordinariness.
extrapolate (v.) Look up extrapolate at Dictionary.com
1862 (in a Harvard observatory account of the comet of 1858), from extra- + ending from interpolate. Said in early references to be a characteristic word of Sir George Airy (1801-1892), English mathematician and astronomer. Related: Extrapolated; extrapolating.
extrapolation (n.) Look up extrapolation at Dictionary.com
1867, noun of action from extrapolate by analogy of interpolation; original sense was "an inserting of intermediate terms in a mathematical series." Transferred sense of "drawing of a conclusion about the future based on present tendencies" is from 1889.