education (n.) Look up education at
1530s, "childrearing," also "the training of animals," from Middle French education (14c.) and directly from Latin educationem (nominative educatio) "a rearing, training," noun of action from past participle stem of educare (see educate). Originally of instruction in social codes and manners; meaning "systematic schooling and training for work" is from 1610s.
educational (adj.) Look up educational at
1650s, "due to education;" 1831, "pertaining to education;" from education + -al (1). Related: Educationally.
educationese (n.) Look up educationese at
"the jargon of school administrators," 1966, from education + -ese.
educationist (n.) Look up educationist at
"one versed in the theory and practice of education," 1815; see education + -ist.
educative (adj.) Look up educative at
"tending to educate, consisting in educating," 1795, from Latin educat-, past participle stem of educare (see educate) + -ive.
educator (n.) Look up educator at
1560s, "one who nourishes or rears;" 1670s, "one who trains or instructs," from Latin educator (in classical Latin, "a foster father," then also "a tutor"), agent noun from past participle stem of educare (see educate). Latin educatrix meant "a nurse."
educe (v.) Look up educe at
early 15c., in the literal sense, "to draw out, extract; branch out," from Latin educere "to lead out, bring out" (troops, ships, etc.; see educate). Meaning "bring into view or operation" is from c. 1600. Meaning "to draw a conclusion from data" is from 1837.
educrat (n.) Look up educrat at
1968, usually pejorative; first element from education, second from bureaucrat. Said to have been coined by Claude R. Kirk Jr. (1926-2011), governor of Florida 1967-71.
While political leaders and corporate CEOs, focusing as usual on the quarterly return, call for "workers for the new economy," their educational reforms are producing just that: students with a grab-bag of minor skills and competencies and minds that are sadly uneventful, incapable of genuine intellectual achievement and lacking any sense of continuity with the historical and cultural traditions of our society. Their world is small, bleak, and limited; their world will become ours. [David Solway, "The Turtle Hypodermic of Sickenpods," Quebec, 2000]
Edward Look up Edward at
masc. proper name, from Old English Eadweard, literally "prosperity-guard," from ead "wealth, prosperity" (see Edith) + weard "guardian" (see ward (n.)). Among the 10 most popular names for boys born in the U.S. every year from 1895 to 1930.
Edwardian (adj.) Look up Edwardian at
1861, in reference to the medieval English kings of that name; 1908 in the sense of "of the time or reign of Edward VII" (1901-10), and, since 1934, especially with reference to the men's clothing styles (as in teddy-boy, 1954, for which see Teddy). From Edward + -ian.
Edwin Look up Edwin at
masc. proper name, from Old English Ead-wine, literally "prosperity-friend, friend of riches," from ead "wealth, prosperity, joy" (see Edith) + wine "friend, protector" (related to winnan "to strive, struggle, fight;" see win (v.)).
eek Look up eek at
sound of a squeak of fear, by 1940.
eel (n.) Look up eel at
Old English æl "eel," from Proto-Germanic *ælaz (source also of Old Frisian -el, Middle Dutch ael, Dutch aal, Old Saxon and Old High German al, German Aal, Old Norse all), which is of unknown origin, with no certain cognates outside Germanic. Used figuratively for slipperiness from at least 1520s.
eel-skin (n.) Look up eel-skin at
1560s, from eel + skin (n.). "Formerly used as a casing for the cue or pigtail of the hair or the wig, especially by sailors." [Century Dictionary]
eeny Look up eeny at
a word from a popular children's counting-out rhyme, recorded in the form eeny, meeny, miny, mo by 1888, when it was listed among 862 "Rhymes and doggerels for counting out" in Henry Carrington Bolton's book "The Counting-Out Rhymes of Children" [New York]. Bolton describes it as "the favorite with American children, actually reported from nearly every State in the Union." He notes similar forms in notes similar forms in German (Ene, meni, mino), Dutch, and and Platt-Deutsch (Ene, mine, mike, maken), and, from Cornwall, Eena, meena, moina, mite. The form eeny meeny mony mi is recorded in U.S. from 1873, and Hanna, mana, mona, mike is said to have been used in New York in 1815.
eerie (adj.) Look up eerie at
also eery, c. 1300, "timid, affected by superstitious fear," north England and Scottish variant of Old English earg "cowardly, fearful, craven, vile, wretched, useless," from Proto-Germanic *argaz (source also of Old Frisian erg "evil, bad," Middle Dutch arch "bad," Dutch arg, Old High German arg "cowardly, worthless," German arg "bad, wicked," Old Norse argr "unmanly, voluptuous," Swedish arg "malicious"). Sense of "causing fear because of strangeness" is first attested 1792. Finnish arka "cowardly" is a Germanic loan-word.
eerily (adv.) Look up eerily at
1821, from eerie + -ly (2).
eff (v.) Look up eff at
1943, euphemism for fuck, representing the sound of its first letter. Related: Effing.
effable (adj.) Look up effable at
"that may be (lawfully) expressed in words," 1630s, from French effable or directly, from Latin effabilis "utterable," from effari "to utter" (see ineffable). Now obsolete or archaic.
efface (v.) Look up efface at
"to erase or obliterate," especially something written or carved, late 15c., from Middle French effacer, from Old French esfacier (12c.) "to wipe out, destroy," literally "to remove the face," from es- "out" (see ex-) + face "appearance," from Latin facies "face" (see face (n.)). Related: Effaced; effacing; effaceable. Compare deface.
effacement (n.) Look up effacement at
1743, from French effacement; see efface + -ment.
effect (n.) Look up effect at
mid-14c., "execution or completion (of an act)," from Old French efet (13c., Modern French effet) "result, execution, completion, ending," from Latin effectus "accomplishment, performance," from past participle stem of efficere "work out, accomplish," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + facere "to do" (see factitious). From French, borrowed into Dutch, German, Scandinavian.

From late 14c. as "power or capacity to produce an intended result; efficacy, effectiveness," and in astrology, "operation or action (of a heavenly body) on human affairs; influence." Also "that which follows from something else; a consequence, a result." From early 15c. as "intended result, purpose, object, intent." Also formerly with a sense of "reality, fact," hence in effect (late 14c.), originally "in fact, actually, really." Meaning "impression produced on the beholder" is from 1736. Sense in stage effect, sound effect, etc. first recorded 1881.
effect (v.) Look up effect at
"to produce as a result; to bring to a desired end," 1580s, from Latin effectus, past participle of efficere (see effect (n.)). Related: Effecting; effection; effectible.
effected (adj.) Look up effected at
"brought about," past participle adjective from effect (v.). Since early 15c. sometimes used erroneously for affected.
effective (adj.) Look up effective at
late 14c., "serving to effect the intended purpose," from Old French effectif, from Latin effectivus "productive, effective," from effect-, stem of efficere (see effect (n.)). Of military forces, meaning "fit for action or duty" is from 1680s.
effectively (adv.) Look up effectively at
1650s, "actually," from effective + -ly (2). From c. 1600 as "as a means of producing;" from 1825 as "so as to produce an effect."
effectiveness (n.) Look up effectiveness at
c. 1600, from effective + -ness.
effects (n.) Look up effects at
"goods, property," 1704, plural of effect (n.); after a use of French effets.
effectual (adj.) Look up effectual at
"producing an effect; having power to produce an effect," late 14c., Old French effectuel, from Late Latin effectualis, from Latin effectus "accomplishment, performance" (see effect (n.)). Used properly of actions (not agents) and with a sense "having the effect aimed at" (effective is used of the thing done or the agent and means "having great effect"). Related: Effectually; effectualness.
effectuate (v.) Look up effectuate at
"bring to pass, accomplish, achieve," 1570s, from French effectuer, from Latin effectus "an effecting, accomplishment, performance" (see effect (n.)). According to OED, formed "on the model of" actuate. Related: Effectuated; effectuating.
effeminacy (n.) Look up effeminacy at
c. 1600; see effeminate + -acy.
effeminate (adj.) Look up effeminate at
late 14c., "womanish; voluptuous; tender," from Latin effeminatus "womanish, effeminate," past participle of effeminare "make a woman of," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + femina "woman" (see feminine). Rarely used but in reproach. The noun meaning "effeminate person" is from 1590s. Related: Effeminately; effemination.
effendi (n.) Look up effendi at
Turkish title of respect, equivalent to English sir, 1610s, from Turkish efendi, title of respect applied to professionals and officials, corruption of Greek authentes "lord, master" (in Modern Greek aphentes; see authentic).
efferent (adj.) Look up efferent at
"conveying outward or away," 1827, from Latin efferentem (nominative efferens), present participle of effere "to carry out or away, bring forth," from ef- (see ex-) + ferre "to bear, carry" (see infer). As a noun from 1876.
effervesce (v.) Look up effervesce at
1702, from Latin effervescere "to boil up, boil over" (see effervescence). Related: Effervesced; effervescing.
effervescence (n.) Look up effervescence at
1650s, "the action of boiling up," from French effervescence (1640s), from Latin effervescentem, present participle of effervescere "to boil up, boil over," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + fervescere "begin to boil," from fervere "be hot, boil" (see brew). Figurative sense of "liveliness" is from 1748. Related: Effervescency.
effervescent (adj.) Look up effervescent at
1680s, from Latin effervescentem (nominative effervescens), present participle of effervescere "to boil up, boil over" (see effervescence). Figurative meaning "exuberant" is from 1833.
effete (adj.) Look up effete at
1620s, "functionless as a result of age or exhaustion," from Latin effetus (usually in fem. effeta) "exhausted, unproductive, worn out (with bearing offspring), past bearing," literally "that has given birth," from a lost verb, *efferi, from ex- "out" (see ex-) + fetus "childbearing, offspring" (see fetus). Figurative use is earliest in English; literal use is rare. Sense of "intellectually or morally exhausted" (1790) led to that of "decadent, effeminate" (by 1850s).
efficacious (adj.) Look up efficacious at
"sure to have the desired effect" (often of medicines), 1520s, from Latin efficaci-, stem of efficax "effectual, powerful" (see efficacy) + -ous. Related: Efficaciously; efficaciousness.
efficacy (n.) Look up efficacy at
1520s, from Latin efficacia "efficacy, efficiency," from efficax (genitive efficacis) "powerful, effectual, efficient," from stem of efficere "work out, accomplish" (see effect (n.)). Earlier in same sense was efficace (c. 1200), from Old French eficace (14c.), from Latin efficacia; also efficacite (early 15c.), from Latin efficacitatem.
efficiency (n.) Look up efficiency at
1590s, "power to accomplish something," from Latin efficientia "efficient power; efficiency; influence" (from efficientem; see efficient) + -cy. In mechanics, "ratio of useful work done to energy expended," from 1858. Attested from 1952 as short for efficiency apartment (itself from 1920).
efficient (adj.) Look up efficient at
late 14c., "making, producing immediate effect, active, effective," from Old French efficient and directly from Latin efficientem (nominative efficiens) "effective, efficient, producing, active," present participle of efficere "work out, accomplish" (see effect). Meaning "productive, skilled" is from 1787. Related: Efficiently.
effigy (n.) Look up effigy at
"image of a person," 1530s, from Middle French effigie (13c.), from Latin effigies "copy or imitation of something, likeness, image, statue," from or related to effingere "to mold, fashion, portray," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + fingere "to form, shape" (see fiction). The Latin word was regarded as plural and the -s was lopped off by 18c. Especially figures made of stuffed clothing; the burning or hanging of them is attested by 1670s. Formerly done by judicial authorities as symbolic punishment of criminals who had escaped their jurisdiction; later a popular expression against persons deemed obnoxious. Related: Effigial.
effleurage (n.) Look up effleurage at
"gentle rubbing with the palm of the hand," 1886, from French effleurage, from effleurer "to graze, touch lightly, touch upon, strip the leaves off," from ef- "out" (see ex-) + fleur as in the phrase à fleur de "on a level with," from German Flur "a plain, field, meadow" (see floor (n.)).
effloresce (v.) Look up effloresce at
"to come into flower," 1775, from Latin efflorescere, inceptive form (in Late Latin simplified to efflorere) "to blossom, spring up, flourish, abound," from ex "out" (see ex-) + florescere "to blossom," from flos (see flora). Sense in chemistry is from 1788.
efflorescence (n.) Look up efflorescence at
1620s, "a bursting into flower, act of blossoming out," from French efflorescence, from Latin efflorescentem (nominative efflorescens), present participle of efflorescere "to bloom, flourish, blossom" (see effloresce). Sense in chemistry is from 1660s.
efflorescent (adj.) Look up efflorescent at
1741, from Latin efflorescentem (nominative efflorescens), present participle of efflorescere "to bloom, flourish" (see effloresce).
effluence (n.) Look up effluence at
c. 1600, "that which flows out;" 1620s, "act of flowing out," from Late Latin effluentia, from Latin effluentem (nominative effluens) "flowing out," present participle of effluere "to flow out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + fluere "to flow" (see fluent). Related: Effluency.
effluent (adj.) Look up effluent at
mid-15c., from Latin effluentem "flowing out" (see effluence). As a noun, "that which flows out," from 1859; specific meaning "liquid industrial waste" is from 1930.
effluvia (n.) Look up effluvia at
Latin plural of effluvium. Sometimes mistaken for a singular and re-pluralized.