eliminate (v.)
1560s, from Latin eliminatus, past participle of eliminare "thrust out of doors, expel," from ex limine "off the threshold," from ex "off, out" (see ex-) + limine, ablative of limen "threshold" (see limit (n.)).

Used literally at first; sense of "exclude" first attested 1714; sense of "expel waste from the body" is c.1795. Related: Eliminated; eliminating; eliminative; eliminatory.
elimination (n.)
c.1600, "a casting out," noun of action from eliminate. Meaning "expulsion of waste matter" is from 1855.
Eliot
surname, Old French diminutive of Elias (French Elie; see Elijah) + -ot. It absorbed the Anglo-Saxon proper names Æðelgeat and Ælfweald "Elf-ruler."
Elisha
masc. proper name, from Hebrew, literally "God is salvation," from El "God" + yesha "salvation."
elision (n.)
1580s, from Latin elisionem (nominative elisio) "a striking out," noun of action from past participle stem of elidere (see elide).
elite (n.)
1823, from French élite "selection, choice," from Old French eslite (12c.), fem. past participle of elire, elisre "pick out, choose," from Latin eligere "choose" (see election). Borrowed in Middle English as "chosen person" (late 14c.), especially a bishop-elect; died out mid-15c.; re-introduced by Byron's "Don Juan." As an adjective by 1852. As a typeface, first recorded 1920.
elitism (n.)
1951; see elite + -ism.
elitist (n.)
1950; see elite + -ist. The original examples were Freud, Nietzsche, and Carlyle.
elixir (n.)
mid-13c., from Medieval Latin elixir "philosopher's stone," believed by alchemists to transmute baser metals into gold and/or to cure diseases and prolong life, from Arabic al-iksir, probably from late Greek xerion "powder for drying wounds," from xeros "dry" (see xerasia). General sense of "strong tonic" is 1590s; used for quack medicines from at least 1630s.
Elizabeth
fem. proper name, Biblical name of the wife of Aaron, from Late Latin Elisabeth, from Greek Eleisabeth, Eleisabet, from Hebrew Elishebha "God is an oath," the second element said by Klein to be related to shivah (fem. sheva) "seven," and to nishba "he swore," originally "he bound himself by (the sacred number) seven." Has never ranked lower than 26th in popularity among the names given to baby girls in the U.S. in any year since 1880, the oldest for which a reliable list is available.
Elizabethan (adj.)
1807 (Elizabethean); Coleridge (1817) has Elizabethian, and Carlyle (1840) finally attains the modern form. "Belonging to the period of Queen Elizabeth I" (1558-1603). The noun is first attested 1881. See Elizabeth.
John Knox, one of the exiles for religion in Switzerland, publiſhed his "Firſt Blaſt of the Trumpet againſt the Government of Women," in this reign [of Elizabeth]. It was lucky for him that he was out of the queen's reach when he ſounded the trumpet. [The Rev. Mr. James Granger, "A Biographical History of England," 1769]
elk (n.)
late Old English, from Old Norse elgr or from an alteration of Old English elh, eolh (perhaps via French scribes), or possibly from Middle High German elch (OED's suggestion), all from Proto-Germanic *elkh- (source also of Old High German elaho),

The Germanic words are related to the general word for "deer" in Balto-Slavic (such as Russian losu, Czech los; also see eland), from PIE *olki-, perhaps with reference to the reddish color from root *el- (2) "red, brown" (in animal and tree names); compare Sanskrit harina- "deer," from hari- "reddish-brown." Greek alke and Latin alces probably are Germanic loan-words. Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks founded N.Y.C. 1868, originally a society of actors and writers.
ell (n.1)
"unit of measure of 45 inches," Old English eln, originally "forearm, length of the arm" (as a measure, anywhere from a foot and a half to two feet), from PIE *el- (1) "elbow, forearm" (cognates: Greek olene "elbow," Latin ulna, Armenian uln "shoulder," Sanskrit anih "part of the leg above the knee," Lithuanian alkune "elbow").

The exact distance varied, depending on whose arm was used as the base and whether it was measured from the shoulder to the fingertip or the wrist: the Scottish ell was 37.2 inches, the Flemish 27 inches. Latin ulna also was a unit of linear measure, and compare cubit.
Whereas shee tooke an inche of liberty before, tooke an ell afterwardes [Humfrey Gifford, "A Posie of Gilloflowers," 1580].
ell (n.2)
type of building extension, 1773, American English; so called for resemblance to the shape of the alphabet letter.
Ella
fem. proper name, when not a diminutive of Eleanor it is from Old High German Alia, from al "all."
Ellen
fem. proper name, an older form of Helen (q.v.). Its popularity among U.S. birth names peaked in 1880s and 1940s.
ellipse (n.)
1753, from French ellipse (17c.), from Latin ellipsis "ellipse," also, "a falling short, deficit," from Greek elleipsis (see ellipsis). So called because the conic section of the cutting plane makes a smaller angle with the base than does the side of the cone, hence, a "falling short." The Greek word was first applied by Apollonius of Perga (3c. B.C.E.). to the curve which had been previously called the section of the acute-angled cone, but it had previously been technically applied to a rectangle one of whose sides coincides with a part of a given line (Euclid, VI. 27).
ellipsis (n.)
1560s, "an ellipse," from Latin ellipsis, from Greek elleipsis "a falling short, defect, ellipse," from elleipein "to fall short, leave out," from en- "in" + leipein "to leave" (see relinquish). Grammatical sense first recorded 1610s.
ellipsoid (n.)
1721; see ellipse + -oid. From 1861 as an adjective (earlier adjective was ellipsoidal).
elliptic (adj.)
1726, from Greek elleiptikos "pertaining to an ellipse," from elleipein (see ellipsis).
elliptical (adj.)
1650s, "elliptic in shape;" see elliptic + -al (1). Grammatical sense of "missing essential words or phrases" is recorded from 1778 (see ellipsis). Related: Elliptically.
Ellis Island
sandy island in mouth of Hudson River, said to have been called "Gull Island" by local Indians and "Oyster Island" by the Dutch, renamed "Gull Island" after the British took over, then "Gibbet Island" because pirates were hanged there. Sold to Samuel Ellis in 1785, who made it a picnic spot and gave it his name. Sold by his heirs in 1808 to New York State and acquired that year by the U.S. War Department for coastal defenses. Vacant after the American Civil War until the government opened an immigration station there in 1892 to replace Castle Island.
elm (n.)
Old English elm, from Proto-Germanic *elmaz (cognates: Danish elm, Old Norse almr, Old High German elme), perhaps from PIE root *el- "red, brown" (see elk); cognate with Latin ulmus, Old Irish lem. German Ulme, Dutch olm are from or influenced by the Latin word.
Elmo
of St. Elmo's Fire (for which see saint (n.)); probably from Greek elene "torch," via an apocryphal saint.
elocution (n.)
mid-15c., from Late Latin elocutionem (nominative elocutio) "voice production, manner of expression," in classical Latin, "oratorical expression," noun of action from past participle stem of eloqui "speak out" (see eloquence).
Elohim
a name of God in the Bible, c.1600, from Hebrew, plural (of majesty?) of Eloh "God," a word of unknown etymology, perhaps an augmentation of El "God," also of unknown origin. Generally taken as singular, the use of this word instead of Yahveh is taken by biblical scholars as an important clue to authorship in the Old Testament, hence Elohist.
eloign (v.)
1530s, "to remove to a distance" (especially in an effort to avoid the law), from Anglo-French eloign, Old French esloigner, from Late Latin exlongare (see elongate).
elongate (v.)
1530s, from Late Latin elongatus, past participle of elongare "to prolong, protract" (see elongation). Earlier in the same sense was elongen (mid-15c.). Related: Elongated; elongating.
elongation (n.)
late 14c., from Late Latin elongationem (nominative elongatio), noun of action from elongare "remove to a distance," from Latin ex- "out" (see ex-) + longus "long" (see long (adj.)).
elope (v.)
1590s, "to run off," probably from Middle Dutch (ont)lopen "run away," from ont- "away from" (from Proto-Germanic *und- which also gave the first element in until) + lopen "to run," from Proto-Germanic *hlaupan (see leap (v.)). Sense of "run from parents to marry secretly" is 19c.

However there is an Anglo-French aloper "run away from a husband with one's lover" (mid-14c.) which complicates this etymology; perhaps it is a modification of the Middle Dutch word, with Old French es-, or it is a compound of that and Middle English lepen "run, leap" (see leap (v.)).

The oldest Germanic word for "wedding" is represented by Old English brydlop (cognates: Old High German bruthlauft, Old Norse bruðhlaup), literally "bride run," the conducting of the woman to her new home. Related: Eloped; eloping.
elopement (n.)
1540s, from elope + -ment. (The word was in Anglo-French in 14c.).
eloquence (n.)
late 14c., from Old French eloquence (12c.), from Latin eloquentia, from eloquentem (nominative eloquens) "eloquent," present participle of eloqui "speak out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + loqui "to speak" (see locution). Earlier in same sense was eloquency (mid-14c.).
eloquent (adj.)
late 14c., from Old French eloquent, from Latin eloquentem (nominative eloquens), present participle of eloqui "to speak out" (see eloquence). Related: Eloquently.
Elsa
fem. proper name, from German diminutive of Elisabet (see Elizabeth).
else (adj.)
Old English elles "other, otherwise, different," from Proto-Germanic *aljaz (cognates: Gothic aljis "other," Old High German eli-lenti, Old English el-lende, both meaning "in a foreign land;" see also Alsace), an adverbial genitive of the neuter of PIE root *al- (1) "beyond" (cognates: Greek allos "other," Latin alius; see alias (adv.)). Synonym of other, the nuances of usage are often arbitrary.

Productive of a number of handy compounds that somehow never got traction or have been suffered to fall from use: elsehow (1660s) "somehow or other;" elsewards (adv.), 1882, "somewhere else;" Old English elsewhat (pron.) " something else, anything else;" elsewhen (adv.), early 15c., "at another time; elsewhence (c.1600); elsewho (1540s). Among the survivors are elsewhere, elsewise.
elsewhere (n.)
c.1400, elswher, from Old English elles hwær (see else + where).
elsewise (adv.)
1540s, from else + -wise.
elucidate (v.)
1560s, perhaps via Middle French élucider (15c.) or directly from Late Latin elucidatus, past participle of elucidare "make clear," from ex- "out, away" (see ex-) + lucidus "clear" (see lucid). Related: Elucidated; elucidates; elucidating.
elucidation (n.)
1560s, noun of action from elucidate.
elude (v.)
1530s, "delude, make a fool of," from Latin eludere "escape from, make a fool of, win from at play," from ex- "out, away" (see ex-) + ludere "to play" (see ludicrous). Sense of "evade" is first recorded 1610s in a figurative sense, 1630s in a literal one. Related: Eluded; eludes; eluding.
elusion (n.)
1540s, noun of action from elude, or from Medieval Latin elusionem (nominative elusio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin eludere.
elusive (adj.)
1719, from Latin elus-, past participle stem of eludere (see elude) + -ive. Related: Elusiveness.
elution (n.)
"washing, purification," 1610s, from Latin elutionem (nominative elutio) "a washing out," noun of action from past participle stem of eluere "to wash out, wash off, clean," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + luere "to wash" (see lave).
elven (adj.)
Old English -ælfen (n.) "an elf or fairy" (see elf). Not a pure adjective in Middle English (see elvish was used), but used in phrases such as elven land (c.1300). Apparently revived as an adjective by Tolkien.
elver (n.)
"young eel," 1640s, variant of eelfare (1530s), literally "passage of young eels up a river;" see eel + fare.
Elvira
fem. proper name, from Spanish, of Germanic origin.
elvish (adj.)
c.1200, aluisc, "belonging to or pertaining to the elves; supernatural," from elf + -ish. Old English used ilfig in this sense.
Elysian (adj.)
1570s, from Greek Elysion pedion "Elysian field," where heroes and the virtuous live after death, from a pre-Greek word of unknown origin.
Elysium (n.)
1590s, from Latin Elysium, from Greek Elysion (pedion) "abode of the blessed" (see Elysian).
elytra (n.)
1774, plural of elytron "hardened wing of an insect," from Greek elytron "sheath," from elyein "to roll round," from PIE root *wel- (3) "to turn, roll," with derivatives referring to curved, enclosing objects (see volvox).