filibuster (n.)
1580s, flibutor "pirate," probably ultimately from Dutch vrijbuiter "freebooter," a word which used of pirates in the West Indies in Spanish (filibustero) and French (flibustier) forms, either or both of which gave the word to American English (see freebooter).

Used 1850s and '60s of lawless adventurers from the U.S. who tried to overthrow Central American governments. The legislative sense is not in Bartlett (1859) and seems not to have been in use in U.S. legislative writing before 1865. Probably the extension in sense is because obstructionist legislators "pirated" debate or overthrew the usual order of authority. Not technically restricted to U.S. Senate, but that's where the strategy works best.
filibuster (v.)
1853 in both the freebooting and the legislative senses, from filibuster (n.). Related: Filibustered; filibustering.
filicide (n.)
1660s, "action of killing a son or daughter," from Latin filius/filia "son/daughter" (see filial) + -cide. Meaning "one who kills a son or daughter" is from 1823. Related: Filicidal.
filigree (n.)
1690s, shortening of filigreen (1660s), from French filigrane "filigree" (17c.), from Italian filigrana, from Latin filum "thread" (see file (v.)) + granum "grain" (see corn (n.1)). Related: Filigreed.
Filipino (n.)
1898 (fem. Filipina), Spanish, from las Islas Filipinas "the Philippine Islands" (see Philippines).
fill (v.)
Old English fyllan "fill up, replenish, satisfy," from Proto-Germanic *fullijan (cognates: Old Saxon fulljan, Old Norse fylla, Old Frisian fella, Dutch vullen, German füllen "to fill"), a derivative of adj. *fullaz "full" (see full (adj.)). Related: Filled.

To fill the bill (1882) originally was U.S. theatrical slang, in reference to a star whose name would be the only one on a show's poster. To fill out "write in required matter" is recorded from 1880. Fill-in "substitute" (n.) is from 1918.
fill (n.)
"a full supply," mid-13c., fille, from Old English fylle, from Proto-Germanic *fullin- (cognates: Old High German fulli, German Fülle, Old Norse fyllr), noun of state from *fullaz "full" (see full (adj.)). Meaning "extra material in music" is from 1934.
filler (n.)
late 15c., "one who fills," agent noun from fill (v.). Meaning "something used to fill" is from 1590s. Specifically of food products by 1901.
fillet (n.)
early 14c., "headband," from Old French filet (12c.) "thread, filament; strip, ligament," diminutive of fil "thread" (see file (v.)). Sense of "cut of meat or fish" is from late 14c., apparently so called because it was prepared by being tied up with a string. As a verb, from c.1600, "to bind with a narrow band;" meaning "to cut in fillets" is from 1846. Related: Filleted; filleting.
filling (n.)
verbal noun from fill (v.). Dentistry sense is from 1848. Filling station attested by 1921.
fillip (v.)
mid-15c., philippen "to flip something with the fingers, snap the fingers," possibly of imitative origin. As a noun, from 1520s, fyllippe.
filly (n.)
c.1400, fyly, possibly from Old Norse fylja, fem. of foli "foal" (see foal (n.)). Slang sense of "young girl" is from 1610s.
film (n.)
Old English filmen "membrane, thin skin," from West Germanic *filminjan (cognates: Old Frisian filmene "skin," Old English fell "hide"), extended from Proto-Germanic *fello(m) "animal hide," from PIE *pel- (4) "skin, hide" (cognates: Greek pella, Latin pellis "skin").

Sense of "a thin coat of something" is 1570s, extended by 1845 to the coating of chemical gel on photographic plates. By 1895 this also meant the coating plus the paper or celluloid. First used of "motion pictures" in 1905.
film (v.)
c.1600, "to cover with a film," from film (v.). Meaning "to make a movie of" is from 1899. Related: Filmed; filming.
film noir (n.)
1958, from French, literally "black film," from noir (12c.), from Latin niger (see Negro).
filmmaker (n.)
from film (n.) + maker.
filmography (n.)
1962, from film (n.) + ending from bibliography, etc.
filmstrip (n.)
1930, from film (n.) + strip (n.).
filmy (adj.)
c.1600, from film (n.) + -y (2). Related: Filminess.
filoque
Latin, "and from the son" (see filial). "Clause in Nicene Creed which separates Eastern Church from Western" [Weekley].
filter (n.)
early 15c., from Old French filtre and directly from Medieval Latin filtrum "felt," which was used to strain impurities from liquid, from West Germanic *filtiz (see felt (n.)). Of cigarettes, from 1908.
filter (v.)
1570s, from Medieval Latin filtrare, from filtrum (see filter (n.)). The figurative sense is from 1830. Related: Filtered; filtering.
filth (n.)
Old English fylð "uncleanness, impurity," from Proto-Germanic *fulitho (cognates: Old Saxon fulitha "foulness, filth," Dutch vuilte, Old High German fulida), noun derivative of *fulo- "foul" (see foul (adj.)). A classic case of i-mutation.
filthy (adj.)
late 12c., fulthe, "corrupt, sinful," from filth + -y (2). Meaning "physically unclean" is from late 14c. Meaning "morally dirty, obscene" is from 1530s.
In early use often hardly more emphatic than the mod. dirty; it is now a violent expression of disgust, seldom employed in polite colloquial speech. [OED]
Related: Filthiness.
filtrate (v.)
1610s, probably a back-formation from filtration. As a noun, from 1846.
filtration (n.)
c.1600, perhaps from French filtration (1570s), noun of action from filter "to filter" (see filter (v.)).
fimbria (n.)
Latin, literally "fringe, border, shred."
fin (n.)
Old English finn, from Proto-Germanic *finno (cognates: Middle Low German vinne, Dutch vin), perhaps from Latin pinna "feather, wing" (see pin (n.)); or, less likely, from Latin spina "thorn, spine" (see spine).

U.S. underworld slang sense of "$5 bill" is 1925, from Yiddish finif "five," from German fünf (see five) and thus unrelated. The same word had been used in England 1868 to mean "five pound note" (earlier finnip, 1839).
fin de siecle (adj.)
1890, from French fin de siècle "end of century," phrase used as an adjective. At the time it meant "modern;" now it means "from the 1890s." "App. first in title of a comedy, Paris fin de siècle, produced at the Gymnase, Feb. 1890" [Weekley]. French siècle "century, age" is from Latin saeculum (see secular).
finagle (v.)
1926, American English, possibly a variant of English dialectal fainaigue "to cheat or renege" (at cards), of unknown origin. Liberman says finagle is from figgle, phonetic variant of fiddle "fidget about," frequentative of fig. Related: Finagled; finagling.
final (adj.)
early 14c., from Old French final and directly from Latin finalis "of or pertaining to an end, concluding, final," from finis "end" (see finish). As a noun, late 14c., "that which comes last;" meaning "final contest" in a sporting sense is from 1880. As a shortening of final examination, from 1880.
final solution (n.)
1947, translation of German Endlösung, name given to Nazi Jewish policy from 1941.
finale (n.)
1783, borrowed as a musical term from Italian finale "final," from Latin finalis (see final). From 1724 as an Italian word in English. Figurative use by 1810.
finalise (v.)
chiefly British English spelling of finalize. For suffix, see -ize. Related: Finalised; finalising.
finalist (n.)
"competitor remaining after eliminations," 1898, from final + -ist.
finality (n.)
1540s, from Middle French finalité, from Late Latin finalitatem (nominative finalitas) "state of being final," from Latin finalis (see final).
finalize (v.)
1850, from final + -ize. Related: Finalized; finalizing.
finally (adv.)
late 14c., fynaly, from final + -ly (2).
finals (n.)
short for final exams, by 1890.
finance (n.)
c.1400, "an end, settlement, retribution," from Middle French finance "ending, settlement of a debt" (13c.), noun of action from finer "to end, settle a dispute or debt," from fin (see fine (n.)). Compare Medieval Latin finis "a payment in settlement, fine or tax."

The notion is of "ending" (by satisfying) something that is due (compare Greek telos "end;" plural tele "services due, dues exacted by the state, financial means"). The French senses gradually were brought into English: "ransom" (mid-15c.), "taxation" (late 15c.); the sense of "management of money" first recorded in English 1770.
finance (v.)
late 15c., "to ransom;" see finance (n.). Sense of "to manage money" is recorded from 1827; that of "to furnish with money" is from 1866. Related: Financed; financing.
finances (n.)
"pecuniary resources," 1730, modeled on the French cognate, from plural of finance (n.).
financial (adj.)
1769, from finance (n.) + -al (1). Related: Financially.
financier (n.)
1610s, "one concerned with finances" (especially public), from French financier (16c.), agent noun from finance (see finance (n.)). Sense of "capitalist" is first recorded 1867.
finch (n.)
Old English finc, from Proto-Germanic *finkiz, *finkjon (cognates: Middle Low German and Middle Dutch vinke, Dutch vink, Old High German finco, German Fink), perhaps imitative of the bird's note (compare Breton pint "chaffinch," Russian penka "wren").
find (v.)
Old English findan "come upon, meet with, discover; obtain by search or study" (class III strong verb; past tense fand, past participle funden), from Proto-Germanic *finthan "to come upon, discover" (cognates: Old Saxon findan, Old Frisian finda, Old Norse finna, Middle Dutch vinden, Old High German findan, German finden, Gothic finþan), originally "to come upon."

The Germanic word is from PIE root *pent- "to tread, go" (cognates: Old High German fendeo "pedestrian;" Sanskrit panthah "path, way;" Avestan panta "way;" Greek pontos "open sea," patein "to tread, walk;" Latin pons (genitive pontis) "bridge;" Old Church Slavonic poti "path," peta "heel;" Russian put' "path, way"). To find out "to discover by scrutiny" is from 1550s (Middle English had a verb, outfinden, c.1300).
find (n.)
"person or thing discovered," 1825, from find (v.).
finding (n.)
c.1300, "an abandoned child," verbal noun from find (v.). See foundling. Later, "a discovery; that which is found out" (1590s). Meaning "result of a judicial examination" is from 1859. Related: Findings.
fine (adj.)
mid-13c., "unblemished, refined, pure; of superior quality," from Old French fin "perfected, of highest quality" (12c.), from Latin finis "end, limit" (see finish); hence "acme, peak, height," as in finis boni "the highest good."

In French, the main meaning remains "delicate, intricately skillful;" in English since mid-15c. fine is also a general expression of admiration or approval, the equivalent of French beau (as in fine arts, 1767, translating French beaux-arts). Finer; finest. Fine print is from 1861 as "type small and close-set;" by 1934 as "qualifications and limitations of a deal."
fine (n.)
c.1200, "termination," from Old French fin "end, limit, boundary; death; fee, payment, finance, money" (10c.), from Medieval Latin finis "a payment in settlement, fine or tax," from Latin finis "end" (see finish).

Modern meaning is via sense of "sum of money paid for exemption from punishment or to compensate for injury" (mid-14c., from the same sense in Anglo-French, late 13c.) and from phrases such as to make fine "make one's peace, settle a matter" (c.1300). Meaning "sum of money imposed as penalty for some offense" is first recorded 1520s.