filibuster (n.) Look up filibuster at Dictionary.com
1580s, flibutor "pirate," especially, in history, "West Indian buccaneer of the 17th century" (mainly French, Dutch, and English adventurers), probably ultimately from Dutch vrijbueter (now vrijbuiter) "freebooter," a word which was used of pirates in the West Indies in Spanish (filibustero) and French (flibustier, earlier fribustier) forms. See freebooter.

According to Century Dictionary, the spread of the word is owing to a Dutch work ("De Americaensche Zee-Roovers," 1678) "written by a bucaneer named John Oexmelin, otherwise Exquemelin or Esquemeling, and translated into French and Spanish, and subsequently into English (1684)." Spanish inserted the -i- in the first syllable; French is responsible for the -s-, inserted but not originally pronounced, "a common fact in 17th century F[rench], after the analogy of words in which an original s was retained in spelling, though it had become silent in pronunciation" [Century Dictionary].

In American English, from 1851 in reference to lawless military adventurers from the U.S. who tried to overthrow Central American governments. The major expeditions were those of Narciso Lopez of New Orleans against Cuba (1850-51) and by William Walker of California against the Mexican state of Sonora (1853-54) and against Nicaragua (1855-58).
FILIBUSTERING is a term lately imported from the Spanish, yet destined, it would seem, to occupy an important place in our vocabulary. In its etymological import it is nearly synonymous with piracy. It is commonly employed, however, to denote an idea peculiar to the modern progress, and which may be defined as the right and practice of private war, or the claim of individuals to engage in foreign hostilities aside from, and even in opposition to the government with which they are in political membership. ["Harper's New Monthly Magazine," January 1853]
The noun in the legislative sense is not in Bartlett (1859) and seems not to have been in use in U.S. legislative writing before 1865 (filibustering in this sense is from 1861). Probably the extension in sense is because obstructionist legislators "pirated" debate or overthrew the usual order of authority. Originally of the senator who led it; the maneuver itself so called by 1893. Not technically restricted to U.S. Senate, but that's where the strategy works best. [The 1853 use of filibustering by U.S. Rep. Albert G. Brown of Mississippi reported in the "Congressional Globe" and cited in the OED does not refer to legislative obstruction, merely to national policy toward Cuba.]
filibuster (v.) Look up filibuster at Dictionary.com
1853 in the freebooting sense, from filibuster (n.). Legislative sense is from 1861. Related: Filibustered; filibustering.
filicide (n.) Look up filicide at Dictionary.com
1660s, "action of killing a son or daughter," from Latin filius/filia "son/daughter" (see filial) + -cide. Meaning "one who kills a son or daughter" is from 1823. Related: Filicidal.
filigree (n.) Look up filigree at Dictionary.com
1690s, shortening of filigreen (1660s), from French filigrane "filigree" (17c.), from Italian filigrana, from Latin filum "thread, wire" (see file (v.1)) + granum "grain" (see corn (n.1)). Related: Filigreed.
filing (n.) Look up filing at Dictionary.com
1712, verbal noun from file (v.1). Filing cabinet is from 1883.
filioque Look up filioque at Dictionary.com
Latin, "and from the son," from ablative of filius "son" (see filial). "Clause in Nicene Creed which separates Eastern Church from Western" [Weekley].
filipendulous (adj.) Look up filipendulous at Dictionary.com
"hanging by a thread," 1864, as if from Latin filum "thread" (see file (v.1)) + pendulus "hanging down" (see pendulous).
Filipino (n.) Look up Filipino at Dictionary.com
1898 (fem. Filipina), Spanish, from las Islas Filipinas "the Philippine Islands" (see Philippines).
fill (v.) Look up fill at Dictionary.com
Old English fyllan "to fill, make full, fill up, replenish, satisfy; complete, fulfill," from Proto-Germanic *fulljan "to fill" (cognates: Old Saxon fulljan, Old Norse fylla, Old Frisian fella, Dutch vullen, German füllen, Gothic fulljan "to fill, make full"), a derivative of adjective *fullaz "full" (see full (adj.)). Related: Filled.

To fill the bill (1882) originally was U.S. theatrical slang, in reference to a star of such magnitude his or her name would be the only one on a show's poster. To fill out "write in required matter" is recorded from 1880.
fill (n.) Look up fill at Dictionary.com
mid-13c., fille, "a full supply," from Old English fyllu "fullness, 'fill,' feast, satiety," from Proto-Germanic *full-ino- "fullness" (cognates: Old High German fulli, German Fülle, Old Norse fyllr), noun of state from *fullaz "full" (see full (adj.)). Meaning "extra material in music" is from 1934.
fill-in (n.) Look up fill-in at Dictionary.com
"substitute," 1918 (as an adjective, 1916), from verbal phrase; see fill (v.), in (adv.). Earlier as a noun was fill-up (1811).
filler (n.) Look up filler at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "one who fills," agent noun from fill (v.). Meaning "something used to fill" is from 1590s. Specifically of food products by 1901.
fillet (n.) Look up fillet at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "little headband," from Old French filet "thread, filament; strip, ligament" (12c.), diminutive of fil "thread" (see file (v.1)). Sense of "cut of meat or fish" is from late 14c., apparently so called because it was prepared by being tied up with a string.
fillet (v.) Look up fillet at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, "to bind with a narrow band," from fillet (n.). Meaning "to cut in fillets" is from 1846. Related: Filleted; filleting.
filling (adj.) Look up filling at Dictionary.com
"calculated to fill or satisfy," 1620s, present-participle adjective from fill (v.).
filling (n.) Look up filling at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, "that which fills or fills up," verbal noun from fill (v.). Dentistry sense is from 1848. Filling station attested by 1915.
fillip (v.) Look up fillip at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., philippen "to flip something with the fingers, snap the fingers," possibly of imitative origin. As a noun, from 1520s, fyllippe.
filly (n.) Look up filly at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, filli, fyly, "a young mare, female colt or foal," possibly from Old Norse fylja, fem. of foli "foal" (see foal (n.)). Slang sense of "lively young girl" is from 1610s.
film (n.) Look up film at Dictionary.com
Old English filmen "membrane, thin skin, foreskin," from West Germanic *filminjan (cognates: Old Frisian filmene "skin," Old English fell "hide"), extended from Proto-Germanic *fello(m) "animal hide," from PIE *pel- (4) "skin, hide" (cognates: Greek pella, Latin pellis "skin").

Sense of "a thin coat of something" is 1570s, extended by 1845 to the coating of chemical gel on photographic plates. By 1895 this also meant the coating plus the paper or celluloid. Hence "a motion picture" (1905); sense of "film-making as a craft or art" is from 1920.
film (v.) Look up film at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, "to cover with a film or thin skin," from film (v.). Intransitive sense is from 1844. Meaning "to make a movie of" is from 1899. Related: Filmed; filming.
film noir (n.) Look up film noir at Dictionary.com
1958, from French, literally "black film," from noir (12c.), from Latin niger (see Negro).
film-maker (n.) Look up film-maker at Dictionary.com
also filmmaker, 1859 as a solution used in developing photographs, later "a producer of film for cameras" (by 1889), from film (n.) + maker. As "producer of a cinematographic work, movie-maker," from 1905.
film-strip (n.) Look up film-strip at Dictionary.com
also filmstrip, 1930, from film (n.) + strip (n.).
filmography (n.) Look up filmography at Dictionary.com
1962, from film (n.) + ending from bibliography, etc.
filmy (adj.) Look up filmy at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, "composed of thin membranes," from film (n.) + -y (2). Related: Filminess.
filter (n.) Look up filter at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "piece of felt through which liquid is strained," from Old French feutre "felt, felt hat, carpet" (Modern French filtre) and directly from Medieval Latin filtrum "felt" (used to strain impurities from liquid), from West Germanic *filtiz (see felt (n.)). Figurative use from c. 1600. As a pad of absorbent material attached to a cigarette, from 1908.
filter (v.) Look up filter at Dictionary.com
1570s (transitive), from French filtrer or from Medieval Latin filtrare, from filtrum "felt" (see filter (n.)). The figurative sense is from 1830. Intransitive use from 1798. Related: Filtered; filtering.
filth (n.) Look up filth at Dictionary.com
Old English fylð "uncleanness, impurity, foulness," from Proto-Germanic *fulitho (cognates: Old Saxon fulitha "foulness, filth," Dutch vuilte, Old High German fulida), noun derivative of *fulo- "foul" (see foul (adj.)). A classic case of i-mutation.
filthy (adj.) Look up filthy at Dictionary.com
late 12c., fulthe, "corrupt, sinful," from filth + -y (2). Meaning "physically unclean, dirty, noisome" is from late 14c. Meaning "morally dirty, obscene" is from 1530s.
In early use often hardly more emphatic than the mod. dirty; it is now a violent expression of disgust, seldom employed in polite colloquial speech. [OED]
Related: Filthily; filthiness.
filtrate (v.) Look up filtrate at Dictionary.com
1610s, probably a back-formation from filtration or else from Medieval Latin filtratus. Related: Filtrated; filtrating. As a noun, "liquid which has passed through a filter," from 1846.
filtration (n.) Look up filtration at Dictionary.com
"act or process of filtering," c. 1600, perhaps from French filtration (1570s), noun of action from filter "to filter" (see filter (v.)).
fimbria (n.) Look up fimbria at Dictionary.com
"a fringing filament," from Late Latin fimbria (sing.), from Latin fimbriae (pl.), "fringe, border, threads." Related: Fimbriated (late 15c.); fimbrial.
fin (n.) Look up fin at Dictionary.com
Old English finn "fin," from Proto-Germanic *finno (cognates: Middle Low German vinne, Dutch vin), perhaps from Latin pinna "feather, wing" (see pin (n.)); or, less likely, from Latin spina "thorn, spine" (see spine).

U.S. underworld slang sense of "$5 bill" is 1925, from Yiddish finif "five," from German fünf (see five) and thus unrelated. The same word had been used in England in 1868 to mean "five pound note" (earlier finnip, 1839).
fin de siecle (adj.) Look up fin de siecle at Dictionary.com
1890, from French fin de siècle "end of century," phrase used as an adjective. At the time it meant "modern;" now it means "from the 1890s." "App. first in title of a comedy, Paris fin de siècle, produced at the Gymnase, Feb. 1890" [Weekley]. French siècle "century, age" is from Latin saeculum (see secular).
finagle (v.) Look up finagle at Dictionary.com
"get dishonestly or deviously," 1926, American English, possibly a variant of English dialectal fainaigue "to cheat or renege" (at cards), which is of unknown origin. Liberman says finagle is from figgle, phonetic variant of fiddle "fidget about," frequentative of fig. Related: Finagled; finagling.
final (adj.) Look up final at Dictionary.com
early 14c., from Old French final "final, last," and directly from Late Latin finalis "of or pertaining to an end, concluding, final," from finis "end" (see finish (v.)). As a noun, late 14c., "that which comes last;" meaning "final contest" in a sporting sense is from 1880. As a shortening of final examination, from 1880.
final solution (n.) Look up final solution at Dictionary.com
1947, translation of German Endlösung, name given to Nazi Jewish policy from 1941.
finale (n.) Look up finale at Dictionary.com
1783, a musical term, from noun use of Italian finale "final," from Latin finalis "of or pertaining to an end" (see final). From 1724 as an Italian word in English. Figurative use by 1810.
finalise (v.) Look up finalise at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of finalize. For suffix, see -ize. Related: Finalised; finalising.
finalist (n.) Look up finalist at Dictionary.com
"competitor remaining after eliminations," 1896, from final + -ist. Earlier "one who believes the end has been reached" (1883).
finality (n.) Look up finality at Dictionary.com
1540s, "a goal, a guiding object," from Middle French finalité, from Late Latin finalitatem (nominative finalitas) "state of being final," from Latin finalis "last, of or pertaining to an end" (see final). From 1833 as "quality or state of being final."
finalize (v.) Look up finalize at Dictionary.com
1850, from final + -ize. Related: Finalized; finalizing.
finally (adv.) Look up finally at Dictionary.com
late 14c., fynaly "at the end;" c. 1400, "completely, beyond recovery;" from final + -ly (2).
finals (n.) Look up finals at Dictionary.com
short for final exams, by 1890; see final (adj.).
finance (n.) Look up finance at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, "an end, settlement, retribution," from Old French finance "end, ending; pardon, remission; payment, expense; settlement of a debt" (13c.), noun of action from finer "to end, settle a dispute or debt," from fin (see fine (n.)). Compare Medieval Latin finis "a payment in settlement, fine or tax."

The notion is of "ending" (by satisfying) something that is due (compare Greek telos "end;" plural tele "services due, dues exacted by the state, financial means"). The French senses gradually were brought into English: "ransom" (mid-15c.), "taxation" (late 15c.); the sense of "management of money, science of monetary business" first recorded in English 1770.
finance (v.) Look up finance at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "to ransom" (obsolete), from finance (n.). Sense of "to manage money" is recorded from 1827; that of "to furnish with money" is from 1866. Related: Financed; financing.
finances (n.) Look up finances at Dictionary.com
"pecuniary resources, funds in money," 1730, modeled on the French cognate, from plural of finance (n.).
financial (adj.) Look up financial at Dictionary.com
1769, from finance (n.) + -ial. Related: Financially.
financier (n.) Look up financier at Dictionary.com
1610s, "one concerned with finances" (especially public), from French financier (16c.), from finance (see finance (n.)). Sense of "capitalist, one skilled in financial operations" is first recorded 1867.
finch (n.) Look up finch at Dictionary.com
common European bird, Old English finc "finch," from Proto-Germanic *finkiz "finch" (cognates: Middle Low German and Middle Dutch vinke, Dutch vink, Old High German finco, German Fink), perhaps imitative of the bird's note (compare Breton pint "chaffinch," Russian penka "wren").