- francium (n.)
- radioactive element, 1946, named by French physicist Marguerite Catherine Perey (1909-1975) who first identified it at the Curie Institute in Paris, from Latinized form of France. With metallic element ending -ium.
- word-forming element meaning "French" or "the Franks," from Medieval Latin comb. form of Franci "the Franks" (see Frank), hence, by extension, "the French." Used from early 18c. in forming English compound words.
- Francophile (adj.)
- "characterized by excessive fondness of France and the French," 1875, from Franco- + -phile. "A newspaper word" [OED]. Its opposite, Francophobe, is recorded from 1890, implied in Francophobic; Francophobia is from 1862. An earlier word was anti-Gallician (n.), attested from 1755.
- Francophone (adj.)
- 1900, from Franco- "French" + -phone "-speaking."
- frangible (adj.)
- "easily breakable," early 15c., from Old French frangible, from Medieval Latin frangibilis, from Latin frangere "to break" (see fraction). Related: Frangibility.
- frangipani (n.)
- common name of a type of flowering shrub from the West Indies, also fdrangipane, 1670s, for a perfume that had its odor, from French frangipane (16c.), said to be from Frangipani, the family name of the Italian inventor.
FRANGIPANI, an illustrious and powerful Roman House, which traces its origin to the 7th c., and attained the summit of its glory in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The origin of the name Frangipani is attributed to the family's benevolent distribution of bread in time of famine. ["Chambers's Encyclopædia," 1868]
Frangipane as a type of pastry is from 1858.
- Franglais (n.)
- "French marred by many English and American words," 1964, from French (1959), from français "French" + anglais "English."
- frank (adj.)
- c. 1300, "free, liberal, generous;" 1540s, "outspoken," from Old French franc "free (not servile); without hindrance, exempt from; sincere, genuine, open, gracious, generous; worthy, noble, illustrious" (12c.), from Medieval Latin francus "free, at liberty, exempt from service," as a noun, "a freeman, a Frank" (see Frank).
A generalization of the tribal name; the connection is that Franks, as the conquering class, alone had the status of freemen in a world that knew only free, captive, or slave. For sense connection of "being one of the nation" and "free," compare Latin liber "free," from the same root as German Leute "nation, people" (see liberal (adj.)) and Slavic "free" words (Old Church Slavonic svobodi, Polish swobodny, Serbo-Croatian slobodan) which are cognates of the first element in English sibling "brother, sister" (in Old English used more generally: "relative, kinsman"). For the later sense development, compare ingenuity.
- frank (n.)
- short for frankfurter, by 1916, American English. Franks and beans attested by 1953.
- Frank (n.)
- one of the Germanic tribal people (Salian Franks) situated on the lower Rhine from 3c. that conquered Romano-Celtic northern Gaul c.500 C.E.; from their territory and partly from their language grew modern France and French. Old English franc, franca "freeman, noble; Frank, Frenchman," from Medieval Latin francus, a Late Latin borrowing of Frankish *Frank, the people's self-designation (cognate with Old High German Franko, the Latin word also is the source of Spanish and Italian names Franco).
The origin of the ethnic name is uncertain; it traditionally is said to be from the old Germanic word *frankon "javelin, lance" (compare Old English franca "lance, javelin"), their preferred weapon, but the reverse may be the case. Compare also Saxon, traditionally from root of Old English seax "knife." The adjectival sense of "free, at liberty" (see frank (adj.)) probably developed from the tribal name, not the other way round. It was noted by 1680s that, in the Levant, this was the name given to anyone of Western nationality (compare Feringhee and lingua franca).
- frank (v.)
- "to free a letter for carriage or an article for publication, to send by public conveyance free of expense," 1708, from shortened form of French affranchir, from a- "to" + franchir "to free" (see franchise (v.)). A British parliamentary privilege from 1660-1840; in U.S. Congress, technically abolished 1873. Related: Franked; franking. As a noun, "signature of one entitled to send letters for free," from 1713.
- Frankenstein (n.)
- allusive use for man-made monsters dates to 1838, from Baron Frankenstein, character in Mary Shelley's 1818 novel "Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus." Commonly taken (mistakenly) as the proper name of the monster, not the creator, and thus franken- extended 1990s as a prefix to mean "non-natural." The German surname is probably literally "Franconian Mountain," stein being used especially for steep, rocky peaks, which in the Rhineland often were crowned with castles. The Shelleys might have passed one in their travels. The German surname also suggests "free stone."
Frankenstein is the creator-victim; the creature-despot & fatal creation is Frankenstein's monster. The blunder is very common indeed -- almost, but surely not quite, sanctioned by custom. [Fowler]
- frankfurter (n.)
- "hot dog," 1894, American English, from German Frankfurter (wurst) "(sausage) of Frankfurt," so called because the U.S. product resembled a type of smoked-beef-and-pork sausage originally made in Germany, where it was associated with the city of Frankfurt am Main (literally "ford of the Franks" on the River Main). Attested from 1877 as Frankfort sausage.
- frankincense (n.)
- aromatic gum resin from a certain type of tree, used anciently as incense and in religious rituals, late 14c., apparently from Old French franc encense, from franc "noble, true" (see frank (adj.)), in this case probably signifying "pure" or "of the highest quality," + encens "incense" (see incense (n.)).
- Frankish (adj.)
- "pertaining to the ancient Franks," 1802, from Frank + -ish. As the name of the West Germanic language spoken by the ancient Franks, from 1863. (Frenkis is recorded c. 1400.). The language was absorbed into French, which it influenced, especially in the northern regions from which the Normans conquered England in 1066.
- Middle English Frankeleyn, attested as a surname from late 12c., from Anglo-French fraunclein "freeholder, land-owner of free but not noble birth," from Old French franc "free" (see frank (adj.)); probably with the Germanic suffix also found in chamberlain.
The Franklin stove (1787) so called because it was invented by U.S. scientist/politician Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790). In early 19c., lightning rods often were called Franklins from his famous experiments with lightning in the 1750s.
- frankly (adv.)
- "in an unreserved manner, without concealment or disguise," 1530s, from frank (adj.) + -ly (2).
- frankness (n.)
- "plainness of speech, candor," 1550s, from frank (adj.) + -ness.
- frantic (adj.)
- mid-14c., "insane," unexplained variant of Middle English frentik (see frenetic). Compare franzy, dialectal form of frenzy. Transferred meaning "affected by wild excitement" is from late 15c. Of the adverbial forms, frantically (1749) is later than franticly (1540s).
- frap (v.)
- "to strike, smite," early 14c., from Old French fraper "to strike, hit, beat," in nautical use "fix, fasten" (12c., Modern French frapper), cognate with Italian frappare "to strike," which is of unknown origin, perhaps imitative (compare rap (n.)). Nautical sense of "bind tightly" is from 1540s. Related: Frapped; frapping.
- frappe (n.)
- "iced drink," 1922, American English, from French noun use of frappé "made cold by application of ice," past participle of frapper "to chill," literally "to beat," from Old French fraper "to hit, strike" (see frap (v.)). Earlier in English as an adjective, "iced" (1848).
- frass (n.)
- insect excrement, 1854, from German frasz, from root of fressen "to devour, to eat as a beast does" (see fret (v.)).
- frat (n.)
- student slang shortening of fraternity, by 1888.
- fraternal (adj.)
- early 15c., from Old French fraternel "brotherly, fraternal," and directly from Medieval Latin fraternalis, from Latin fraternus "friendly, closely allied," literally "brotherly" (see fraternity). The noun meaning "fraternal twin" is recorded by 1911.
- fraternally (adv.)
- 1610s, from fraternal + -ly (2).
- fraternise (v.)
- chiefly British English spelling of fraternize. For suffix, see -ize. Related: Fraternising; fraternisation.
- fraternity (n.)
- early 14c., "body of men associated by common interest," from Old French fraternité (12c.), from Latin fraternitatem (nominative fraternitas) "brotherhood," from fraternus "brotherly," from frater "brother," from PIE *bhrater "brother" (see brother). Meaning "state or condition of being as brothers" is from late 15c. College Greek-letter organization sense is from 1777, first in reference to Phi Beta Kappa.
- fraternization (n.)
- 1792, "act of uniting as brothers," noun of action from fraternize on model of French fraternisation. In reference to friendly relations between occupying soldiers and occupied civilians, from 1851; in reference to intimate relations as a violation of military discipline from 1944 (see fraternize).
- fraternize (v.)
- 1610s, "to sympathize as brothers," from French fraterniser, from Medieval Latin fraternizare, from Latin fraternus "brotherly" (see fraternity). Military sense of "cultivate friendship with enemy troops" is from 1897 (used in World War I with reference to the Christmas Truce). Used oddly in World War II armed forces jargon to mean "have sex with women from enemy countries" as a violation of military discipline.
A piece of frat, Wren-language for any attractive young woman -- ex-enemy -- in occupied territory. [John Irving, "Royal Navalese," 1946]
Related: Fraternized; fraternizing.
- fratricidal (adj.)
- 1804, from fratricide + -al (1).
- fratricide (n.)
- mid-15c., "person who kills a brother;" 1560s, "act of killing a brother," from Latin fratricida "brother-slayer," from frater "brother" (see brother) + cida "killer;" in the later use from cidum "a killing," both from caedere "to kill, to cut down" (see -cide). Among several Old English words for this were broðorbana "one who kills a brother;" broðorcwealm "act of killing a brother."
- frau (n.)
- "married woman," 1813, from German Frau "woman, wife," from Middle High German vrouwe "lady, mistress," from Old High German frouwa "mistress, lady" (9c.), from Proto-Germanic *frowo "lady" (source also of Old English freo "woman, lady," Middle Dutch vrouwe, Dutch vrouw), fem. of *frawan "lord," from suffixed form of PIE *pro- (see pro-). Swedish fru, Danish frue are ultimately from Dutch; the proper Scandinavian form is preserved in Old Norse freyja "lady," husfreyja "mistress of the house."
- fraud (n.)
- mid-14c., "criminal deception" (mid-13c. in Anglo-Latin); from Old French fraude "deception, fraud" (13c.), from Latin fraudem (nominative fraus) "a cheating, deceit," of persons "a cheater, deceiver." Not in Watkins; perhaps ultimately from PIE *dhreugh- "to deceive" (source also of Sanskrit dhruti- "deception; error"). Meaning "a fraudulent production, something intended to deceive" is from 1650s. The meaning "impostor, deceiver, pretender; humbug" is attested from 1850. Pious fraud (1560s) is properly "deception practiced for the sake of what is deemed a good purpose;" colloquially used as "person who talks piously but is not pious at heart."
- fraudster (n.)
- "one who practices fraud," 1975, from fraud + -ster. Earlier words were fraud (1850); fraudsman (1610s); frauditor (1550s).
- fraudulence (n.)
- "deceit," c. 1500, from Middle French fraudulence, from Latin fraudulentia, from stem of fraus (see fraud).
- fraudulent (adj.)
- early 15c., from Old French fraudulent, from Latin fraudulentus "cheating, deceitful, dishonest," from stem of fraus "deceit" (see fraud). Earlier was fraudful (c. 1400). The Old French word was fraudios. Related: Fraudulently.
- frauendienst (n.)
- "excessive chivalry toward women," 1879 as a German word in English, from the title of a work by Ulrich von Lichtenstein (13c.), from German frauen, plural of frau "woman" + dienst "service."
- fraught (adj.)
- late 14c., "freighted, laden, loaded, stored with supplies" (of vessels); figurative use from early 15c.; past participle adjective from obsolete verb fraught "to load (a ship) with cargo," Middle English fraughten (c. 1400), which always was rarer than the past participle, from noun fraught "a load, cargo, lading of a ship" (early 13c.), which is the older form of freight (n.).
This apparently is from a North Sea Germanic source, Middle Dutch vrecht, vracht "hire for a ship, freight," or similar words in Middle Low German or Frisian, apparently originally "earnings," from Proto-Germanic *fra-aihtiz "property, absolute possession," from *fra-, here probably intensive + *aigan "be master of, possess" (see owe (v.)). Related: Fraughtage.
- fraulein (n.)
- "young lady," 1680s, from German Fräulein "unmarried woman" (Middle High German vrouwelin), diminutive of Frau "lady" (see frau).
- fray (n.)
- mid-14c., "feeling of alarm," shortening of affray (q.v.; see also afraid). Meaning "a brawl, a fight" is from early 15c. (late 14c. in Anglo-Latin). Fraymaker "fighter, brawler" is found in a 1530s statute recorded by Prynne ("Soveraigne Power of Parliaments and Kingdomes," 1643). Nares' "Glossary" has frayment (1540s).
- fray (v.)
- "wear off by rubbing," c. 1400, from Old French fraiier, froiier "to rub against, scrape; thrust against" (also in reference to copulation), from Latin fricare "to rub, rub down" (see friction). Intransitive sense "to ravel out" (of fabric, etc.) is from 1721. The noun meaning "a frayed place in a garment" is from 1620s. Related: Frayed; fraying.
- frayed (adj.)
- "worn by rubbing," 1814, past participle adjective from fray (v.).
- frazzle (v.)
- c. 1825, "to unravel" (of clothing), from East Anglian variant of 17c. fasel "to unravel, fray" (as the end of a rope), from Middle English facelyn "to fray" (mid-15c.), from fasylle "fringe, frayed edge," diminutive of Old English fæs "fringe, border." Related: Frazzled, frazzling. Compare German Faser "thread, fiber, filament," Middle Dutch vese "fringe, fiber, chaff." Probably influenced in form by fray (v.).
- frazzle (n.)
- "worn-out condition," 1865, American English, from frazzle (v.).
- freak (v.)
- "change, distort," 1911, from freak (n.1). Earlier, "to streak or fleck randomly" (1630s). Related: Freaked; freaking.
- freak (n.1)
- 1560s, "sudden and apparently causeless turn of mind," of unknown origin. Perhaps it is from a dialectal survival of a word related to Middle English friken "to move nimbly or briskly," from Old English frician "to dance" [OED, Barnhart]. There is a freking attested in mid-15c., apparently meaning "capricious behavior, whims." Or perhaps from Middle English frek "eager, zealous, bold, brave, fierce" (see freak (n.2)).
Sense of "capricious notion" (1560s) and "unusual thing, fancy" (1784) preceded that of "abnormally developed individual or production" (first in freak of nature, 1839, which was later popular in variety show advertisements for bearded ladies, albinos, etc.; compare Latin lusus naturæ, which was used in English from 1660s). As "drug user," attested from 1945. The sense in health freak, ecology freak, etc. is attested from 1908 (originally Kodak freak, a camera buff). Freak show attested from 1887.
- freak (n.2)
- "brave man, warrior," Scottish freik, from Middle English freke "a bold man, a warrior, a man," from Old English freca "bold man, a warrior," from frec "greedy, eager, bold" (compare German frech "bold, impudent").
- freak-out (n.)
- also freakout "bad psychedelic drug trip," or something comparable to one, 1966, from verbal phrase freak out, attested from 1965 in the drug sense (from 1902 in a sense "change, distort, come out of alignment"); see freak (n.). There is a coincidental appearance of the phrase in "Fanny Hill:"
She had had her freak out, and had pretty plentifully drowned her curiosity in a glut of pleasure .... [Cleland, "Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure," 1749]
where the sense is "she had concluded her prank."
- freakish (adj.)
- 1650s, "capricious," from freak (n.) + -ish. Meaning "grotesque" is recorded from 1805. Related: Freakishly; freakishness. Keats has freakful.
- freaky (adj.)
- 1824, "capricious, whimsical," from freak (n.) + -y (2). Psychedelic sense is from 1966. Related: Freakiness.