girly (adj.) Look up girly at
"girl-like," 1866, from girl + -y (2). Girly-girly (adj.) is recorded from 1883; as a noun, from 1882.
girly (n.) Look up girly at
"little girl," 1866, (1860 as girlie), from girl + -y (3).
Girondist (n.) Look up Girondist at
1795, member of the moderate republican party of France, 1791-93, from Gironde, name of a deputy in southwestern France; the faction so called because its leaders were deputies elected from there.
girt (v.) Look up girt at
c.1400 as alternative form of gird; also past tense and past participle of gird.
girth (n.) Look up girth at
c.1300, "belt around a horse's body," from Old Norse gjorð "girdle, belt, hoop," from Proto-Germanic *gertu- (cf Gothic gairda "girdle"), from the same source as gird. Sense of "measurement around an object" first recorded 1640s.
gist (n.) Look up gist at
1711, "the real point" (of a law case, etc.), from Anglo-French legalese phrases such as cest action gist "this action lies," meaning "this case is sustainable by law," from Old French gist en "it consists in, it lies in" (third person singular present indicative of gésir "to lie"), from Latin iacet "it lies," from iacere "to lie, rest," related to iacere "to throw" (see jet (v.)). Extended sense of "essence" first recorded 1823.
git (n.) Look up git at
"worthless person," 1946, British slang, a southern variant of Scottish get "illegitimate child, brat," which is related to beget.
Gitano (n.) Look up Gitano at
"gypsy," 1834, from Spanish Gitano, from Vulgar Latin *Ægyptanus "Egyptian" (see Gypsy). The fem. is gitana. The French form of the feminine, gitane, was used as the name of a brand of cigarettes (1933) and has come to be used for French cigarettes generally.
gittern (n.) Look up gittern at
late 14c., from Old French guiterne, from Latin cithara, from Greek kithara (see guitar).
give (v.) Look up give at
Old English giefan (West Saxon) "to give, bestow; allot, grant; commit, devote, entrust," class V strong verb (past tense geaf, past participle giefen), from Proto-Germanic *geban (cognates: Old Frisian jeva, Middle Dutch gheven, Dutch geven, Old High German geban, German geben, Gothic giban), from PIE *ghabh- "to take, hold, have, give" (see habit). It became yiven in Middle English, but changed to guttural "g" by influence of Old Norse gefa "to give," Old Danish givæ. Meaning "to yield to pressure" is from 1570s.

Give in "yield" is from 1610s; give out is mid-14c., "publish, announce;" meaning "run out, break down" is from 1520s. Give up "surrender" is mid-12c. To give (someone) a cold seems to reflect the old belief that one could be cured of disease by deliberately infecting others. What gives? "what is happening?" is attested from 1940. Give-and-take (n.) is originally from horse racing (1769) and refers to races in which bigger horses were given more weight to carry, lighter ones less. General sense attested by 1778.
giveaway (n.) Look up giveaway at
also give-away, "act of giving away," 1872, from phrase give away, c.1400 (of brides, from 1719); see give (v.) + away (adv.). Meaning "to betray, expose, reveal" is 1878, originally U.S. slang.
given (adj.) Look up given at
late 14c., "allotted, predestined," past participle adjective from give (v.); also with a noun sense of "fate," reflecting an important concept in pagan Germanic ideology (Old English had giefeðe in this sense). The modern noun sense of "what is given, known facts" is from 1879. Given name (1827) so called because given at baptism.
giver (n.) Look up giver at
mid-14c., from give + -er (1). Old English agent-noun forms were giefend, giefa.
Giza Look up Giza at
place in Egypt, from Arabic Er-ges-her "beside the high," i.e., the Great Pyramid.
gizmo (n.) Look up gizmo at
1942, "Marine and Navy usage for any old thing you can't put a name to" ["Life" magazine, July 30, 1945], of unknown origin, perhaps a made-up word.
gizzard (n.) Look up gizzard at
"stomach of a bird," late 14c., from Old French gisier (Modern French gésier) "entrails, giblets (of a bird)," probably from Vulgar Latin *gicerium, dissimilated from Latin gigeria (neuter plural) "cooked entrails of a fowl," a delicacy in ancient Rome, from PIE *yekwr- "liver" (see hepatitis). Parasitic -d added 1500s. Later extended to other animals, and, jocularly, to human beings.
glabella (n.) Look up glabella at
"space between the eyebrows," 1590s, Modern Latin, properly fem. of adj. glabellus "without hair, smooth," diminutive of glaber "smooth, bald," from PIE *gladh- "smooth" (see glad).
glabrous (adj.) Look up glabrous at
1630s, from Latin glaber "hairless, smooth, bald" (see glad).
glace (adj.) Look up glace at
"having a smooth, polished surface," 1847, from French glacé, past participle of glacer "to ice, give a gloss to," from Vulgar Latin *glaciare "to turn or make into ice," from Latin glacies "ice" (see glacial).
glacial (adj.) Look up glacial at
1650s, "cold, icy," from French glacial, from Latin glacialis "icy, frozen, full of ice," from glacies "ice," probably from PIE root *gel- "cold" (cognates: Latin gelu "frost;" see cold (adj.)). Geological sense apparently coined in 1846 by British naturalist Edward Forbes (1815-1854). Related: Glacially.
glaciate (v.) Look up glaciate at
1620s, "to freeze;" 1865 in reference to glaciers, from Latin glaciatus, past participle of glaciare "to turn to ice," from glacies (see glacial).
glaciation (n.) Look up glaciation at
1640s, noun of action from Latin glaciare "to freeze" (see glacis).
glacier (n.) Look up glacier at
1744, from French glacier, from Savoy dialect glacière "moving mass of ice," from Old French glace "ice," from Vulgar Latin glacia (source also of Old Provençal glassa, Italian ghiaccia), from Latin glacies (see glacial).
glaciology (n.) Look up glaciology at
1856, from Latin glacies "ice" (see glacial) + -ology. Related: Glaciological; glaciologist.
glacis (n.) Look up glacis at
"sloping bank" (especially leading up to a fortification), 1670s, from French glacir "to freeze, make slippery," from Old French glacier "to slip, glide," from Vulgar Latin *glaciare "to make or turn into ice," from glacies (see glacial).
glad (adj.) Look up glad at
Old English glæd "bright, shining, joyous," from Proto-Germanic *glada- (cognates: Old Norse glaðr "smooth, bright, glad," Danish glad "glad, joyful," Old Saxon gladmod "glad," Old Frisian gled "smooth," Dutch glad "slippery," German glatt "smooth"), from PIE *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives referring to bright materials and gold (see glass). The modern sense is much weakened. Slang glad rags "one's best clothes" first recorded 1902.
glad hand (n.) Look up glad hand at
1895, in verbal phrase to give the glad hand "extend a welcome." As a verb, attested from 1903 (also gladhand). Often used cynically.
gladden (v.) Look up gladden at
c.1300, "to be glad;" 1550s, "to make glad;" see glad + -en (1). Earlier in both senses was simply glad (v.), from Old English gladian, Mercian gleadian "be glad, make glad."
glade (n.) Look up glade at
"clear, open space in a woods," c.1400, perhaps from Middle English glode (c.1300), from Old Norse glaðr "bright" (see glad). Original meaning would be "bright (because open) space in a wood" (compare French clairière "glade," from clair "clear, bright;" German Lichtung "clearing, glade," from Licht "light"). American English sense of "marshy grassland" (as in Everglades) first recorded c.1796.
gladiator (n.) Look up gladiator at
mid-15c., "Roman swordsman," from Latin gladiator, literally "swordsman," from gladius "sword," probably from Gaulish (compare Welsh cleddyf, Cornish clethe, Breton kleze "sword;" see claymore). Old Irish claideb is from Welsh.
The close connection with Celtic words for 'sword', together with the imperfect match of initial consonants, and the semantic field of weaponry, suggests that Latin borrowed a form *gladio- or *kladio- (a hypothetical variant of attested British Celtic *kladimo- 'sword') from [Proto-Celtic] or from a third language. [de Vaan]
gladiatorial (adj.) Look up gladiatorial at
1750s, from Latin gladiatorius (see gladiator) + -al (1).
gladiolus (n.) Look up gladiolus at
c.1000, from Latin gladiolus "wild iris," literally "small sword," diminutive of gladius "sword" (see gladiator); so called by Pliny in reference to the plant's sword-shaped leaves. The Old English form of the word was gladdon. Form gladiol is attested mid-15c.; the modern use perhaps represents a 1560s reborrowing from Latin.
gladly (adv.) Look up gladly at
Old English glædlice "joyfully, kindly, willingly;" see glad + -ly (2).
gladness (n.) Look up gladness at
Old English glædnes; see glad + -ness.
gladsome (adj.) Look up gladsome at
late 14c., gladsum; see glad + -some (1).
Gladys Look up Gladys at
fem. proper name, Welsh Gwladys, probably a Brythonified form of Latin Claudia (q.v.).
Glagolitic (n.) Look up Glagolitic at
1861, from Serbo-Croatian glagolica "Glagolitic alphabet," from Old Church Slavonic glagolu "word," from PIE *gal-gal-, reduplicated form of root *gal- (2) "to call, shout" (see call (v.)) + Greek suffix -itic. The older of the two Slavic writing systems (Cyrillic is the other), it was designed by Cyrillus c.863 C.E.
glair (n.) Look up glair at
white of an egg, c.1300, from Old French glaire "white of egg, slime, mucus" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *claria (ovi) "white part (of an egg)," from Latin clarus "bright, clear" (see clear (adj.)).
glaive (v.) Look up glaive at
late 13c., used in Middle English of various weapons, from Old French glaive "lance, spear, sword," also figuratively used for "violent death" (12c.), from Latin gladius "sword" (see gladiator); influenced by clava "knotty branch, cudgel, club," related to clavus "nail."
glam (adj.) Look up glam at
slang shortening of glamorous, first attested 1936. Glam rock attested by 1974. Glamazon "glamourous, dominant woman" attested by 1985 (see amazon).
glamor Look up glamor at
chiefly U.S. alternative spelling of glamour (q.v.). Related: Glamorous; glamorously.
glamorize (v.) Look up glamorize at
also glamourize, 1901, from glamor + -ize. Related: Glamorized; glamorizing.
glamorous (adj.) Look up glamorous at
1882, from glamor + -ous. Related: Glamorously.
glamour (n.) Look up glamour at
1720, Scottish, "magic, enchantment" (especially in phrase to cast the glamor), a variant of Scottish gramarye "magic, enchantment, spell," alteration of English grammar (q.v.) with a medieval sense of "any sort of scholarship, especially occult learning," the latter sense attested from c.1500 in English but said to have been more common in Medieval Latin. Popularized by the writings of Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832). Sense of "magical beauty, alluring charm" first recorded 1840. Jamieson's 1825 supplement to his "Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language" has glamour-gift "the power of enchantment; metaph. applied to female fascination." Jamieson's original edition (1808) looks to Old Norse for the source of the word. Zoega's Old Icelandic dictionary has glám-sýni "illusion."
glamour (v.) Look up glamour at
1814, from glamour (n.). Related: Glamoured; glamouring.
glance (n.) Look up glance at
c.1500, "sudden movement producing a flash," from glance (v.). Meaning "brief or hurried look" is from 1590s.
glance (v.) Look up glance at
mid-15c., of weapons, from glacen "to graze, strike a glancing blow" (c.1300), from Old French glacier "to slip, make slippery," from glace "ice" (see glacial). Sense of "look quickly" (first recorded 1580s) probably was influenced in form and meaning by Middle English glenten "look askance" (see glint). Related: Glanced; glancing.
gland (n.) Look up gland at
1690s, from French glande (Old French glandre, 13c.), from Latin glandula "gland of the throat, tonsil," diminutive of glans (genitive glandis) "acorn, nut; acorn-shaped ball," from PIE root *gwele- (2) "acorn" (cognates: Greek balanos, Armenian kalin, Old Church Slavonic zelodi "acorn;" Lithuanian gile "oak"). Earlier English form was glandula (c.1400).
glanders (n.) Look up glanders at
"horse disease characterized by glandular swelling," early 15c., from Old French glandres "swollen glands," plural of glandre, from Latin glandula (see gland).
glandular (adj.) Look up glandular at
1740, from French glandulaire, from glandule "small gland" (16c.), from Latin glandula (see gland).