glue (n.) Look up glue at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from Old French glu "birdlime" (12c.), from Late Latin glutem (nominative glus) "glue," from Latin gluten "glue, beeswax," from PIE *gleit- "to glue, paste" (cognates: Lithuanian glitus "sticky," glitas "mucus;" Old English cliða "plaster"), from root *glei- "to stick together" (see clay). In reference to glue from boiled animal hoofs and hides, c.1400. Glue-sniffing attested from 1963.
glue (v.) Look up glue at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French gluer, from glu (see glue (n.)). Related: Glued; gluing.
glue-pot (n.) Look up glue-pot at Dictionary.com
late 15c., from glue (n.) + pot (n.1).
gluey (adj.) Look up gluey at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from glue (n.) + -y (2).
glug Look up glug at Dictionary.com
1768, imitative of the sound of swallowing a drink, etc.
glum (adj.) Look up glum at Dictionary.com
1540s, "sullen, frowning," from Middle English gloumen (v.) "become dark" (c.1300), later gloumben "look gloomy or sullen" (late 14c.); see gloom. Related: Glumly; glumness.
glut (v.) Look up glut at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "to swallow too much; to feed to repletion," probably from Old French gloter "to swallow, gulp down," from Latin gluttire "swallow, gulp down," from PIE root *gwele- (3) "to swallow" (cognates: Russian glot "draught, gulp"). Related: Glutted; glutting.
glut (n.) Look up glut at Dictionary.com
1530s, "a gulp," from glut (v.). Meaning "condition of being full or sated" is 1570s; mercantile sense is first recorded 1590s.
glutamate (n.) Look up glutamate at Dictionary.com
1876, from glutamic acid (see gluten) + -ate (3).
gluteal (adj.) Look up gluteal at Dictionary.com
by 1804, from gluteus + -al (1).
gluten (n.) Look up gluten at Dictionary.com
1630s, "any sticky substance," from Middle French gluten (16c.) or directly from Latin gluten "glue" (see glue (n.)). Used 16c.-19c. for the part of animal tissue now called fibrin; used since 1803 of the nitrogenous part of the flour of wheat or other grain; hence glutamic acid (1871), a common amino acid, and its salt, glutamate.
gluteus (n.) Look up gluteus at Dictionary.com
"buttocks muscle," 1680s, from Modern Latin glutaeus, from Greek gloutos "the rump," in plural, "the buttocks."
glutin (n.) Look up glutin at Dictionary.com
1825, from French glutine, probably from Latin gluten (see gluten) + chemical suffix -ine (2). Used in chemistry in several senses before settling on "gelatin prepared from animal hides, hoofs, etc." (1845).
glutinous (adj.) Look up glutinous at Dictionary.com
"of the nature of glue," early 15c. (implied c.1400 in glutinosity), from Latin glutinosus "gluey, viscous, tenacious," from gluten (genitive glutinis) "glue" (see glue (n.)).
glutton (n.) Look up glutton at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from Old French gluton (Modern French glouton), from Latin gluttonem (nominative glutto) "overeater," formed from gluttire "to swallow," from gula "throat," from PIE *gwele- (3) "to swallow" (see glut (v.)).
gluttonous (adj.) Look up gluttonous at Dictionary.com
mid-14c.; see glutton + -ous. Related: Gluttonously.
gluttony (n.) Look up gluttony at Dictionary.com
c.1200, glutunie, from Old French glutonie, from gluton "glutton" (see glutton). Gluttonry recorded from late 12c.
glycemic (adj.) Look up glycemic at Dictionary.com
1923, from glycemia (also glycaemia), 1901, from glyco- + -emia.
glyceride (n.) Look up glyceride at Dictionary.com
compound of glycerol and organic acids; see glycerin + -ide.
glycerin (n.) Look up glycerin at Dictionary.com
also glycerine, thick, colorless syrup, 1838, from French glycérine, coined by French chemist Michel-Eugène Chevreul (1786-1889), from Greek glykeros "sweet" (see glucose) + chemical ending -ine (2). So called for its sweet taste. Still in popular use, but in chemistry the substance now is known as glycerol.
glycerine (n.) Look up glycerine at Dictionary.com
see glycerin.
glycerol (n.) Look up glycerol at Dictionary.com
1884, from glycerine + -ol, suffix denoting alcohols.
glyco- Look up glyco- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "sweet," from Latinized comb. form of Greek glykys "sweet" (see glucose). Used in reference to sugars generally. OED says a regular formation would be glycy-.
glycogen (n.) Look up glycogen at Dictionary.com
starch-like substance found in the liver and animal tissue, 1860, from French glycogène, "sugar-producer," from Greek glykys "sweet" (see glucose) + French -gène (see -gen). Coined in 1848 by French physiologist Claude Bernard (1813-1878).
glycogenic (adj.) Look up glycogenic at Dictionary.com
1859, from glycogen + -ic.
glycolysis (n.) Look up glycolysis at Dictionary.com
1892, from glyco- + -lysis.
glyph (n.) Look up glyph at Dictionary.com
1727, "ornamental groove in architecture," from French glyphe (1701), from Greek glyphe "a carving," from glyphein "to hollow out, cut out with a knife, engrave, carve," from PIE root *gleubh- "to cut, slice" (cognates: Latin glubere "to peel, shell, strip," Old English cleofan "to cleave"). Meaning "sculpted mark or symbol" (as in hieroglyph) is from 1825.
glyptodon (n.) Look up glyptodon at Dictionary.com
extinct gigantic mammal, 1838, irregularly formed from Greek glyptos "engraved" (verbal adjective of glyphein; see glyph) + odon (genitive odontos) "tooth" (see tooth).
gnarl (v.) Look up gnarl at Dictionary.com
"contort, twist," 1814, a back-formation from gnarled. As a noun from 1824. Earlier the verb was used in a sense of "to snarl" (1590s).
gnarled (adj.) Look up gnarled at Dictionary.com
the source of the group of words that includes gnarl (v.), gnarl (n.), gnarly is Shakespeare's use of gnarled in 1603:
Thy sharpe and sulpherous bolt Splits the vn-wedgable and gnarled Oke. ["Measure for Measure," II.ii.116]
OED and Barnhart call it a variant of knurled, from Middle English knar "knot in wood" (late 14c.), originally "a rock, a stone;" of uncertain origin. "(Gnarled) occurs in one passage of Shakes. (for which the sole authority is the folio of 1623), whence it came into general use in the nineteenth century" [OED].
gnarly (adj.) Look up gnarly at Dictionary.com
1829, "knotted and rugged," from gnarl (see gnarled) + -y (2). Picked up 1970s as surfer slang to describe a dangerous wave; it had spread in teen slang by 1982, where it meant both "excellent" and "disgusting."
gnash (v.) Look up gnash at Dictionary.com
early 15c., variant of Middle English gnasten "to gnash the teeth" (c.1300), perhaps from Old Norse gnastan "a gnashing," of unknown origin, probably imitative. Compare German knistern "to crackle." Related: Gnashed; gnashing.
gnat (n.) Look up gnat at Dictionary.com
Old English gnætt "gnat, midge, mosquito," earlier gneat, used of various small, flying insects, from Proto-Germanic *gnattaz (cognates: Low German gnatte, German Gnitze); perhaps literally "biting insect" and related to gnaw.
The gnatte is a litil fflye, and hatte culex..he soukeþ blood and haþ in his mouþ a pipe, as hit were a pricke..And is a-countid a-mong volatiles..and greueþ slepinge men wiþ noyse & wiþ bytinge and wakeþ hem of here reste. [John of Trevisa, transl. of Bartholomew de Glanville's "De proprietatibus rerum," 1398]
gnathic (adj.) Look up gnathic at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to the jaw," 1882, from Greek gnathos "jaw, cheek," properly "the lower jaw," cognate with Lithuanian žandas "jaw."
gnaw (v.) Look up gnaw at Dictionary.com
Old English gnagan (past tense *gnog, past participle gnagan) "to gnaw," a common Germanic word (cognate with Old Saxon gnagan, Old Norse, Swedish gnaga, Middle Dutch, Dutch knagen, Old High German gnagan, German nagen "to gnaw"), probably imitative of gnawing. Related: Gnawed; gnawing.
gneiss (n.) Look up gneiss at Dictionary.com
1757, from German Gneiss "type of metamorphic rock," probably from Middle High German gneist "spark" (so called because the rock glitters), from Old High German gneisto "spark" (compare Old English gnast "spark," Old Norse gneisti).
gnocchi (n.) Look up gnocchi at Dictionary.com
1891, from Italian gnocchi, plural of gnocco, from nocchio "a knot in wood," perhaps from a Germanic source akin to knuckle. So called for their shape.
gnome (n.) Look up gnome at Dictionary.com
"dwarf-like earth-dwelling spirit," 1712, from French gnome, from Modern Latin gnomus, used 16c. in a treatise by Paracelsus, who gave the name pigmaei or gnomi to elemental earth beings, possibly from Greek *genomos "earth-dweller" (compare thalassonomos "inhabitant of the sea"). A less-likely suggestion is that Paracelsus based it on the homonym that means "intelligence" (preserved in gnomic). Popular in children's literature 19c. as a name for red-capped German and Swiss folklore dwarfs. Garden figurines first imported to England late 1860s from Germany.
gnomic (adj.) Look up gnomic at Dictionary.com
"full of instructive sayings," 1815, from French gnomique (18c.) and directly from Late Latin gnomicus "concerned with maxims, didactic," from Greek gnomikos, from gnome "thought, opinion, maxim, intelligence," from root of gignoskein "to come to know" (see gnostic). English gnome meant "short, pithy statement of general truth" (1570s). Gnomical is attested from 1610s.
gnomish (adj.) Look up gnomish at Dictionary.com
1822, from gnome + -ish. Related: Gnomishly; gnomishness.
gnomist (n.) Look up gnomist at Dictionary.com
see gnomic + -ist.
gnomon (n.) Look up gnomon at Dictionary.com
"vertical shaft that tells time by the shadow it casts" (especially the triangular plate on a sundial), 1540s, from Latin gnomon, from Greek gnomon "indicator," literally "one who discerns," from gignoskein "to come to know" (see gnostic (adj.)).
gnosis (n.) Look up gnosis at Dictionary.com
"special knowledge of spiritual mysteries," 1703, from Greek gnosis "investigation, knowledge," in Christian writers, "higher knowledge of spiritual things" (see gnostic (adj.)).
Gnostic (n.) Look up Gnostic at Dictionary.com
1580s, "believer in a mystical religious doctrine of spiritual knowledge," from Late Latin Gnosticus, from Late Greek Gnostikos, noun use of adj. gnostikos "knowing, able to discern," from gnostos "knowable," from gignoskein "to learn, to come to know" (see know). Applied to various early Christian sects that claimed direct personal knowledge beyond the Gospel or the Church hierarchy.
gnostic (adj.) Look up gnostic at Dictionary.com
"relating to knowledge," 1650s, from Greek gnostikos "knowing, able to discern," from gnostos "known, perceived, understood," from gignoskein "to learn, to come to know" (see know).
Gnosticism (n.) Look up Gnosticism at Dictionary.com
1660s, from Gnostic + -ism.
GNP (n.) Look up GNP at Dictionary.com
abbreviation of gross national product, attested by 1953.
gnu (n.) Look up gnu at Dictionary.com
1777, gnoo, from Dutch gnoe, used by German traveler Georg Forster (1754-1794) to render Hottentot i-ngu "wildebeest," from Southern Bushman !nu: (in which ! and : represent clicks).
go (v.) Look up go at Dictionary.com
Old English gan "to go, advance, depart; happen; conquer; observe," from West Germanic *gai-/*gæ- (cognates: Old Saxon, Old Frisian gan, Middle Dutch gaen, Dutch gaan, Old High German gan, German gehen), from PIE *ghe- "to release, let go" (cognates: Sanskrit jihite "goes away," Greek kikhano "I reach, meet with"), but there is not general agreement on cognates.

The Old English past tense was eode, of uncertain origin but evidently once a different word (perhaps connected to Gothic iddja); it was replaced 1400s by went, formerly past tense of wenden "to direct one's way" (see wend). In northern England and Scotland, however, eode tended to be replaced by gaed, a construction based on go. In modern English, only be and go take their past tenses from entirely different verbs.

The word in its various forms and combinations takes up 45 columns of close print in the OED. Verbal meaning "say" emerged 1960s in teen slang. Colloquial meaning "urinate or defecate" attested by 1926. Go for broke is from 1951, American English colloquial; go down on "perform oral sex on" is from 1916. That goes without saying (1878) translates French cela va sans dire. As an adjective, "in order," from 1951, originally in aerospace jargon.
go (n.) Look up go at Dictionary.com
1727, "action of going," from go (v.). The sense of "a try or turn at something" is from 1825; meaning "something that goes, a success" is from 1876. Phrase on the go "in constant motion" is from 1843.