grace (n.)
late 12c., "God's favor or help," from Old French grace "pardon, divine grace, mercy; favor, thanks; elegance, virtue" (12c.), from Latin gratia "favor, esteem, regard; pleasing quality, good will, gratitude" (source of Italian grazia, Spanish gracia), from gratus "pleasing, agreeable," from PIE root *gwere- (3) "to favor" (cognates: Sanskrit grnati "sings, praises, announces," Lithuanian giriu "to praise, celebrate," Avestan gar- "to praise").

Sense of "virtue" is early 14c., that of "beauty of form or movement, pleasing quality" is mid-14c. In classical sense, "one of the three sister goddesses (Latin Gratiæ, Greek Kharites), bestowers of beauty and charm," it is first recorded in English 1579 in Spenser. The short prayer that is said before or after a meal (early 13c.; until 16c. usually graces) has a sense of "gratitude."
grace (v.)
c.1200, "to thank," from Old French gracier, from grace (see grace (n.)). Meaning "to show favor" (mid-15c.) led to that of "to lend or add grace to something" (1580s, as in grace us with your presence), which is the root of the musical sense in grace notes (1650s). Related: Graced; gracing.
graceful (adj.)
mid-15c., "full of grace," also "pleasant, sweet," from grace (n.) + -ful. Meaning "with pleasing or attractive qualities" is from 1580s. Related: Gracefully; gracefulness.
graceless (adj.)
late 14c., "not in a state of grace," from grace (n.) + -less. Meaning "wanting charm or elegance" is from 1630s. Related: Gracelessly; gracelessness.
gracile (adj.)
1620s, from Latin gracilis "slender, thin, fine; plain, simple." Not etymologically connected to grace but often regarded as if it is. Perhaps a dissimilated form related to Latin cracens "slender;" if so, perhaps cognate with Sanskrit krsah "thin, weak," Avestan keresa- "lean, meager," Lithuanian karštu "to be very old, to age."
gracious (adj.)
c.1300, "filled with God's grace," from Old French gracios "courteous, pleasing, kind, friendly" (12c., Modern French gracieux), from Latin gratiosus "enjoying favor, agreeable, obliging; popular, acceptable," from gratia (see grace). Meaning "merciful, benevolent" is from late 14c. As an exclamation, elliptically for gracious God, attested from 1713.
graciously (adv.)
c.1300, "by God's grace," from gracious + -ly (2). Meaning "favorably, with good will" is late 14c.
graciousness (n.)
early 15c., from gracious + -ness.
grackle (n.)
1772, gracule, from genus name Gracula, Modern Latin fem. from Latin graculus "jackdaw, European crow," perhaps of imitative origin. The anglicized form of the word is attested from 1782.
grad (n.)
abbreviation of graduate (n.), attested from 1871.
gradate (v.)
1753, back-formation from gradation. Related: Gradated; gradating.
gradation (n.)
1530s, "climax," from Middle French gradation (16c.) and directly from Latin gradationem (nominative gradatio) "ascent by steps, a climax," noun of action from gradus "step, degree" (see grade (n.)). Meaning "gradual change" is from 1540s. Related: Gradational.
grade (n.)
1510s, "degree of measurement," from French grade "grade, degree" (16c.), from Latin gradus "step, pace, gait, walk;" figuratively "a step, stage, degree," related to gradi "to walk, step, go," from PIE *ghredh- (cognates: Lithuanian gridiju "to go, wander," Old Church Slavonic gredo "to come," Old Irish in-greinn "he pursues," and second element in congress, progress, etc.).

Replaced Middle English gree "step, degree in a series," from Old French grei "step," from Latin gradus. Railway sense is from 1811. Meaning "class of things having the same quality or value" is from 1807; meaning "division of a school curriculum equivalent to one year" is from 1835; that of "letter-mark indicating assessment of a student's work" is from 1886 (earlier used of numerical grades). Grade A "top quality, fit for human consumption" (originally of milk) is from a U.S. system instituted in 1912.
grade (v.)
1650s, "to arrange in grades," from grade (n.). Related: Graded; grading.
grader (n.)
1868, of machines; 1870, of persons, agent noun from grade (v.).
gradient (n.)
"steep slope of a road or railroad," 1835, principally in American English, from grade (n.) by analogy of quotient, etc. It was used 17c. as an adjective, of animals, "characterized by walking;" in that case probably from Latin gradientem, present participle of gradi "to walk."
gradual (adj.)
early 15c., "having steps or ridges," from Medieval Latin gradualis, from Latin gradus "step" (see grade (n.)). Meaning "arranged by degrees" is from 1540s; that of "taking place by degrees" is from 1690s.
gradualism (n.)
1832, in abolitionist literature, as a disparaging term (opposed to immediatism), from gradual + -ism. Related: Gradualist.
gradually (adv.)
1640s, from gradual + -ly (2).
graduand (n.)
1882, from Medieval Latin graduandus, gerundive of graduari (see graduate).
graduate (n.)
early 15c., "one who holds a degree" (with man; as a stand-alone noun from mid-15c.), from Medieval Latin graduatus, past participle of graduari "to take a degree," from Latin gradus "step, grade" (see grade (n.)). As an adjective, from late 15c.
graduate (v.)
early 15c., "to confer a university degree upon," from Medieval Latin graduatus (see graduate (n.)). Intransitive sense from 1807. Related: Graduated; graduating.
graduation (n.)
early 15c., in alchemy, "tempering, refining of something to a certain degree; measurement according to the four degrees of a quality," from graduate (n.). General sense of "dividing into degrees" is from 1590s; meaning "action of receiving or giving an academic degree" is from early 15c.; in reference to the ceremony where a degree is given, from 1818.
Gradus ad Parnassum
Latin, literally "A Step to Parnassus," mountain sacred to Apollo and the Muses, title of a dictionary of prosody used in English public schools for centuries as a guide to Roman poetry. The book dates from the 1680s.
Grady
surname and masc. proper name, from Irish Grada "noble."
Graeco-
also Greco-, modern word-forming element, from Latin Graecus "Greek" (see Greek).
graffiti (n.)
1851, for ancient wall inscriptions found in the ruins of Pompeii, from Italian graffiti, plural of graffito "a scribbling," a diminutive formation from graffio "a scratch or scribble," from graffiare "to scribble," ultimately from Greek graphein "to scratch, draw, write" (see -graphy). Sense extended 1877 to recently made crude drawings and scribbling.
graffito (n.)
singular of graffiti (q.v.).
graft (n.1)
"shoot inserted into another plant," late 15c. alteration of Middle English graff (late 14c.), from Old French graife "grafting knife, carving tool, stylus," from Latin graphium "stylus," from Greek grapheion "stylus," from graphein "to write" (see -graphy). So called probably on resemblance of a stylus to the pencil-shaped shoots used in grafting. The terminal -t- in the English word is not explained. Surgical sense is from 1871.
graft (n.2)
"corruption," 1865, perhaps 1859, American English, perhaps from graft (1) via British slang sense of "one's occupation" (1853), which seems to be from the word's original sense of "digging" (see graft (n.1)).
graft (v.)
late 15c., from graft (n.1). Related: Grafted; grafting.
Graham
in reference to crackers, etc., from unsifted whole-wheat flour, 1834, American English, from Sylvester Graham (1794-1851), U.S. dietetic reformer and temperance advocate. The family name is attested from early 12c., an Anglo-French form of the place name Grantham (Lincolnshire).
grail (n.)
c.1300, "the Holy Grail," from Old French graal "Holy Grail, cup," earlier "large shallow dish," from Medieval Latin gradalis "a flat dish or shallow vessel," perhaps ultimately from Latin crater "bowl," from Greek krater "bowl, especially for mixing wine with water."

Holy Grail is anglicized from Middle English Sangreal (Saint graal), grafted awkwardly onto the Celtic Arthurian legends 12c. by Church scribes probably in place of some pagan otherworldly object. It was said to be the cup into which Joseph of Arimathea received the last drops of blood of Christ (according to the writers who picked up the thread of Chrétien de Troyes' "Perceval") or the dish from which Christ ate the Last Supper (Robert de Boron), and ultimately was identified as both ("þe dische wiþ þe blode," 14c.).
grain (n.)
early 13c., "scarlet dye made from insects" (late 12c. in surnames), from Old French grain (12c.) "seed, grain, particle, berry, scarlet dye" (see kermes for last sense), from Latin granum "seed, a grain, small kernel" (see corn (n.1)).

As a collective singular meaning "seed of wheat and allied grasses used as food," it is attested from early 14c. Extended from c.1300 to other objects (such as salt, sand). As a unit of weight, from 1540s. Used of wood (1560s), from the arrangement of fibers, which resemble seeds. Hence, against the grain (1650), a metaphor from carpentry: cutting across the fibers of the wood is more difficult than cutting along them.
grainy (adj.)
1610s, from grain + -y (2). In Middle English, grain also was used as an adjective, "like grain, lumpy, spotted" (early 15c.).
Grallatores
wading birds, Modern Latin, from Latin grallotores "stilt-walkers," plural of grallator, from grallae "stilts," ultimately from stem of gradi "to walk, go" (see grade (n.)). Related: Grallatorial (1835).
gram (n.)
metric unit of weight," 1797, from French gramme (18c.), from Late Latin gramma "small weight," from Greek gramma "small weight," originally "letter of the alphabet," from stem of graphein "to draw, write" (see -graphy). Adopted into English about two years before it was established in France as a unit in the metric system by law of 19 frimaire, year VIII (1799).
gramercy
exclamation of thanks or surprise, c.1300, from Old French grant-merci "great thanks."
gramineous (adj.)
1650s, from Latin gramineus (adj.) "of grass, grassy," from gramen "grass" (see graminivorous).
graminivorous (adj.)
"feeding on grass," 1739, from gramini-, comb. form of Latin gramen (genitive graminis) "grass, fodder," which perhaps ultimately is cognate with English grass, + -vorous.
grammar (n.)
early 14c., gramarye (late 12c. in surnames), from Old French gramaire "learning," especially Latin and philology, "grammar, (magic) incantation, spells, mumbo-jumbo," "irregular semi-popular adoption" [OED] of Latin grammatica, from Greek grammatike tekhne "art of letters," with a sense of both philology and literature in the broadest sense, fem. adjective from gramma "letter," from stem of graphein "to draw or write" (see -graphy). An Old English word for it was stæfcræft (see staff (n.)).

Form grammar is from late 14c. Restriction to "rules of language" is a post-classical development, but as this type of study was until 16c. limited to Latin, Middle English gramarye also came to mean "learning in general, knowledge peculiar to the learned classes" (early 14c.), which included astrology and magic; hence the secondary meaning of "occult knowledge" (late 15c.), which evolved in Scottish into glamor (q.v.).

A grammar school (late 14c.) originally was "a school in which the learned languages are grammatically taught" [Johnson, who also has grammaticaster "a mean verbal pedant"]. In U.S. (1842) the term was put to use in the graded system for "a school between primary and secondary where English grammar is taught."
grammarian (n.)
"student of or writer on (Latin) grammar; philologist, etymologist;" in general use, "learned man," late 14c., from Old French gramairien (Modern French grammairien) "grammarian, wise man, person who knows Latin; magician," agent noun from grammaire (see grammar).
grammatical (adj.)
1520s, from Middle French grammatical and directly from Late Latin grammaticalis "of a scholar," from grammaticus "pertaining to grammar" (see grammar). Related: Grammatically (c.1400).
grammatist (n.)
1580s, from French grammatiste, from Medieval Latin grammatista, from Greek grammatistes, from gramma (see grammar).
Grammy (n.)
statuette awarded by the American National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, 1959, from the gram- in gramophone, on the model of Emmy.
gramophile (n.)
fan of Gramophone records, 1922, from Gramophone + -phile.
Gramophone (n.)
1887, trademark by German-born U.S. inventor Emil Berliner (1851-1929), an inversion of phonogram (1884) "the tracing made by a phonograph needle," coined from Greek phone "voice, sound" (see fame (n.)) + gramma "something written" (see grammar).

Berliner's machine used a flat disc and succeeded with the public. Edison's phonograph used a cylinder and did not. Despised by linguistic purists (Weekley calls gramophone "An atrocity formed by reversing phonogram") who tried to at least amend it to grammophone, it was replaced by record player after mid-1950s.
gramp
1898, colloquial or dialectal shortening of grandpa.
grampus (n.)
1590s, earlier graundepose (1520s), altered (by influence of grand) from Middle English graspeys (late 13c.), from Anglo-French grampais, from Old French graspois, craspois "whale, (salted) whale meat; blubber; seal," from Medieval Latin craspicis, literally "fat fish," from Latin crassus "thick" + piscis "fish." For specifics of usage in English, see OED.
gran (1)
childish abbreviation of grandmother or granny, 1863.