grudge (v.) Look up grudge at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "to murmur, complain," variant of grutch. Meaning "to begrudge" is c.1500. Related: Grudged; grudges; grudging; grudgingly. The noun is mid-15c., from the verb.
gruel (n.) Look up gruel at Dictionary.com
late 12c., "meal or flour made of beans, lentils, etc.," from Old French gruel "fine meal," from Frankish *grut (cognate with Middle Dutch grute "coarse meal, malt;" Middle High German gruz "grain"), from PIE *ghreu- "to rub, grind" (see grit). Meaning "thin porridge or soup" is late 14c.
gruelling (adj.) Look up gruelling at Dictionary.com
also grueling, "exhausting, punishing," 1891, from late 18c. slang get one's gruel "receive one's punishment," from gruel.
gruesome (adj.) Look up gruesome at Dictionary.com
1560s, with -some (1) + Middle English gruen "feel horror, shudder" (c.1300); not recorded in Old English or Norse, possibly from Middle Dutch gruwen or Middle Low German gruwen "shudder with fear" (compare German grausam "cruel"), or from a Scandinavian source (such as Danish grusom "cruel," grue "to dread," though others hold that these are Low German loan-words). One of the many Scottish words popularized in England by Scott's novels.
gruff (adj.) Look up gruff at Dictionary.com
1530s, "coarse, coarse-grained," from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German grof "coarse (in quality), thick, large," of uncertain origin, regarded by some as related to Old English hreof, Old Norse hrjufr "rough, scabby," with Germanic completive prefix ga-. Sense of "rough, surly" recorded by 1690s. Related: Gruffness.
gruffly (adv.) Look up gruffly at Dictionary.com
1700, from gruff + -ly (2).
grumble (v.) Look up grumble at Dictionary.com
1580s, from Middle French grommeler "mutter between the teeth" or directly from Middle Dutch grommelen "murmur, mutter, grunt," from grommen "to rumble, growl." Imitative, or perhaps akin to grim. Related: Grumbled; grumbling.
grumble (n.) Look up grumble at Dictionary.com
1620s, from grumble (v.).
grump (n.) Look up grump at Dictionary.com
"ill-humor," 1727, in humps and grumps "surly remarks," later the grumps "a fit of ill-humor" (1844), then "a person in ill humor" (1900); perhaps an extended sense of grum "morose, surly," which probably is related to Danish grum "cruel;" or perhaps suggested by grumble, grunt, etc.
grumpy (adj.) Look up grumpy at Dictionary.com
1778, from grump + -y (2). Related: Grumpily; grumpiness.
grundel (n.) Look up grundel at Dictionary.com
type of fish, c.1500 (early 13c. as a surname), from grund "ground" (see ground (n.)) + -el. Compare Old English gryndle "herring."
grundyism (n.) Look up grundyism at Dictionary.com
1836, from Mrs. Grundy, prudish character in Thomas Morton's 1798 play "Speed the Plow," play and playwright otherwise now forgotten, but the line "What would Mrs. Grundy say?" became proverbial.
grunge (n.) Look up grunge at Dictionary.com
"sloppiness," also "untidy person," 1965, American English teen slang, probably a back-formation from grungy. The music and fashion style that originated in Seattle is attested from the early 1990s.
grungy (adj.) Look up grungy at Dictionary.com
"sloppy, shabby," 1965, American English slang, perhaps a blend of grubby and dingy.
grunion (n.) Look up grunion at Dictionary.com
1917, from American Spanish gruñon "grunting fish," from grunir "to grunt," from Latin grunnire, from Greek gryzein "to grunt," from gry "a grunt." The unrelated American fish called the grunt is "so called from the noise they make when taken."
grunt (v.) Look up grunt at Dictionary.com
Old English grunnettan "to grunt," frequentative of grunian "to grunt," probably imitative (compare Danish grynte, Old High German grunnizon, German grunzen "to grunt," Latin grunnire "to grunt"). Related: Grunted; grunting.
grunt (n.) Look up grunt at Dictionary.com
1550s, from grunt (v.); as a type of fish, from 1713; meaning "infantry soldier" emerged in U.S. military slang during Vietnam War (first recorded in print 1969); used since 1900 of various low-level workers. Grunt work first recorded 1977.
gruntle (v.) Look up gruntle at Dictionary.com
1938, in gruntled "pleased, satisfied," a back-formation from disgruntled. The original verb (early 15c.) meant "to utter a little or low grunt."
grutch (v.) Look up grutch at Dictionary.com
c.1200, grucchen, "to murmur, complain," from Old French grouchier "to murmur, to grumble," of unknown origin, probably ultimately imitative. Meaning "to begrudge" is c.1400. Compare gruccild (early 13c.) "woman who complains," from grutch + suffix of unknown origin. Related: Grutched; grutching. As a noun from c.1400.
Gruyere Look up Gruyere at Dictionary.com
1802, from Gruyère, the name of the Swiss town and surrounding district where the cheese is made. The place name is said to be ultimately from Latin grus "crane."
gryphon (n.) Look up gryphon at Dictionary.com
alternative spelling of griffin.
gu- Look up gu- at Dictionary.com
because g- followed by some vowels in English usually has a "soft" pronunciation, a silent -u- sometimes was inserted between the g- and the vowel in Middle English to signal hardness, especially in words from French; but this was not done with many Scandinavian words where hard "g" precedes a vowel (gear (n.), get (v.), give, etc.). Germanic -w- generally became -gu- in words borrowed into Romance languages, but Old North French preserved the Frankish -w-, and English sometimes borrowed both forms, hence guarantee/warranty, guard/ward, etc.
guacamole (n.) Look up guacamole at Dictionary.com
1920, from American Spanish guacamole, originally Mexican, from Nahuatl (Aztecan) ahuaca-molli, from ahuacatl "avocado" + molli "sauce."
Guadalcanal Look up Guadalcanal at Dictionary.com
largest of the Solomon Islands, discovered 1568 by Spanish explorer Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira and named for his hometown in Spain. The place name contains the Spanish form of Arabic wadi "river" which occurs in other Spanish place names (such as Guadalajara, from Arabic Wadi Al-Bajara "River of the Stones," either a parallel formation to or ultimately a translation of the ancient Iberian name for the river that gave the place its earlier name, based on caruca "stony;" Guadalquivir, from Arabic Al-Wadi Al-Kabir "Big River;" and Guadalupe, from the Arabic river word and the Roman name of the river, Lupus, literally "wolf").
Guam Look up Guam at Dictionary.com
from Chamorro Guahan, said to mean literally "what we have."
guanine (n.) Look up guanine at Dictionary.com
1850, from guano, from which the chemical first was isolated, + chemical suffix -ine (2).
guano (n.) Look up guano at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from Spanish guano "dung," especially of sea-birds on islands off Peru, from Quechua huanu "dung."
guarantee (n.) Look up guarantee at Dictionary.com
1670s, alterted (perhaps via Spanish garante), from earlier garrant "warrant that the title to a property is true," early 15c., from Old French garant "defender, protector," from Germanic (see warrant (n.)). For form evolution, see gu-. Originally "person giving something as security;" sense of the "pledge" itself (which is properly a guaranty) developed 17c.
guarantee (v.) Look up guarantee at Dictionary.com
1791, from guarantee (n.). Garanten in this sense is from early 15c. Related: Guaranteed; guaranteeing.
guarantor (n.) Look up guarantor at Dictionary.com
1853, from guarantee with Latinate agent noun suffix -or substituted for -ee.
guaranty (n.) Look up guaranty at Dictionary.com
"act or fact of guaranteeing," 1520s, garrantye, from earlier garant (see guarantee) with influence from Old French garantie "protection, defense," originally past participle of garantir "to protect," from the same source. The sense of "pledge given as security" that developed 17c. in guarantee might reasonably have left the sense "act of guaranteeing" to this form of the word, but the forms remain confused.
guard (n.) Look up guard at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "one who keeps watch," from Middle French garde "guardian, warden, keeper; watching, keeping, custody," from Old French garder "to keep, maintain, preserve, protect" (corresponding to Old North French warder, see gu-), from Frankish *wardon, from Proto-Germanic *wardo- "to guard" (see ward (v.)). Abstract or collective sense of "a keeping, a custody" (as in bodyguard) also is from early 15c. Sword-play and fisticuffs sense is from 1590s. Guard-rail attested from 1860.
guard (v.) Look up guard at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from guard (n.) or from Old French garder "to keep watch over, guard, protect." Related: Guarded; guarding.
guarded (adj.) Look up guarded at Dictionary.com
c.1500, past participle adjective from guard (v.). Meaning "reserved and cautious in speech, behavior, etc." is from 1728. Related: Guardedly; guardedness.
guardian (n.) Look up guardian at Dictionary.com
early 14c., garden; early 15c., gardein, from Anglo-French gardein (late 13c.), from Old French gardien "keeper, custodian," earlier guarden, from Frankish *warding- (see guard (n.)). Guardian angel is from 1630s.
guardianship (n.) Look up guardianship at Dictionary.com
1550s, from guardian + -ship.
Guatemala Look up Guatemala at Dictionary.com
from words in a native language, variously identified as Quauhtemellan "land of the eagle" or Uhatzmalha "mountain where water gushes."
guava (n.) Look up guava at Dictionary.com
1550s, from Spanish guaya, variant of guayaba, from Arawakan (W. Indies) guayabo "guava tree" or Tupi guajava.
gubber-tushed (adj.) Look up gubber-tushed at Dictionary.com
"Gubber Tushed is when teeth stand out, and not in order." [R. Holme, "Armoury," 1688].
Every Lover admires his Mistress, though she have ... a nose like a promontory, gubber-tushed, rotten teeth, (etc.). [Robert Burton, "Anatomy of Melancholy," 1621]
gubernatorial (adj.) Look up gubernatorial at Dictionary.com
1734, formed in American English from Latin gubernator (see govern) + -al (1). As an English word, gubernator was in use from 1520s but is rare.
gudgeon (n.1) Look up gudgeon at Dictionary.com
small freshwater fish, early 15c., from Middle French goujon, from Old French gojon (14c.), from Latin gobionem (nominative gobio), alteration of gobius, from Greek kobios, a kind of fish, of unknown origin. The figurative sense of "a credulous person" (one who will "bite" at "bait") is from 1580s.
gudgeon (n.2) Look up gudgeon at Dictionary.com
"pivot on the end of a beam," c.1400, from Old French gojon "pin, peg, spike" (13c.), perhaps somehow an altered sense of gudgeon (n.1).
Guelph (n.) Look up Guelph at Dictionary.com
also Guelf, one of the two great parties in medieval Italian politics, characterized by support of the popes against the emperors (opposed to the Ghibellines), 1570s, from Italian Guelfo, from Old High German Welf, name of a princely family that became the ducal house of Brunswick, literally "whelp," originally the name of the founder. The family are the ancestors of the present dynasty of Great Britain. The name is said to have been used as a war-cry at the Battle of Weinsberg (1140) by partisans of Henry the Lion, duke of Bavaria, who was of the family, against Emperor Conrad III; hence it was adopted in Italy as the name of the anti-imperial party.
guerdon (n.) Look up guerdon at Dictionary.com
"reward, recompense" (now only poetic), late 14c., from Old French guerdon, guerredon "reward, recompense, payment," from Medieval Latin widerdonum, from Old High German widarlon "recompense;" compare Old English wiðerlean "requital, compensation," from wiðer "again" (see with) + lean "payment." Form influenced in Medieval Latin by Latin donum "gift." Compare Spanish galardon, Italian guiderone.
guerilla (n.) Look up guerilla at Dictionary.com
variant of guerrilla (q.v.); compare French guérilla.
Guernsey Look up Guernsey at Dictionary.com
breed of cattle, 1834, from the Channel Island where it was bred; the island name is Viking. Like neighboring Jersey, it was also taken as the name for a coarse, close-fitting vest of wool (1839), and in Australia the word supplies many of the usages of jersey in U.S. The second element of the name is Old Norse ey "island;" the first element uncertain, traditionally meaning "green," but perhaps rather representing a Viking personal name, such as Grani.
guerrilla (n.) Look up guerrilla at Dictionary.com
"fighter in an irregular, independent armed force," 1809, from Spanish guerrilla "body of skirmishers, skirmishing warfare," literally "little war," diminutive of guerra "war," from a Germanic source (cognate with Old High German werra "strife, conflict, war;" see war (n.)). Figurative use by 1861. As an adjective from 1811. Acquired by English during the Peninsular War (1808-1814); purists failed in their attempt to keep this word restricted to "irregular warfare" and prevent it taking on the sense properly belonging to guerrillero "guerrilla fighter."
guess (v.) Look up guess at Dictionary.com
c.1300, gessen "to estimate, appraise," originally "take aim," probably from Scandinavian (compare Middle Danish gitse, getze "to guess," Old Norse geta "guess, get"), possibly influenced by Middle Dutch gessen, Middle Low German gissen "to guess," all from Proto-Germanic *getiskanan "to get" (see get). Sense evolution is from "to get," to "to take aim at," to "to estimate." Meaning "to hit upon the right answer" is from 1540s. U.S. sense of "calculate, recon" is true to the oldest English meaning. Spelling with gu- is late 16c., sometimes attributed to Caxton and his early experience as a printer in Bruges. Related: Guessed; guessing. Guessing game attested from 1650s.
guess (n.) Look up guess at Dictionary.com
c.1300, from guess (v.). Verbal shrug phrase your guess is as good as mine attested from 1902.
guesstimate (v.) Look up guesstimate at Dictionary.com
1902, a blending of guess (v.) and estimate. Related: Guesstimated; guesstimating. As a noun, from 1906.