gar (n.) Look up gar at
pike-like fish, 1765, American English, shortening of garfish (mid-15c.), from fish (n.) + Middle English gare, gore "a spear," from Old English gar "spear," from Proto-Germanic *gaizaz "spear" (cognates: Old Norse geirr "spear; point of an anvil," Old Saxon, Old High German ger, German Ger "spear"), from PIE *ghaiso- "a stick, spear" (see goad (n.)). The fish so called for its long sharp snout. Compare Edgar, garlic.
garage (v.) Look up garage at
1906, from garage (n.). Related: Garaged; garaging.
garage (n.) Look up garage at
1902, from French garage "shelter for a vehicle," a specific use of a word meaning generally "place for storing something," from verb garer "to shelter," also "to dock ships," from Old French garir "take care of, protect; save, spare, rescue," from Frankish *waron "to guard" or some other Germanic source (compare Old High German waron "take care"), from Proto-Germanic *war-, from PIE root *wer- (5) "to cover" (see warrant (n.)).
Influenced no doubt by the success of the recent Club run, and by the fact that more than 100 of its members are automobile owners, the N.Y.A.C. has decided to build a "garage," the French term for an automobile stable, at Travers Island, that will be of novel design, entirely different from any station in the country. [New York Athletic Club Journal, May 1902]
Garage-sale (n.) first attested 1966.
garage (v.) Look up garage at
1906, from garage (n.). Related: Garaged.
Garamond Look up Garamond at
1780, typeface named for 16c. French type-founder Claude Garamond.
garb (n.) Look up garb at
"fashion of dress," 1620s, from earlier sense "person's outward demeanor" (c. 1600), originally "elegance, stylishness" (1590s), from Middle French garbe "graceful outline, gracefulness, comeliness" (Modern French galbe) or directly from Italian garbo "grace, elegance, pleasing manners, " which is from Old High German gar(a)wi "dress, equipment, preparation," or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *garwi- "equipment; adornment" (see gear (n.)).
garb (v.) Look up garb at
"to dress, clothe, array," 1836, from garb (n.). Related: Garbed (1590s); garbing.
garbage (n.) Look up garbage at
"refuse, filth," 1580s; earlier "giblets, refuse of a fowl, waste parts of an animal (head, feet, etc.) used for human food" (early 15c., in early use also gabage, garbish, garbidge ), of unknown origin; OED says probably from Anglo-French "like many other words found in early cookery books." In its sense of "waste material, refuse" it has been influenced by and partly confused with garble (q.v.) in its older sense of "remove refuse material from spices;" Middle English had the derived noun garbelage but it is attested only as the action of removing the refuse, not the material itself.

Perhaps the English word originally is from a derivative of Old French garbe/jarbe "sheaf of wheat, bundle of sheaves," though the sense connection is difficult. This word is from Proto-Germanic *garba- (cognates: Dutch garf, German garbe "sheaf"), from PIE *ghrebh- (1) "to seize, reach" (see grab (v.)).

"In modern American usage garbage is generally restricted to mean kitchen and vegetable wastes" [Craigie]. Used figuratively for "worthless, offensive stuff" from 1590s. Garbage can is from 1901. Garbage collector "trash man" is from 1872; Australian shortening garbo attested from 1953. Garbology "study of waste as a social science" is by 1976; garbologist is from 1965.
garbanzo (n.) Look up garbanzo at
"chick-pea," 1759, from Spanish garbanzo, said to be ultimately from Greek or Basque.
garble (v.) Look up garble at
early 15c., "to inspect and remove the dirt and dross from (spices)," from Anglo-French garbeler "to sift" (late 14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin and Italian garbellare, from Arabic gharbala "to sift and select spices," related to kirbal "sieve," perhaps from Late Latin cribellum, diminutive of Latin cribrum "sieve" (see crisis). Apparently the word was widespread among Mediterranean traders (compare Italian garbellare, Spanish garbillare "to sift grain").

From late 15c. in a general sense of "sort out the finer parts" of anything, "removal of what is objectionable," then "distort for some devious purpose or to give false impression;" especially "mix up, confuse or distort language" (1680s). Related: Garbled; garbling. In Middle English garbeler (Anglo-French garbelour) meant "official who garbles spices and sometimes also other dry goods" (early 15c.); it is attested from 1690s as "one who mixes up or mutilates words or language."
garble (n.) Look up garble at
c. 1500 of spices; by 1829 of language; from garble (v.).
garbled (adj.) Look up garbled at
by 1620s of spices; by 1774 of language; past-participle adjective from garble (v.).
Garbo Look up Garbo at
screen surname of Swedish actress Greta Gustaffson (1905-1990); her name was used allusively to indicate aloofness by 1934; her legendary avoidance of publicity began with her retirement from films in the mid-40s. Related: Garbo-esque.
garcon (n.) Look up garcon at
c. 1300, "a boy, a youth" (early 13c. as a surname), from Old French garçun "menial, servant-boy, page; man of base condition," ["in jocular use, 'lad'" - OED]; objective case of gars (11c.; Modern French garçon "boy, bachelor, single man; waiter, porter"). This comes, perhaps via Gallo-Romance, from Frankish *wrakjo- or another Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *wrakjon (cognates: Old High German recko, Old Saxon wrekkio "a banished person, exile;" English wretch). From c. 1400 as "young male servant, squire, page." Meaning "a waiter" (especially one in a French restaurant) is a reborrowing from 1788.
garden (n.) Look up garden at
late 13c. (late 12c. in surnames), from Old North French gardin "(kitchen) garden; orchard; palace grounds" (Old French jardin, 13c., Modern French jardin), from Vulgar Latin hortus gardinus "enclosed garden," via Frankish *gardo or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *gardaz (cognates: Old Frisian garda, Old Saxon gardo, Old High German garto, German Garten "a garden," Old English geard, Gothic gards "enclosure;" see yard (n.1)). Italian giardino, Spanish jardin are from French.

As an adjective from c. 1600. Garden-party "company attending an entertainment on the lawn or garden of a private house" is by 1843. Garden-variety in figurative sense first recorded 1928. To lead someone up the garden path "entice, deceive" is attested by 1925. Garden-glassgarden-glass "round dark glass reflective globe (about a foot and a half across) placed on a pedestal, used as a garden ornament," is from 1842.
garden (v.) Look up garden at
"to lay out and cultivate a garden," 1570s, from garden (n.). Related: Gardened; gardening.
gardener (n.) Look up gardener at
late 13c. (early 12c. as a surname), from Old North French *gardinier (Old French jardineor "gardener," 12c., Modern French jardinier), from gardin "(kitchen) garden" (see garden (n.)). Compare German Gärtner. An Old English word for it was wyrtweard, literally "plant-guard."
gardenia (n.) Look up gardenia at
shrub genus, 1757, Modern Latin, named for Scottish-born American naturalist Dr. Alexander Garden (1730-1791), Vice President of the Royal Society, + abstract noun ending -ia.
gardening (n.) Look up gardening at
1570s, verbal noun from garden (v.).
garderobe (n.) Look up garderobe at
also garde-robe, "wardrobe," early 14c., from Old French garderobe "wardrobe; alcove; dressing-room" (Old North French warderobe; see wardrobe).
gare (n.) Look up gare at
French for "train station," 1840 in French, from earlier sense "river port, pier" (17c.), verbal noun from garer "to (supply with) shelter," in Middle French also "to dock ships" (see garage (n.)).
garfish (n.) Look up garfish at
mid-15c., from gar + fish (n.).
gargantuan (adj.) Look up gargantuan at
"enormous," 1590s, from Gargantua, name of the voracious giant in Rabelais' novels, supposedly from Spanish/Portuguese garganta "gullet, throat," which is from the same imitative root as gargle (v.).
gargle (v.) Look up gargle at
1520s, from Middle French gargouiller "to gurgle, bubble" (14c.), from Old French gargole "throat, waterspout," which is perhaps from garg-, imitative of throat sounds, + *goule, dialect word for "mouth," from Latin gula "throat." Related: Gargled; gargling. The earlier, native, form of the word was Middle English gargarize (early 15c.), from Latin gargarizare, from Greek gargarizein.
gargle (n.) Look up gargle at
1650s, "liquid used in gargling," from gargle (v.).
gargoyle (n.) Look up gargoyle at
"grotesque carved waterspout," connected to the gutter of a building to throw down water clear of the wall, common in 13c.-16c. buildings; late 13c., gargoile, also garguile, gargule, etc., "carved mouth of a rain spout, a gargoyle," from Old French gargole, gargoule "throat;" also "carved downspout," in the form of a serpent or some other fanciful shape, also from Medieval Latin gargola, gargulio (see gargle (v.)). "An archaic spelling, retained in books; better gargoil or, in more modern form gargel" [Century Dictionary].
Garibaldi Look up Garibaldi at
1862, blouse worn by women in imitation of red shirts worn by followers of Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882), liberator of Italy.
garish (adj.) Look up garish at
"showy, dazzling," especially "glaringly vulgar and gaudy," 1540s, of unknown origin, possibly from obsolete Middle English gawren "to stare" (c. 1200), which is of uncertain origin (perhaps from Old Norse gaurr "rough fellow") + -ish. Related: Garishly; garishness.
garland (n.) Look up garland at
c. 1300 (mid-13c. in Anglo-Latin), "wreath of flowers," also "crown of gold or silver," from Old French garlande "garland," probably from a Frankish frequentative form of *weron "adorn, bedeck," from *wiara-, *weara- "wire" (on the notion of "ornament of refined gold," properly "of twisted gold wire"), from Proto-Germanic *wira-, *wera-, suffixed form of PIE *wei- (1) "to turn, twist" (see wire (n.)). Compare Middle High German wieren "adorn, bedeck." The word is found in many forms in the Romanic language, such as Old Spanish guarlanda, French guirlande, Italian ghirlanda, Portuguese guirnalda.
garland (v.) Look up garland at
early 15c., "to make a garland;" 1590s, "to crown with a garland," from garland (n.). Related: Garlanded; garlanding.
garlic (n.) Look up garlic at
Middle English garlek, from Old English garlec (West Saxon), garleac (Mercian), "garlic," from gar "spear" (in reference to the clove), see gar, + leac "leek" (see leek). Garlic-bread is from 1958.
garlicky (adj.) Look up garlicky at
1775, from garlic + -y (2). The -k- perhaps to preserve the hard -c-, but garlick was a former alternative spelling.
garment (n.) Look up garment at
c. 1400, "any article of clothing," reduced form of garnement (early 14c.), from Old French garnement "garment, attire, clothes" (12c.), from garnir "fit out, provide, adorn" (see garnish (v.)).
garner (v.) Look up garner at
late 15c., "to store grain," from garner (n.). Related: Garnered; garnering.
garner (n.) Look up garner at
"a granary," late 12c., gerner, from Old French gernier, metathesized variant of grenier "storehouse, loft for grain," from Latin granarium (usually plural, granaria) "store-house for grain" (see granary).
garnet (n.) Look up garnet at
mid-15c., metathesized form of gernet "the gem garnet" (early 14c.), from Old French grenate, gernatte, granate "garnet," also an adjective, "of a dark red color," from Medieval Latin granatum "garnet; of dark red color," perhaps abstracted from the Medieval Latin or Old French words for pomegranate, from the stone's resemblance either to the shape of the seeds or the color of the pulp. Or the word might be from Medieval Latin granum "grain," in its sense of "cochineal, red dye." A widespread word: Spanish and Portuguese granate, Italian granato, Dutch granaat, German Granat.
garnish (v.) Look up garnish at
late 14c., "to decorate, adorn, beautify," also in Middle English "equip (a place) for defense; arm (oneself) for battle; prepare to defend," from Old French garniss-, present participle stem of garnir "provide, furnish; fortify, reinforce" (11c.), from Frankish *warnjan, from Proto-Germanic *warnon "be cautious, guard, provide for" (cognates: Old High German warnon "to take heed," Old English warnian "to take warning, beware;" see weir, and compare warn).

Sense evolution is from "arm oneself" to "fit out" to "embellish," which was the earliest meaning in English. Culinary sense of "to decorate a dish for the table" predominated after c. 1700. Older meaning survives in legal sense of "to warn or serve notice of attachment of funds" (1570s). Related: Garnished; garnishing.
garnish (n.) Look up garnish at
late 14c., "set of tableware" (probably a dozen; usually pewter), from garnish (v.). Sense of "embellishments to food" is from 1670s.
garnishee (n.) Look up garnishee at
"one who owes debts and has been warned legally to not pay money or transfer property which has been awarded to his creditor," 1620s, from garnish (v.) in the legal sense + -ee.
garnishment (n.) Look up garnishment at
1550s, "embellishment, adornment, decoration," from garnish (v.) + -ment. Legal financial sense from 17c. The verbal noun garnishing also was used in the sense "ornament, that which decorates" (late 14c.).
garret (n.) Look up garret at
c. 1300, garite, "turret, small tower on the roof of a house or castle," from Old French garite "watchtower, place of refuge, shelter, lookout," from garir "defend, preserve," which is from a Germanic source (compare Old English warian "to hold, defend," Gothic warjan "forbid," Old High German warjan "to defend"), from Proto-Germanic *warjan, from PIE root *wer- (5) "to cover" (see warrant (n.)). Meaning "room on uppermost floor of a house," especially a room with a sloping roof, is from early 14c. See attic. As the typical wretched abode of a poor poet, by mid-18c.
Garrett Look up Garrett at
surname, from mid-13c., from Gerald or Gerard, with loss of consonant.
garrison (v.) Look up garrison at
"to place troops in," 1560s, from garrison (n.). Related: Garrisoned; garrisoning.
garrison (n.) Look up garrison at
c. 1300, "store, treasure," from Old French garison "defense, protection, safety, security; crops, food; salvation; healing, recovery, cure" (Modern French guérison "cure, recovery, healing") from garir "defend" (see garret). Meaning "fortified stronghold" is from early 15c.; that of "body of troops in a fortress" is from mid-15c., a sense taken over from Middle English garnison "body of armed men stationed in a fort or town to guard it" (late 14c.), from Old French garnison "provision, munitions," from garnir "to furnish, provide" (see garnish (v.)).
garrot (n.) Look up garrot at
kind of sea-duck, 1829, from French garrot (1757), a word of unknown origin.
garrote (v.) Look up garrote at
"to execute with a garrote," 1845, from garrote (n.); sense of "choke senseless and then rob" is from 1852. Related: Garotted; garotting.
garrote (n.) Look up garrote at
also garrotte, 1620s, "Spanish method of capital punishment by strangulation," from Spanish garrote "stick for twisting cord" (the method used in the execution), of unknown origin. Perhaps from Old French guaroc "club, stick, rod, shaft of a crossbow," probably ultimately Celtic, but possibly from Frankish *wrokkan "to twist" (cognate with Middle Dutch wroken "to twist").
I have no hesitation in pronouncing death by the garrot, at once the most manly, and the least offensive to the eye. [Major John Richardson, "British Legion," 1837]
garrulity (n.) Look up garrulity at
1580s, from Middle French garrulité, from Latin garrulitatem (nominative garrulitas) "chattering, loquacity," from garrulus "talkative" (see garrulous).
garrulous (adj.) Look up garrulous at
1610s, from Latin garrulus "talkative, chattering," from garrire "to chatter," from PIE root *gar- "to call, cry," of imitative origin (compare Greek gerys "voice, sound," Ossetic zar "song," Welsh garm, Old Irish gairm "noise, cry"). Related: Garrulously; garrulousness.
garter (n.) Look up garter at
"tie or fastening to keep a stocking in place on the leg," early 14c., from Old North French gartier "band just above or below the knee" (Old French jartier, 14c., Modern French jarretière), from garet/jaret "bend of the knee," perhaps from Gaulish (compare Welsh garr "leg"). Garter in reference to the highest order of knighthood (mid-14c.) is from the Order of the Garter, the earliest records of which are entirely lost, but which according to Froissart was established c. 1344 by Edward III, though the usual story of how it came about is late (1614) and perhaps apocryphal. Garter-snake (1775, U.S.) so called from resemblance to a ribbon. Garter belt attested by 1913.