gentlemanly (adj.) Look up gentlemanly at
mid-15c., from gentleman + -ly (1).
gentleness (n.) Look up gentleness at
c.1300, "inherited nature," from gentle + -ness. Meaning "freedom from harshness and violence" is from 1610s.
gentlewoman (n.) Look up gentlewoman at
early 13c., from gentle + woman.
gently (adv.) Look up gently at
early 14c., "befitting one of gentle rank," from gentle + -ly (2). Meaning "quietly, softly" is from 1550s.
gentrification (n.) Look up gentrification at
by 1977, noun of action from gentrify.
gentrify (v.) Look up gentrify at
"renovate inner-city housing to middle-class standards," by 1972, from gentry + -fy. Related: Gentrified, which was used from early 19c. of persons.
gentry (n.) Look up gentry at
c.1300, "nobility of rank or birth," from Old French genterise, variant of gentilise "noble birth, gentleness," from gentil (see gentle). Meaning "noble persons" is from 1520s. Earlier in both senses was gentrice (c.1200 as "nobility of character," late 14c. as "noble persons"). In Anglo-Irish, gentry was a name for "the fairies" (1880), and gentle could mean "enchanted" (1823).
genuflect (v.) Look up genuflect at
1620s, back-formation from genuflection. Related: Genuflected; genuflecting.
genuflection (n.) Look up genuflection at
early 15c., from Middle French génuflexion and directly from Late Latin genuflectionem (nominative genuflexio) "bending of the knee," noun of action from past participle stem of genuflectere "genuflect," from Latin genu "knee" (see knee (n.)) + flectere "to bend" (see flexible).
genuine (adj.) Look up genuine at
1590s, "natural, not acquired," from Latin genuinus "native, natural," from root of gignere "beget" (see genus), perhaps influenced in form by contrasting adulterinus "spurious." [Alternative etymology is from Latin genu "knee," from a supposed ancient custom of a father acknowledging paternity of a newborn by placing it on his knee.] Meaning "really proceeding from its reputed source" is from 1660s. Related: Genuinely; genuineness.
genus (n.) Look up genus at
(plural genera), 1550s as a term of logic, "kind or class of things" (biological sense dates from c.1600), from Latin genus (genitive generis) "race, stock, kind; family, birth, descent, origin," cognate with Greek genos "race, kind," and gonos "birth, offspring, stock," from PIE root *gene- "produce, give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to family and tribal groups (cognates: Sanskrit janati "begets, bears," janah "race," janman- "birth, origin," jatah "born;" Avestan zizanenti "they bear;" Greek gignesthai "to become, happen;" Latin gignere "to beget," gnasci "to be born," genius "procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality," ingenium "inborn character," germen "shoot, bud, embryo, germ;" Lithuanian gentis "kinsmen;" Gothic kuni "race;" Old English cennan "beget, create;" Old High German kind "child;" Old Irish ro-genar "I was born;" Welsh geni "to be born;" Armenian chanim "I bear, I am born").
geo- Look up geo- at
word-forming element meaning "earth," ultimately from Greek geo-, comb. form of ge "earth" (see Gaia).
geocentric (adj.) Look up geocentric at
1680s, from geo- + -centric. Related: Geocentrism (1882).
geochronology (n.) Look up geochronology at
1893, from geo- + chronology.
geode (n.) Look up geode at
rounded stone with a hollow center lined with crystals, 1670s, from French géode, from Latin geodes, from Greek geodes "earthy, earth-like," from ge "earth" (Homeric gaia; see Gaia) + -oides, adjective suffix, "characterized by." Perhaps so called in reference to the "earthy" minerals inside.
geodesic (adj.) Look up geodesic at
1821, from geodesy "surveying" + -ic. Alternative adjective form geodetic is from 1834; geodetical is from c.1600. Geodesic dome attested from 1953.
geodesy (n.) Look up geodesy at
1560s, "surveying," from Modern Latin geodaesia, from Greek geodaisia "division of the earth;" ultimately from ge "earth" (see Gaia) + stem of daiein "divide."
geoduck (n.) Look up geoduck at
edible Pacific clam, 1883, perhaps from some American Indian word.
Geoffrey Look up Geoffrey at
masc. personal name, attested in England by late 11c., from Old French Geuffroi, from Medieval Latin Gaufridus, from Old High German gewi "district" (German Gau) + fridu "peace" (see Frederick).
geographer (n.) Look up geographer at
1540s, from Medieval Latin geographus (see geography) + agent noun ending -er (1).
geographic (adj.) Look up geographic at
1620s, shortened form of geographical; in some cases probably from Middle French géographique.
geographical (adj.) Look up geographical at
1550s, from Late Latin geographicus (from Greek geographikos, from geographia; see geography) + -al (1). Related: Geographically.
geography (n.) Look up geography at
1540s, from Middle French géographie (15c.), from Latin geographia, from Greek geographia "description of the earth's surface," from geo- "earth" + -graphia "description" (see -graphy).
geologic (adj.) Look up geologic at
1799, from geology + -ic. Geologic time is recorded from 1861.
geological (adj.) Look up geological at
1795, from geology + -ical. Related: Geologically.
geologist (n.) Look up geologist at
1795, from geology + -ist.
geology (n.) Look up geology at
1735, from Modern Latin geologia "the study of the earth," from geo- "earth" + logia (see -logy). In Medieval Latin, geologia (14c.) meant "study of earthly things," i.e. law, as distinguished from arts and sciences, which concern the works of God. Darwin used geologize as a verb.
geomancer (n.) Look up geomancer at
c.1400, agent noun from geomancy.
geomancy (n.) Look up geomancy at
"art of divination by means of signs derived from the earth," late 14c., from Old French géomancie, from Medieval Latin geomantia, from late Greek *geomanteia, from geo-, comb. form of ge "earth" + manteia "divination" (see -mancy).
geometer (n.) Look up geometer at
late 15c., from Latin geometres, from Greek geometres "land-measurer" (see geometry).
geometric (adj.) Look up geometric at
1620s, shortened form of geometrical. As a style of ancient Greek pottery and associated culture, 1902.
geometrical (adj.) Look up geometrical at
late 14c., from Latin geometricus "of geometry," from geometria (see geometry) + -al. Opposed to arithmetical in ratio, proportion, etc., reflecting the fact that problems of multiplication formerly were dealt with by geometry, not arithmetic. Related: Geometrically.
geometry (n.) Look up geometry at
early 14c., from Old French géométrie (12c.), from Latin geometria, from Greek geometria "measurement of earth or land; geometry," from comb. form of ge "earth, land" (see Gaia) + -metria (see -metry). Rendered in Old English as eorðcræft.
geomorphology (n.) Look up geomorphology at
1893, from geo- + morphology. Form geomorphy is from 1889. Related: Geomorphological; geomorphologically; geomorphologist.
geophagy (n.) Look up geophagy at
"dirt-eating," 1850, from Greek *geophagia (according to OED the actual Greek is geotragia), from geo-, comb. form of ge "earth" (see Gaia) + phagein "to eat."
A diseased appetite ... prevails in several parts of Alabama, where they eat clay. I heard various speculations on the origin of this singular propensity, called 'geophagy' in some medical books. [Lyell, "Second Visit to U.S.," 1850]
See also pica (n.2).
geophysical (adj.) Look up geophysical at
1888, from geo- "earth" + physical (adj.).
geophysics (n.) Look up geophysics at
1889, from geo- + physics.
geopolitical (adj.) Look up geopolitical at
1902, translating Swedish geopolitisk, used in 1900 by Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén (1864-1922); from geo- + politisk "political." Related: Geopolitics (1903).
Geordie Look up Geordie at
Scottish and northern dialectal diminutive of masc. proper name George.
George Look up George at
masc. personal name, from Late Latin Georgius, from Greek Georgos "husbandman, farmer," from ge "earth" + ergon "work" (see organ).

The name introduced in England by the Crusaders (a vision of St. George played a key role in the First Crusade), but not common until after the Hanoverian succession (18c.). St. George began to be recognized as patron of England in time of Edward III, perhaps because of his association with the Order of the Garter (see garter). His feast day, April 23, was made a holiday in 1222. The legend of his combat with the dragon is first found in "Legenda Aurea" (13c.). The exclamation by (St.) George! is recorded from 1590s.
Georgia Look up Georgia at
the U.S. state was named for King George II of Great Britain. The Caucasian nation is so-called for St. George, who is its patron saint (his cult there may continue that of a pre-Christian deity with whom he was later identified), but the name also is said to derive from Arabic or Persian Kurj, or Gurz (the form in the earliest sources), said to be a name of the native people, of unknown origin. In modern Georgia, the name of the country is Sakartvelo and the people's name is Kartveli.
Georgian (adj.) Look up Georgian at
1855, in reference to the reigns of the first four king Georges of England (1714-1830). C.1600 as "pertaining to Georgia" in the Caucasus; 1762 as "pertaining to Georgia" in North America; the noun in this sense is c.1400 (Caucasus), 1741 (North America).
georgic Look up georgic at
1510s, Georgics, title of Virgil's poems on rural life, from Latin georgica, from georgicus (adj.), from Greek georgikos "of a husbandman, agricultural," from ge "earth" + ergon "work" (see organ). As an adjective meaning "related to agriculture" from 1711.
geosphere (n.) Look up geosphere at
1898, from geo- + sphere.
geosyncline (n.) Look up geosyncline at
1895, back-formation from geosynclinal (1873); see geo- + synclinal.
geothermal (adj.) Look up geothermal at
1875, from geo- + thermal.
geotropism (n.) Look up geotropism at
1874, from German Geotropismus, from geo- + Greek trope (see trope). Coined in 1868 by German botanist Albert Bernhard Frank (1839-1900). Related: Geotropic.
Gerald Look up Gerald at
masc. proper name, introduced by the Normans, from Old French Giralt, from Old High German Gerwald, "spear-wielder," from Proto-Germanic *girald, from *ger "spear" + base of waltan "to rule" (cognate with Old English wealdan). The name often was confused with Gerard.
Geraldine Look up Geraldine at
fem. proper name, fem. form of Gerald.
geranium (n.) Look up geranium at
1540s, from Latin geranium, from Greek geranion, the plant name, diminutive of geranos "crane" (cognate with Latin grus, English crane (n.)), from supposed resemblance of seed pods to cranes' bills; the native name was also cranebill. As a color name from 1842.