hereon Look up hereon at
Old English heron; see here + on.
heresiarch (n.) Look up heresiarch at
1620s, from Church Latin haeresiarcha, from Late Greek hairesiarkhes (see heresy + arch-).
heresy (n.) Look up heresy at
"an opinion of private men different from that of the catholick and orthodox church" [Johnson], c. 1200, from Old French heresie (12c.), from Latin hæresis, "school of thought, philosophical sect," used by Christian writers for "unorthodox sect or doctrine," from Greek hairesis "a taking or choosing, a choice," from haireisthai "take, seize," middle voice of hairein "to choose," of unknown origin, perhaps from PIE *ser- (5) "to seize" (cognates: Hittite šaru "booty," Welsh herw "booty").

The Greek word was used in the New Testament in reference to the Sadducees, Pharisees, and even the Christians, as sects of Judaism, but in English bibles it usually is translated sect. Meaning "religious belief opposed to the orthodox doctrines of the Church" evolved in Late Latin. Transferred (non-religious) use from late 14c.
heretic (n.) Look up heretic at
mid-14c., from Old French eretique (14c., Modern French hérétique), from Church Latin haereticus, from Greek hairetikos "able to choose," the verbal adjective of hairein (see heresy).
heretical (adj.) Look up heretical at
early 15c., from Middle French eretical and directly from Medieval Latin haereticalis, from haereticus (see heretic).
hereto Look up hereto at
late 12c., from here + to.
heretofore Look up heretofore at
c. 1200, from here + obsolete Old English toforan.
hereunder Look up hereunder at
early 15c., from here + under.
hereunto Look up hereunto at
c. 1500, from here + unto.
hereupon Look up hereupon at
late Old English, from here + upon.
herewith Look up herewith at
late Old English herwith; see here + with.
heriot (n.) Look up heriot at
Old English here-geatwe (plural) "military equipment, army-gear," from here "army" (see harry). An Anglo-Saxon service of weapons, loaned by the lord to his retainer and repayable to him upon the retainer's death; transferred by 13c. to a feudal due upon the death of a tenant, payable to his lord in beasts.
heritable (adj.) Look up heritable at
early 15c., from Old French héritable (c. 1200), from hériter (see heritage). Related: Heritability.
heritage (n.) Look up heritage at
c. 1200, "that which may be inherited," from Old French iritage, eritage, heritage, from heriter "inherit," from Late Latin hereditare, ultimately from Latin heres (genitive heredis) "heir" (see heredity).
Herman Look up Herman at
masc. proper name, from German Hermann, from Old High German Hariman, literally "man of war, warrior," from hari "host, army" (see harry (v.)) + man "man" (see man (n.)).
hermaphrodism (n.) Look up hermaphrodism at
1808, from French hermaphrodisme, from hermaphrodite (see hermaphrodite).
hermaphrodite (n.) Look up hermaphrodite at
late 14c. (harmofroditus), from Latin hermaphroditus, from Greek Hermaphroditos (Latin Hermaphroditus), son of Hermes and Aphrodite, who, in Ovid, was loved by the nymph Salmacis so ardently that she prayed for complete union with him and as a result they were united bodily, combining male and female characteristics. Also used figuratively in Middle English of "one who improperly occupies two offices." As a name for the condition, Middle English had hermofrodito (late 14c.), hermofrodisia (early 15c.). As an adjective, from c. 1600.
hermaphroditic (adj.) Look up hermaphroditic at
1620s, from hermaphrodite + -ic. Earlier form was hermaphroditical (c. 1600).
hermeneutic (adj.) Look up hermeneutic at
"interpretive," 1670s, from Greek hermeneutikos "interpreting," from hermeneutes "interpreter," from hermeneuein "to interpret," of unknown origin (formerly considered ultimately a derivative of Hermes, as the tutelary divinity of speech, writing, and eloquence).
hermeneutical (adj.) Look up hermeneutical at
1798, from hermeneutic + -al (1). Related: Hermeneutically.
hermeneutics (n.) Look up hermeneutics at
1737, from hermeneutic; also see -ics.
Hermes Look up Hermes at
Olympian messenger and god of commerce, son of Zeus and Maia, identified by the Romans with their Mercury, from Greek Hermes, of unknown origin.
hermetic (adj.) Look up hermetic at
c. 1600 (implied in hermetically), "completely sealed," also (1630s) "dealing with occult science or alchemy," from Latin hermeticus, from Greek Hermes, god of science and art, among other things, identified by Neoplatonists, mystics, and alchemists with the Egyptian god Thoth as Hermes Trismegistos "Thrice-Great Hermes," who supposedly invented the process of making a glass tube airtight (a process in alchemy) using a secret seal.
hermetically (adv.) Look up hermetically at
c. 1600; see hermetic.
Hermione Look up Hermione at
fem. proper name, from Greek Hermione, derived from Hermes (genitive Hermeio).
hermit (n.) Look up hermit at
early 12c., "religious recluse," from Old French (h)eremite, from Late Latin ermita, from Greek eremites, literally "person of the desert," from eremia "desert, solitude," from eremos "uninhabited, empty, desolate, bereft," from PIE *ere- (2) "to separate" (cognates: Latin rete "net," Lithuanian retis "sieve"). Transferred sense of "person living in solitude" is from 1799. The hermit crab (1735) was so called for its solitary habits.
hermitage (n.) Look up hermitage at
late 13c., "dwelling place of a hermit," from Old French hermitage, from Latin heremite (see hermit). Earlier in the same sense was hermitorie (c. 1200), from Medieval Latin hermitorium. Transferred sense of "solitary or secluded dwelling place" is from 1640s.
hernia (n.) Look up hernia at
late 14c., hirnia, from Latin hernia "a rupture," related to hira "intestine," PIE *ghere- "gut, entrail" (see yarn). The re-Latinized spelling is from 17c. Related: Herniated (1879).
hernial (adj.) Look up hernial at
early 15c., from Medieval Latin hernialis, from hernia (see hernia).
herniation (n.) Look up herniation at
1875, from hernia + -ation.
hero (n.1) Look up hero at
late 14c., "man of superhuman strength or physical courage," from Latin heros "hero," from Greek heros "demi-god" (a variant singular of which was heroe), perhaps originally "defender, protector," and from PIE root *ser- (1) "to watch over, protect" (see observe). Meaning "man who exhibits great bravery" in any course of action is from 1660s. Sense of "chief male character in a play, story, etc." first recorded 1690s. First record of hero-worship is from 1774.
hero (n.2) Look up hero at
1955, the New York term for a sandwich elsewhere called submarine, grinder, poor boy (New Orleans), or hoagie (Philadelphia); origin unknown, perhaps so called for its great size, or a folk etymology alteration of Greek gyro as a type of sandwich.
heroic (adj.) Look up heroic at
1540s, shortened from heroical (early 15c.), also heroycus "noble, magnanimous," from Latin heroicus "of a hero, heroic, mythical," from Greek heroikos "pertaining to heroes," from heros (see hero (n.1)). Earlier was heroical (early 15c.). The Heroic Age in Greece was the time before the return of the armies from the fall of Troy. Related: Heroically. Heroic verse (1610s), decasyllabic iambic, is from Italian.
heroics (n.) Look up heroics at
1590s, "heroic verse" (see heroic). Meaning "deeds worthy of a hero" attested by 1831.
heroin (n.) Look up heroin at
1898, from German Heroin, coined 1898 as trademark registered by Friedrich Bayer & Co. for their morphine substitute, traditionally from Greek heros (see hero (n.1)) because of the euphoric feeling the drug provides, but no evidence for this seems to have been found so far.
A new hypnotic, to which the name of "heroin" has been given, has been tried in the medical clinic of Professor Gerhardt in Berlin. ["The Lancet," Dec. 3, 1898]
heroine (n.) Look up heroine at
1650s, from Latin heroine, heroina (plural heroinae) "a female hero, a demigoddess" (such as Medea), from Greek heroine, fem. of heros (see hero (n.1)). As "principal female character" in a drama or poem, from 1715.
heroism (n.) Look up heroism at
1717, from French héroisme, from heros (see hero (n.1)).
heron (n.) Look up heron at
c. 1300, from Old French hairon (12c.), earlier hairo (11c., Modern French héron), from Frankish *haigiro or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *hraigran (cognates: Old High German heigaro "heron," German Reiher, Dutch reiger, Old Norse hegri), from PIE *qriq-, perhaps imitative of its cry (compare Old Church Slavonic kriku "cry, scream," Lithuanian kryksti "to shriek"). Old English cognate hraga did not survive into Middle English.
herpes (n.) Look up herpes at
late 14c., "inflammatory, spreading skin condition" (used of shingles, gangrene, etc.), from Latin herpes "a spreading skin eruption," from Greek herpes, the name for the disease shingles, literally "creeping," from herpein "to creep" (cognate with Latin serpere "to creep;" see serpent). The condition was not distinguished into specific diseases until early 19c.
herpetic (adj.) Look up herpetic at
"pertaining to herpes," 1783, from Greek herpes (genitive herpetos); see herpes + -ic.
herpetology (n.) Look up herpetology at
"study of reptiles," 1816, from French herpétologie (18c.), coined from Greek herpeton "reptile," literally "creeping thing," from herpein "to creep" (see serpent) + logia (see -logy). Related: Herpetologist.
Herr Look up Herr at
German equivalent of Mr., 1650s, originally "nobler, superior," from Middle High German herre, from Old High German herro, comparative of her "noble, worthy, exalted," from PIE *kei-, a color adjective, in suffixed form *koi-ro- here meaning "gray, hoary," hence "gray-haired, venerable." Cognate with Old Frisian hera, Dutch heer; perhaps in this usage a loan-translation of Latin senior. Hence also Herrenvolk "master race," in Nazi ideology, the concept of the German people.
herring (n.) Look up herring at
Old English hering (Anglian), hæring (West Saxon), from West Germanic *heringgaz (cognates: Old Frisian hereng, Middle Dutch herinc, German Hering), of unknown origin, perhaps related to or influenced in form by Old English har "gray, hoar," from the color, or to Old High German heri "host, multitude" from its large schools.

French hareng, Italian aringa are from Germanic. The Battle of the Herrings (French bataille des harengs) is the popular name for the battle at Rouvrai, Feb. 12, 1492, fought in defense of a convoy of provisions, mostly herrings and other "lenten stuffe."
herringbone Look up herringbone at
also herring-bone, 1650s in literal sense and also as a type of stitch, from herring + bone (n.). From 1905 as a type of cirrocumulus cloud.
hers Look up hers at
c. 1300, hires, from her; a double possessive. Possessive pronouns in Modern English consist of the predicative (mine, thine, his, ours, yours, theirs) that come after the subject, and the attributive (my, thy, his, her, our, your, their) that come before it. In Old English and early Middle English, they were identical. To keep speech fluid, speakers began to affix an -n to the end of my and thy before words that began with vowels. This began late 13c. in the north of England, and by 1500 was standard.

Then the predicative and attributive pronouns split, and the pronouns in that class usually took up -s, the regular affix of possession. But the non-standard speech of the Midlands and south of England extended -n throughout (hisn, hern, yourn), a habit attested from 14c. and more regular than the standard speech, which mixes -s and -n.
herself Look up herself at
Old English hire self; see her (objective case) + self. Originally dative, but since 14c. often treated as genitive, hence her own sweet self, etc. Also see himself.
Hertfordshire Look up Hertfordshire at
Old English Heortfordscir, from Herutford (731), literally "ford frequented by harts."
Hertz Look up Hertz at
unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second, 1928, named in reference to German physicist Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894).
Herzegovina Look up Herzegovina at
former Austrian duchy in the Balkans, from Old Serbian herceg "duke" (related to Modern German Herzog) + possessive ending -ov + -ina "country."
hesitance (n.) Look up hesitance at
c. 1600, from Latin haesitantia (see hesitancy).