- hooked (adj.)
- Old English hoced, "shaped like a hook, crooked, curved;" past participle adj. from hook (v.). From mid-14c. as "having hooks;" 1610s as "caught on a hook;" 1925 as "addicted," originally in reference to narcotics. hooked rug is recorded from 1880.
- hooker (n.)
- "prostitute," often traced to the disreputable morals of the Army of the Potomac (American Civil War) under the tenure of Gen. "Fighting Joe" Hooker (early 1863), and the word might have been popularized by this association at that time (though evidence is wanting). But it is reported to have been in use in North Carolina c.1845 ("[I]f he comes by way of Norfolk he will find any number of pretty Hookers in the Brick row not far from French's hotel. Take my advice and touch nothing in the shape of a prostitute when you come through Raleigh, for in honest truth the clap is there of luxuriant growth." letter quoted in Norman E. Eliason, "Tarheel Talk," 1956).
One early theory traces it to Corlear's Hook, a section of New York City.
HOOKER. A resident of the Hook, i.e. a strumpet, a sailor's trull. So called from the number of houses of ill-fame frequented by sailors at the Hook (i.e. Corlear's Hook) in the city of New York. [John Russell Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1859]
Perhaps related to hooker "thief, pickpocket" (1560s), but most likely a reference to prostitutes hooking or snaring clients. Hook in the figurative sense of "that by which anyone is attracted or caught" is recorded from early 15c.; and hook (v.) in the figurative sense of "catch hold of and draw in" is attested from 1570s; in reference to "fishing" for a husband or a wife, it was in common use from c. 1800. All of which makes the modern sense seem a natural step. Compare French accrocheuse, raccrocheuse, common slang term for "street-walker, prostitute," literally "hooker" of men.
The family name Hooker (attested from c.975 C.E.) would mean "maker of hooks," or else refer to an agricultural laborer who used a hook (compare Old English weodhoc "weed-hook").
- hookup (n.)
- also hook up, "connection," 1903; modern slang verbal sense of "to meet for sex" is attested by 2003.
- hooky (n.)
- also hookey, in the truant sense, 1848, American English (New York City), from Dutch hoekje "hide and seek;" or else from hook it, attested since 14c. as "make off, run away," originally "depart, proceed."
- hooligan (n.)
- 1890s, of unknown origin, first found in British newspaper police-court reports in the summer of 1898, almost certainly from the variant form of the Irish surname Houlihan, which figured as a characteristic comic Irish name in music hall songs and newspapers of the 1880s and '90s.
As an "inventor" and adapter to general purposes of the tools used by navvies and hodmen, "Hooligan" is an Irish character who occupies week by week the front of a comic literary journal called Nuggets, one of the series of papers published by Mr. James Henderson at Red Lion House. Previous to publication in London, "Hooligan" appears, I believe, in New York in a comic weekly, and in London he is set off against "Schneider," a German, whose contrainventions and adaptations appear in the Garland (a very similar paper to Nuggets), which also comes from Mr. Henderson's office. "Hooligan" and "Schneider" have been running, I should think, for four or five years. ["Notes and Queries," Oct. 15, 1898]
Internationalized 20c. in communist rhetoric as Russian khuligan, opprobrium for "scofflaws, political dissenters, etc."
- hooliganism (n.)
- 1898, from hooligan + -ism.
- hoop (n.)
- late 12c., probably from an unrecorded Old English *hop, from Proto-Germanic *hopa-, a Low German-Frisian word (cognates: Old Frisian hop, Middle Dutch and Dutch hoep "hoop," Old Norse hop "a small bay"). As something someone jumps through (on horseback) as a circus trick, by 1793. Figurative use of jump through hoops by 1917. The verb is from mid-15c. Hoop-petticoat is attested from 1711. As a surname, Hooper, literally "maker of hoops" is early 13c.
- 1877, hoop la, American English, earlier houp-la, exclamation accompanying quick movement (1870), of unknown origin, perhaps borrowed from French houp-là "upsy-daisy," also a cry to dogs, horses, etc. (see whoop).
- hoopoe (n.)
- 1660s, from Latin upupa, imitative of its cry (compare Greek epops "hoopoe").
If anybody smears himself with the blood of this bird on his way to bed, he will have nightmares about suffocating devils. [Cambridge bestiary, 12c.]
- see hurrah.
- hoosegow (n.)
- "jail," 1911, western U.S., probably from mispronunciation of Mexican Spanish juzgao "tribunal, court," from juzgar "to judge," used as a noun, from Latin judicare "to judge," which is related to judicem (see judge (v.)).
- "native or resident of Indiana," by c.1830, American English, of unknown origin; fanciful explanations were printed in 1830s newspapers. Said to have been first printed Jan. 1, 1833, in the "Indianapolis Journal," in a poem, "The Hoosiers Nest," by John Finely, which poem was said to have been written in 1830 ["The Word Hoosier," "Indiana Historical Society Publications," vol. IV, No. 2, 1907], and to have been in oral use from late 1820s. Seemingly it originated among Ohio River boatmen; perhaps related to English dialectal (Cumberland) hoozer, used of anything unusually large [Barnhart]. For other theories, see the journal article.
- hoot (v.)
- "to call or shout in disapproval or scorn," c. 1600, probably related to or a variant of Middle English houten, huten "to shout, call out" (c. 1200), probably ultimately imitative. First used of bird cries, especially that of the owl, mid-15c. Related: Hooted; hooting. As a noun from mid-15c. Meaning "a laugh, something funny" is first recorded 1942. Slang sense of "smallest amount or particle" (the hoot you don't give when you don't care) is from 1891.
"A dod blasted ole fool!" answered the captain, who, till now, had been merely an amused on-looker. "Ye know all this rumpus wont do nobuddy a hoot o' good--not a hoot." ["Along Traverse Shores," Traverse City, Michigan, 1891]
Hooter in the same sense is from 1839.
HOOTER. Probably a corruption of iota. Common in New York in such phrases as "I don't care a hooter for him." "This note ain't worth a hooter." [John Russell Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1877]
- hootenanny (n.)
- "informal session of folk musicians," 1940, American English, earlier "a gadget" (1927), of unknown origin, perhaps a nonsense word.
Another device used by the professional car thief, and one recently developed to perfection, according to a large Chicago lock-testing laboratory, is a "hootenanny," so-called by the criminals using it. ["Popular Mechanics," February 1931]
- hooter (n.)
- by 1823, "anything that hoots," especially an owl, agent noun from hoot (v.). Slang meaning "nose" is from 1958. Meaning "a woman's breast" (usually in plural hooters) attested by 1972. The Hooters restaurant chain began 1983 in Clearwater, Florida, U.S.
- cattle disease, 1840, from alternative past tense form of heave.
- proprietary name for a make of vacuum cleaner (patented 1927); sometimes used generally for "vacuum cleaner." As a verb, meaning "to vacuum," from 1926, in the company’s advertising.
- 1933, American English, from U.S. president Herbert C. Hoover (1874-1964), who was in office when the Depression began, + common place-name ending -ville. Earlier his name was the basis of Hooverize "economize on food" (1917) from his role as wartime head of the U.S. Food Administration.
- exclamation of triumph or approval, first attested c.1992, perhaps originally U.S. military.
- hop (v.)
- Old English hoppian "to spring, leap, dance," from Proto-Germanic *hupnojan (cognates: Old Norse hoppa, Dutch huppen, German hüpfen "to hop"). Related: Hopped; hopping.
- hop (n.1)
- usually hops, type of twining vine whose cones are used in brewing, etc., mid-15c., from Middle Dutch hoppe, from Proto-Germanic *hup-nan- (cognates: Old Saxon -hoppo, German Hopfen), of unknown origin.
- hop (n.2)
- "opium," 1887, from Cantonese nga-pin (pronounced HAH-peen) "opium," a Chinese folk etymology of the English word opium, literally "crow peelings." Re-folk-etymologized back into English by association with hop (n.1).
- hop (n.3)
- "a small jump," c. 1500, from hop (v.). Slang sense of "informal dancing party" is from 1731 (defined by Johnson as "a place where meaner people dance"). Meaning "short flight on an aircraft" is from 1909.
- hope (v.)
- Old English hopian "wish, expect, look forward (to something)," of unknown origin, a general North Sea Germanic word (cognates: Old Frisian hopia, Middle Low German, Middle Dutch, Dutch hopen; Middle High German hoffen "to hope," borrowed from Low German). Some suggest a connection with hop (v.) on the notion of "leaping in expectation" [Klein]. Related: Hoped; hoping.
- hope (n.)
- Old English hopa, from hope (v.). Compare Old Frisian and Middle Dutch hope, Dutch hoop, all from their respective verbs.
- hopeful (adj.)
- c. 1200, from hope + -ful. As a noun, "one on whom hopes are set," from 1720. Related: Hopefulness.
- hopefully (adv.)
- 1630s, "in a hopeful manner," from hopeful + -ly (2). As a replacement for the admittedly awkward it is to be hoped that attested from 1932 but avoided by careful writers.
- hopeless (adj.)
- 1560s, from hope (n.) + -less. Related: Hopelessly; hopelessness.
- hophead (n.)
- "opium addict," 1911, from hop (n.2) + head (n.) in the drug sense.
- Pueblo people of the U.S. southwest, from Pueblo hopi, literally "well-mannered, civilized."
- hoping (n.)
- c. 1300, verbal noun from hope (v.).
- hoplite (n.)
- "heavy-armed foot soldier of ancient Greece," 1727, from Greek hoplites "heavily armed soldier," literally "heavy armed," from hopla "arms, armor," plural of hoplon "tool, weapon, implement."
- hopped (adj.)
- a word that seems to merge three senses of hop; the meaning "flavored with hops" (hop (n.1)) is first attested 1660s; that of "under the influence of drugs" (hop (n.2)) is from 1924; that of "excited, enthusiastic" (perhaps from hop (v.)) is from 1923. Meaning "performance-enhanced" (of an engine, etc.) is from 1945.
- hopper (n.1)
- "person or animal that hops," mid-13c., agent noun from hop (v.). From c. 1200 as a surname, and perhaps existing in Old English (which had hoppestre "female dancer").
- hopper (n.2)
- "container with narrow opening at bottom," late 13c., perhaps an agent noun from hop (v.) via notion of grain juggling in a mill hopper.
- 1801 (from 1789 as hop-scot), from hop (v.) + scotch (n.2) "scratch," from the lines scored in the dirt to make the squares for the game.
- hoptoad (n.)
- by 1827, American English, from hop (v.) + toad.
- masc. proper name, from French, from Latin Horatius, name of a Roman gens. The poet was Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 B.C.E.). The form Horatio is influenced by the Italian version of the name, Orazio.
- from Horatius (see Horace) + -an.
- horde (n.)
- 1550s, from West Turkic (compare Tatar urda "horde," Turkish ordu "camp, army"), to English via Polish, French, or Spanish. The initial -h- seems to have been acquired in Polish. Transferred sense of "uncivilized gang" is from 1610s. Related: Hordes.
- hore (n.)
- "dirt, filth," also hor; from Old English horh "phlegm," horu "foulness," from Proto-Germanic *horwo- (cognates: Old Frisian hore, Old High German horo, Old Norse horr), perhaps imitative.
- horizon (n.)
- late 14c., orisoun, from Old French orizon (14c., Modern French horizon), earlier orizonte (13c.), from Latin horizontem (nominative horizon), from Greek horizon kyklos "bounding circle," from horizein "bound, limit, divide, separate," from horos "boundary." The h- was restored 17c. in imitation of Latin. Old English used eaggemearc ("eye-mark") for "limit of view, horizon."
- horizontal (adj.)
- 1550s, "relating to or near the horizon," from French horizontal, from Latin horizontem (see horizon). Meaning "flat" (i.e., "parallel to the horizon") is from 1630s. Related: horizontally.
- hormonal (adj.)
- 1926, from hormone + -al (1). Related: Hormonally.
- hormone (n.)
- 1905, from Greek hormon "that which sets in motion," present participle of horman "impel, urge on," from horme "onset, impulse," from PIE *or-sma-, from root *er- "to move, set in motion." Used by Hippocrates to denote a vital principle; modern meaning coined by English physiologist Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927). Jung used horme (1915) in reference to hypothetical mental energy that drives unconscious activities and instincts. Related: Hormones.
- horn (n.)
- Old English horn "horn of an animal," also "wind instrument" (originally made from animal horns), from Proto-Germanic *hurnaz (cognates: German Horn, Dutch horen, Gothic haurn), from PIE *ker- (1) "horn; head, uppermost part of the body," with derivatives refering to horned animals, horn-shaped objects and projecting parts (cognates: Greek karnon "horn," Latin cornu "horn," Sanskrit srngam "horn," Persian sar "head," Avestan sarah- "head," Greek koryphe "head," Latin cervus "deer," Welsh carw "deer"). Reference to car horns is first recorded 1901. Figurative senses of Latin cornu included "salient point, chief argument; wing, flank; power, courage, strength." Jazz slang sense of "trumpet" is by 1921. Meaning "telephone" is by 1945.
- horn (v.)
- 1690s, "to furnish with horns," from horn (n.). Earlier in figurative sense of "to cuckold" (1540s). Meaning "to push with the horns" (of cattle, buffalo, etc.) is from 1851, American English; phrase horn in "intrude" is by 1880, American English, originally cowboy slang.
- hornbeam (n.)
- 1570s, from horn (n.) + beam (n.), preserving the original sense of the latter word; so called in reference to its hard wood.
- hornbill (n.)
- 1773, from horn (n.) + bill (n.2).
- hornblende (n.)
- 1796, from German Hornblende, from horn (see horn (n.)) + blende (see blende).
The term "Hornblende" is an old German name for any dark, prismatic crystal found with metallic ores but containing no valuable metal (the word "Blende" indicates "a deceiver") [Herbert Bucksch, "Dictionary Geotechnical Engineering," 1995]