hopefully (adv.) Look up hopefully at Dictionary.com
1630s, "in a hopeful manner, with grounds of expectation for success," from hopeful + -ly (2). As a replacement for the admittedly awkward it is to be hoped that, attested from 1932 but avoided by careful writers.
hopeless (adj.) Look up hopeless at Dictionary.com
1560s, "offering no grounds for hope," from hope (n.) + -less. From 1580s as "having no expectation of success." Related: Hopelessly; hopelessness.
Hopi Look up Hopi at Dictionary.com
Pueblo people of the U.S. southwest, from Pueblo hopi, literally "well-mannered, civilized."
hoping (n.) Look up hoping at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, verbal noun from hope (v.).
hoplite (n.) Look up hoplite at Dictionary.com
"heavy-armed foot soldier of ancient Greece," 1727, from Greek hoplites "heavy-armed," as a noun, "heavy-armed soldier, man-at-arms," from hopla "arms and armor, gear for war," plural of hoplon "tool, weapon, implement." One who carries a large shield, as opposed to a peltastes, so called for his small, light shield (pelte).
hopped (adj.) Look up hopped at Dictionary.com
a word that seems to merge three senses of hop; the meaning "flavored with hops" (hop (n.1)) is first attested 1660s; that of "under the influence of drugs" (hop (n.2)) is from 1924; that of "excited, enthusiastic" (perhaps from hop (v.)) is from 1923. Meaning "performance-enhanced" (of an engine, etc.) is from 1945.
hopper (n.1) Look up hopper at Dictionary.com
"person or animal that hops," mid-13c., agent noun from hop (v.). From c. 1200 as a surname, and perhaps existing in Old English (which had hoppestre "female dancer").
hopper (n.2) Look up hopper at Dictionary.com
"container with a narrow opening at the bottom," late 13c., probably an agent noun from hop (v.1) via the notion of the grain juggling in a mill hopper or the mechanism itself, which was set to operate with a shaking motion. Railroad hopper-car is from 1862.
hopscotch (n.) Look up hopscotch at Dictionary.com
children's game, 1801 (from 1789 as hop-scot), apparently from hop (v.) + scotch (n.2) "scratch," from the lines scored in the dirt to make the squares for the game.
Horace Look up Horace at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, from French, from Latin Horatius, name of a Roman gens. The poet was Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 B.C.E.). The form Horatio is influenced by the Italian version of the name, Orazio.
Horatian (adj.) Look up Horatian at Dictionary.com
1750, from Horatius (see Horace) + -an, or from Latin Horatianus.
horde (n.) Look up horde at Dictionary.com
1550s, "tribe of Asiatic nomads living in tents," from West Turkic (compare Tatar urda "horde," Turkish ordu "camp, army"), borrowed into English via Polish, French, or Spanish. OED says the initial -h- seems to have been acquired in Polish. Transferred sense of "any uncivilized gang" is from 1610s. Related: Hordes.
horde (v.) Look up horde at Dictionary.com
"to live or gather in hordes," 1821, from horde (n.). Related: Horded; hording.
hore (n.) Look up hore at Dictionary.com
"dirt, filth," also hor; from Old English horh "phlegm, mucus," horu "foulness, dirt, defilement," from Proto-Germanic *horwo- (cognates: Old Frisian hore, Old High German horo, Old Norse horr), perhaps imitative of coughing up phlegm.
horizon (n.) Look up horizon at Dictionary.com
late 14c., orisoun, from Old French orizon (14c., Modern French horizon), earlier orizonte (13c.), from Latin horizontem (nominative horizon), from Greek horizon (kyklos) "bounding (circle)," from horizein "bound, limit, divide, separate," from horos "boundary, landmark, marking stones." The h- was restored in English 17c. in imitation of Latin. Old English used eaggemearc ("eye-mark") for "limit of view, horizon." The apparent horizon is distinguished from the celestial or astronomical horizon.
horizontal (adj.) Look up horizontal at Dictionary.com
1550s, "relating to or near the horizon," from French horizontal, from Latin horizontem (see horizon). Meaning "flat" (i.e., "parallel to the horizon") is from 1630s. As a noun also from 1550s. Related: horizontally.
hormonal (adj.) Look up hormonal at Dictionary.com
1926, from hormone + -al (1). Earlier as a noun, the name of a spleen hormone. Related: Hormonally.
hormone (n.) Look up hormone at Dictionary.com
"organic compound produced in animal bodies to regulate activity and behavior," 1905, from Greek hormon "that which sets in motion," present participle of horman "impel, urge on," from horme "onset, impulse," from PIE *or-sma-, from root *er- (1) "to move, set in motion." Used by Hippocrates to denote a vital principle; modern scientific meaning coined by English physiologist Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927). Jung used horme (1915) in reference to hypothetical mental energy that drives unconscious activities and instincts. Related: Hormones.
horn (n.) Look up horn at Dictionary.com
Old English horn "horn of an animal; projection, pinnacle," also "wind instrument" (originally one made from animal horns), from Proto-Germanic *hurnaz (cognates: German Horn, Dutch horen, Old Frisian horn, Gothic haurn), from PIE *ker- (1) "horn; head, uppermost part of the body," with derivatives refering to horned animals, horn-shaped objects and projecting parts (cognates: Greek karnon "horn," Latin cornu "horn," Sanskrit srngam "horn," Persian sar "head," Avestan sarah- "head," Greek koryphe "head," Latin cervus "deer," Welsh carw "deer").

Late 14c. as "one of the tips of the crescent moon." The name was retained for a class of musical instruments that developed from the hunting horn; the French horn is the true representative of the class. Of dilemmas from 1540s; of automobile warning signals from 1901. Slang meaning "erect penis" is recorded by 1785. Jazz slang sense of "trumpet" is by 1921. Meaning "telephone" is by 1945. Figurative senses of Latin cornu included "salient point, chief argument; wing, flank; power, courage, strength." Horn of plenty is from 1580s. To make horns at "hold up the fist with the two exterior fingers extended" as a gesture of insult is from c.1600.

Symbolic of cuckoldry since mid-15c. (the victim was fancied to grow one on his head). The image is widespread in Europe and perhaps as old as ancient Greece. H. Dunger ('Hörner Aufsetzen' und 'Hahnrei', "Germania" 29, 1884) ascribes it to a custom surviving into 19c., "the old practice of engrafting the spurs of a castrated cock on the root of the excised comb, which caused them to grow like horns" [James Hastings, "Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics"] but the image could have grown from a general gesture of contempt or insult made to wronged husbands, "who have been the subject of popular jest in all ages" [Hastings].
horn (v.) Look up horn at Dictionary.com
1690s, "to furnish with horns," from horn (n.). Earlier in figurative sense of "to cuckold" (1540s). Meaning "to push with the horns" (of cattle, buffalo, etc.) is from 1851, American English; phrase horn in "intrude" is by 1880, American English, originally cowboy slang. Related: Horned; horning.
hornbeam (n.) Look up hornbeam at Dictionary.com
1570s, from horn (n.) + beam (n.), preserving the original sense of the latter word; so called in reference to its hard wood.
hornbill (n.) Look up hornbill at Dictionary.com
1773, from horn (n.) + bill (n.2).
hornblende (n.) Look up hornblende at Dictionary.com
1796, from German Hornblende, from horn (see horn (n.)) + blende (see blende).
The term "Hornblende" is an old German name for any dark, prismatic crystal found with metallic ores but containing no valuable metal (the word "Blende" indicates "a deceiver") [Herbert Bucksch, "Dictionary Geotechnical Engineering," 1995]
horndog (n.) Look up horndog at Dictionary.com
by 1995, from horn (n.) in the sexual sense (see horny) + dog (n.).
horned (adj.) Look up horned at Dictionary.com
"furnished with horn or horns," Old English hyrned, from source of horn (n.). The modern word probably is a new formation in Middle English. From late 14c. in reference to Moses, and the horn-like rays of light, symbols of power, that appeared on his head as he descended Mount Sinai. From 1620s in reference to cuckolds. Horned toad is from 1806; horned question is "a dilemma" (1540s).
horner (n.) Look up horner at Dictionary.com
c. 1300 "worker in horn" (maker of buttons, spoons, combs, etc.), from horn (n.). From mid-15c. as "one who blows a horn." Mid-13c. as a surname.
hornet (n.) Look up hornet at Dictionary.com
Old English hyrnet, hurnitu "large wasp, beetle," probably from Proto-Germanic *hurz-nut- (cognates: Old Saxon hornut, Middle Dutch huersel, Dutch horzel, Old High German hornaz, German Hornisse "hornet"), from PIE imitative (buzzing) root *krs-, as preserved in Old Church Slavonic srusa, Lithuanian szirszu "wasp." On this theory, the English word (as well as German Hornisse) was altered by influence of horn, to suggest either "horner" (from the sting) or "horn-blower" (from the buzz). Compare also Old Saxon hornobero "hornet," literally "trumpeter."
hornless (adj.) Look up hornless at Dictionary.com
late 14c., of animals; 1909 of phonograph players, from horn (n.) + -less.
hornpipe (n.) Look up hornpipe at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, hornepype, "musical instrument with bell and mouthpiece made of horn," from horn (n.) + pipe (n.1). Later (late 15c.) "dance associated with sailors" (originally performed to music from such an instrument).
hornswoggle (v.) Look up hornswoggle at Dictionary.com
"to cheat," 1829, probably a fanciful formation. Related: Hornswoggled; hornswoggling.
horny (adj.) Look up horny at Dictionary.com
"lustful, sexually aroused," definitely in use 1889, perhaps attested as early as 1863; from late 18c. slang expression to have the horn, suggestive of male sexual excitement (but eventually applied to women as well); see horn (n.).
horology (n.) Look up horology at Dictionary.com
science of time, 1819, probably from Greek hora "hour" (see hour) + -logy. Earlier it meant "clock, clock dial" (c. 1500), from Latin horologium. Related: Horologist.
horometry (n.) Look up horometry at Dictionary.com
"measurement of time," 1560s, from Greek hora (see hour) + -metry. Related: Horometrical.
horoscope (n.) Look up horoscope at Dictionary.com
c.1050, horoscopus, from Latin horoscopus; the modern form is considered to be a mid-16c. reborrowing via Middle French horoscope. Ultimately from Greek horoskopos "nativity, horoscope," also "one who casts a horoscope," from hora "hour" (see year) + skopos "watcher; what is watched" (see scope (n.1)), in reference to the hour of one's birth.
horrendous (adj.) Look up horrendous at Dictionary.com
1650s, from Latin horrendus "dreadful, fearful, terrible," literally "to be shuddered at," gerundive of horrere "to bristle with fear, shudder" (see horror). Earlier form in English was horrend (mid-15c.).
horrible (adj.) Look up horrible at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, from Old French horrible, orrible (12c.) "horrible, repugnant, terrifying," from Latin horribilis "terrible, fearful, dreadful," from horrere "to bristle with fear, shudder" (see horror). Used as a mere intensifier from mid-15c.
horribly (adv.) Look up horribly at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., from horrible + -ly (2).
horrid (adj.) Look up horrid at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "hairy, shaggy, bristling," from Latin horridus "bristly, prickly, rough, horrid, frightful," from horrere "to bristle with fear, shudder" (see horror). Meaning "horrible, causing horror" is from c. 1600. Sense weakened 17c. to "unpleasant, offensive."
[W]hile both [horrible and horrid] are much used in the trivial sense of disagreeable, horrible is still quite common in the graver sense inspiring horror, which horrid tends to lose .... [Fowler]
Related: Horridly.
horrific (adj.) Look up horrific at Dictionary.com
"causing horror," 1650s, from French horrifique or directly from Latin horrificus "dreadful, exciting terror," literally "making the hair stand on end," from horrere "to bristle, to stand on end" (see horror) + -ficus, from stem of facere "to make, do" (see factitious). Related: Horrifically.
horrify (v.) Look up horrify at Dictionary.com
1791 (implied in horrifying), from horror + -fy. Related: Horrified; horrifying.
horripilation (n.) Look up horripilation at Dictionary.com
from Late Latin horripilationem (nominative horripilatio), noun of action from past participle stem of horripilare, from stem of horrere "to bristle" (see horror) + pilus "hair" (see pile (n.3)).
horror (n.) Look up horror at Dictionary.com
early 14c., from Old French horror (12c., Modern French horreur) and directly from Latin horror "dread, veneration, religious awe," a figurative use, literally "a shaking, trembling, shudder, chill," from horrere "to bristle with fear, shudder," from PIE root *ghers- "to bristle" (cognates: Sanskrit harsate "bristles," Avestan zarshayamna- "ruffling one's feathers," Latin eris (genitive) "hedgehog," Welsh garw "rough"). As a genre in film, 1934. Chamber of horrors originally (1849) was a gallery of notorious criminals in Madame Tussaud's wax exhibition.
hors d'oeuvre Look up hors d'oeuvre at Dictionary.com
1714, as an adverb, "out of the ordinary," from French hors d'oeuvre, "outside the ordinary courses (of a meal)," literally "apart from the main work," from hors, variant of fors "outside" (from Latin foris; see foreign) + de "from" + oeuvre "work," from Latin opera (see opus). Meaning "extra dish set out before a meal or between courses" attested in English from 1742.
hors de combat Look up hors de combat at Dictionary.com
1757, French, literally "out of combat."
horse (n.) Look up horse at Dictionary.com
Old English hors, from Proto-Germanic *hursa- (cognates: Old Norse hross, Old Frisian hors, Middle Dutch ors, Dutch ros, Old High German hros, German Roß "horse"), of unknown origin, connected by some with PIE root *kurs-, source of Latin currere "to run" (see current (adj.)).

The usual Indo-European word is represented by Old English eoh, from PIE *ekwo- "horse" (see equine). In many other languages, as in English, this root has been lost in favor of synonyms, probably via superstitious taboo on uttering the name of an animal so important in Indo-European religion.

Used since at least late 14c. of various devices or appliances which suggest a horse (as in sawhorse). To ride a horse that was foaled of an acorn (1670s) was through early 19c. a way to say "be hanged from the gallows." Slang for heroin is first attested 1950. Horse latitudes first attested 1777, the name of unknown origin, despite much speculation. Dead horse as a figure for "something that has ceased to be useful" is attested from 1630s.
HORSEGODMOTHER, a large masculine wench; one whom it is difficult to rank among the purest and gentlest portion of the community. [John Trotter Brockett, "A Glossary of North Country Words," 1829]
The horse's mouth as a source of reliable information is from 1921, perhaps originally of racetrack tips, from the fact that a horse's age can be determined accurately by looking at its teeth. To swap horses while crossing the river (a bad idea) is from the American Civil War and appears to have been originally one of Abe Lincoln's stories. Horse and buggy meaning "old-fashioned" is recorded from 1926 slang, originally in reference to a "young lady out of date, with long hair."
horse (v.) Look up horse at Dictionary.com
Old English horsian "to provide with a horse or horses," from horse (n.). Related: Horsed; horsing. Sense of "to play excessive jokes on" is by 1893, mostly in formation horse around (1928), perhaps from horseplay.
[A] favorite pastime for many men is to "horse" or guy a friend who has shown himself susceptible to ridicule or fun making. "Horsing" is extremely wholesome mental discipline for over sensitive or super-conceited young men. "Horsing" always implies a joke at another's expense. As to how it came into use there is no satisfactory theory to offer. ["Yale Literary Magazine," December 1893]
horse sense (n.) Look up horse sense at Dictionary.com
1832, American English colloquial, from horse (n.), perhaps in referfence to the animal's qualities, or the abilites of hostlers and coachmen with the animals, perhaps from the same association of "strong, large, coarse" found in horseradish.
horse-chestnut (n.) Look up horse-chestnut at Dictionary.com
1590s, from horse + chestnut. A tree probably native to Asia, introduced in England c. 1550; the name also was extended to similar North American species such as the buckeye. Said to have been so called because it was food for horses. The nut resembles that of the edible chestnut but is bitter to the taste.
horse-flesh (n.) Look up horse-flesh at Dictionary.com
also horseflesh, c. 1400, "horses collectively;" 1530s, "meat from a horse," from horse (n.) + flesh (n.). From 1520s as a color-name.
horse-race (n.) Look up horse-race at Dictionary.com
also horserace, 1580s, from horse (n.) + race (n.1).