haplography (n.) Look up haplography at Dictionary.com
scribal error of writing only once a letter that should have been written twice; see haplo- + -graphy.
haploid (adj.) Look up haploid at Dictionary.com
1908, from German haploid (1905), from Greek haplos "single."
haplology (n.) Look up haplology at Dictionary.com
1895; see haplo- + -logy.
haply (adv.) Look up haply at Dictionary.com
late 14c., hapliche, from hap + -ly (2).
happen (v.) Look up happen at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "to come to pass, occur," originally "occur by hap, to have the (good or bad) fortune (to do, be, etc.);" see hap (n.). Replaced Old English gelimpan, gesceon, and Middle English befall. In Middle English fel it hap meant "it happened." Related: Happened; happening.
happening (n.) Look up happening at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "chance, luck," from present participle of happen; meaning "occurrence" is 1550s. Sense of "spontaneous event or display" is from 1959 in the argot of artists. Happenings "events" was noted by Fowler as a vogue word from c.1905.
happenstance (n.) Look up happenstance at Dictionary.com
1855, from happening + ending from circumstance.
happify (v.) Look up happify at Dictionary.com
1610s, from happy + -ify. Related: Happified. Enhappy (v.) is attested from 1620s.
happily (adv.) Look up happily at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "by chance or accident," from happy + -ly (2). Meaning "fortunate, lucky" is late 14c.; that of "appropriately" is from 1570s. Happily ever after recorded by 1853.
happiness (n.) Look up happiness at Dictionary.com
1520s, "good fortune," from happy + -ness. Meaning "pleasant and contented mental state" is from 1590s. Phrase greatest happiness for the greatest number was in Hutcheson (1725).
happy (adj.) Look up happy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "lucky, favored by fortune, prosperous;" of events, "turning out well," from hap (n.) "chance, fortune" + -y (2). Sense of "very glad" first recorded late 14c. Ousted Old English eadig (from ead "wealth, riches") and gesælig, which has become silly. Meaning "greatly pleased and content" is from 1520s. Old English bliðe "happy" survives as blithe. From Greek to Irish, a great majority of the European words for "happy" at first meant "lucky." An exception is Welsh, where the word used first meant "wise."

Used in World War II and after as a suffix (as in bomb-happy, flak-happy) expressing "dazed or frazzled from stress." Happy medium is from 1778. Happy ending in the literary sense recorded from 1756. Happy as a clam (1630s) was originally happy as a clam in the mud at high tide, when it can't be dug up and eaten. Happy hunting ground, the reputed Indian paradise, is attested from 1840, American English. Related: Happier; happiest.
happy hour Look up happy hour at Dictionary.com
"early evening period of discount drinks and free hors-d'oeuvres at a bar," first recorded 1961.
happy-go-lucky Look up happy-go-lucky at Dictionary.com
also happy go lucky, 1670s as an adverb, "haphazard;" the adjective, of persons, recorded from 1856.
Hapsburg Look up Hapsburg at Dictionary.com
European dynasty, from German Habsburg, from the name of a castle on the Aar in Switzerland, originally Habichtsburg, literally "Hawk's Castle."
haptic (adj.) Look up haptic at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to the sense of touch," 1890, from Greek haptikos "able to come into contact with," from haptein "to fasten" (see apse).
haptics (n.) Look up haptics at Dictionary.com
1895, from haptic; see -ics.
hara-kiri (n.) Look up hara-kiri at Dictionary.com
"suicide by disembowelment," 1856, from Japanese, literally "belly-cutting," the colloquial word for what is formally called seppuku "cut open the stomach;" from hara "belly" + kiri "to cut."
haram Look up haram at Dictionary.com
see harem.
harangue (n.) Look up harangue at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., arang, Scottish (in English from c. 1600), from Middle French harangue (14c.), from Italian aringo "public square, platform," from a Germanic source ultimately from or including Proto-Germanic *ring "circular gathering" (see ring (n.1)). Perhaps it is ultimately from Gothic *hriggs (pronounced "hrings"), with the first -a- inserted to ease Romanic pronunciation of Germanic hr- (see hamper (n.)). But Barnhart suggests a Germanic compound, hari-hring "circular gathering," literally "army-ring."
harangue (v.) Look up harangue at Dictionary.com
1650s, from French haranguer, from Middle French harangue (see harangue (n.)). Related: Harangued; haranguing.
harass (v.) Look up harass at Dictionary.com
1610s, from French harasser "tire out, vex," possibly from Old French harer "set a dog on," and perhaps blended with Old French harier "to harry, draw, drag" [Barnhart]. Originally "to lay waste, devastate," sense of "distress" is from 1650s. Related: Harassed; harassing.
harassment (n.) Look up harassment at Dictionary.com
1753, from harass + -ment.
harbinger (n.) Look up harbinger at Dictionary.com
late 15c., herbengar "one sent ahead to arrange lodgings" (for a monarch, an army, etc.), alteration of Middle English herberger "provider of shelter, innkeeper" (late 12c.), from Old French herbergeor, from herbergier "provide lodging," from herber "lodging, shelter," from Frankish *heriberga "lodging, inn," from Germanic compound *harja-bergaz, literally "army hill" (cognate with Old Saxon, Old High German heriberga "army shelter") from *heri "army" (see harry (v.)) + berga "shelter" (see barrow (n.2)). Compare harbor (n.). Sense of "forerunner" is mid-16c. Intrusive -n- is 15c. (see messenger). As a verb, from 1640s (harbinge "to lodge" is late 15c.).
harbor (n.) Look up harbor at Dictionary.com
"lodging for ships," early 12c., probably from Old English herebeorg "lodgings, quarters," from here "army, host" (see harry) + beorg "refuge, shelter" (related to beorgan "save, preserve;" see bury); perhaps modeled on Old Norse herbergi "room, lodgings, quarters." Sense shifted in Middle English to "refuge, lodgings," then to "place of shelter for ships."
harbor (v.) Look up harbor at Dictionary.com
Old English hereborgian, cognate with Old Norse herbergja, Old High German heribergon, Middle Dutch herbergen; see harbor (n.). Figuratively, of thoughts, etc., from late 14c. Related: Harbored; harboring.
harbour Look up harbour at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of harbor (n. and v.); for spelling, see -or.
hard (adj.) Look up hard at Dictionary.com
Old English heard "solid, firm, not soft," also "severe, rigorous, cruel," from Proto-Germanic *hardu- (cognates: Old Saxon and Dutch hard, Old Norse harðr "hard," Old High German harto "extremely, very," German hart, Gothic hardus "hard"), from PIE *kortu- (cognates: Greek kratos "strength," kratys "strong"), from root *kar-/*ker- "hard." Meaning "difficult to do" is from c. 1200. The adverb sense was also present in Old English.

Hard of hearing preserves obsolete Middle English sense of "having difficulty in doing something." Hard liquor is 1879, American English (hard drink is from 1810; hard cider is from 1789), and this probably led to hard drugs (1955). Hard facts is from 1887; hard news is from 1938. Hard copy (as opposed to computer record) is from 1964; hard disk is from 1978. Hard up (1610s) is originally nautical, of steering (slang sense of "short of money" is from 1821), as is hard and fast (1680s), of a ship on shore. Hard times "period of poverty" is from 1705.

Hard money (1706) is specie, as opposed to paper. Hence 19c. U.S. hard (n.) "one who advocates the use of metallic money as the national currency" (1844). To play hard to get is from 1945. Hard rock as a pop music style recorded from 1967.
hard hat Look up hard hat at Dictionary.com
also hardhat, hard-hat, late 14c., "helmet;" 1935, "derby hat;" meaning "safety helmet" is from 1953; used figuratively for "construction worker" from 1970.
hard on (n.) Look up hard on at Dictionary.com
"penile erection," 1893, from hard + on.
hard-bitten (adj.) Look up hard-bitten at Dictionary.com
"tough, tough in a fight," literally "given to hard biting," 1715, originally of dogs, from hard + bitten, with the past participle used actively (as in ill-spoken).
hard-boiled (adj.) Look up hard-boiled at Dictionary.com
also hardboiled, 1723 in reference to eggs, from hard + boiled. In transferred sense "severe, tough," from 1886.
hard-headed (adj.) Look up hard-headed at Dictionary.com
also hardheaded, 1580s, "stubborn," from hardhead "dull person" (1510s), from hard + head (n.). Meaning "practical" is attested from 1779.
hard-hearted (adj.) Look up hard-hearted at Dictionary.com
also hardhearted, "obdurate, unfeeling," late 12c. (implied in heard-heortnesse "hard-heartedness"); from hard + hearted. Sometimes in Middle English also meaning "bold, courageous" (15c.). Related: Hard-heartedly; hard-heartedness. Hard-heart "hard-hearted person" was in late Old English.
hard-line (adj.) Look up hard-line at Dictionary.com
1958, originally in reference to Soviet communist policies, from hard + line (n.) in the political sense. Related: Hard-liner (1963).
hard-nosed (adj.) Look up hard-nosed at Dictionary.com
"stubborn," 1927, from hard + nose (n.). Earlier of bullets or shells with hard tips, and of dogs that had difficulty following a scent. Not in common use before 1950s, when it begins to be used of tough or relentless characters generally (Damon Runyon characters, U.S. Marines, Princeton professors, etc.). Soft-nosed seems to have been used only of bullets.
hard-wired (adj.) Look up hard-wired at Dictionary.com
also hardwired, 1969, in computing; transferred to human brains from 1971; from hard + wired.
hard-working (adj.) Look up hard-working at Dictionary.com
also hardworking, 1774, from hard + working (see work (v.)).
hardback (n.) Look up hardback at Dictionary.com
"type of book bound in stiff boards," 1954, from hard + back (n.).
hardball (n.) Look up hardball at Dictionary.com
1883 as the name of a game, from hard + ball (n.1). The figurative sense of "tough, uncompromising behavior" is from 1973.
hardcore Look up hardcore at Dictionary.com
also hard-core; 1936 (n.); 1951 (adj.); from hard + core. Original use seems to be among economists and sociologists. Extension to pornography is attested by 1966. Also the name of a surfacing material.
harden (n.) Look up harden at Dictionary.com
c. 1200 (replacing Old English heardian) "to make (something) hard," from hard + -en (1). Meaning "to become hard" is late 14c. Related: Hardened (figurative sense of "unfeeling" is from late 14c.); hardening.
hardener (n.) Look up hardener at Dictionary.com
1610s, from harden + -er (1).
hardly (adv.) Look up hardly at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, "in a hard manner, with great exertion or effort," from Old English heardlic "stern, severe, harsh; bold, warlike" (see hard + -ly (2)). Hence "assuredly, certainly" (early 14c.). Main modern sense of "barely, just" (1540s) reverses this, via the intermediate meaning "not easily, with trouble" (early 15c.). Formerly with superficial negative (not hardly).
hardness (n.) Look up hardness at Dictionary.com
Old English heardnysse; see hard + -ness. Meaning "difficulty of action or accomplishment" is late 14c.
hardscrabble (adj.) Look up hardscrabble at Dictionary.com
1804, U.S. colloquial, the name of an imaginary barren place "where a livelihood may be obtained only under great hardship and difficulty;" from hard + scrabble. First recorded in journals of Lewis and Clark. Perhaps the original notion is "vigorous effort made under great stress," though this sense is recorded slightly later (1812).
hardship (n.) Look up hardship at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, "quality of being hard," from hard + -ship. Meaning "disadvantage, suffering, privation" is c. 1400.
hardtack (n.) Look up hardtack at Dictionary.com
1836, "ship's biscuit," from hard (adj.) + tack (n.3); soft-tack was soft wheaten bread.
hardware (n.) Look up hardware at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "small metal goods," from hard + ware (n.). In the sense of "physical components of a computer" it dates from 1947. Hardware store attested by 1789.
hardwood (n.) Look up hardwood at Dictionary.com
1560s, from hard + wood. From deciduous trees, distinguished from that of pines and firs.
hardy (adj.) Look up hardy at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, "bold, daring, fearless," from Old French hardi, from past participle of hardir "to harden, be or make bold," from Frankish *hardjan "to make hard" (cognates: Old Frisian herda, Old High German herten, Old Norse herða, Gothic gahardjan "make hard"), from Proto-Germanic *hardu- (see hard). Sense influenced by English hard. Related: Hardily; hardiness. Hardhede "physical hardiness" is attested from early 15c.