happily (adv.) Look up happily at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "by chance or accident;" late 14c., "by good fortune, luckily," from happy + -ly (2). Sense of "in pleasant circumstances, with mental pleasure and contentment" is from 1510s. Happily ever after recorded by 1825.
happiness (n.) Look up happiness at Dictionary.com
1520s, "good fortune," from happy + -ness. Meaning "pleasant and contented mental state" is from 1590s. Phrase greatest happiness for the greatest number was in Francis Hutcheson (1725) but later was associated with Bentham.
happy (adj.) Look up happy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "lucky, favored by fortune, being in advantageous circumstances, prosperous;" of events, "turning out well," from hap (n.) "chance, fortune" + -y (2). Sense of "very glad" first recorded late 14c. Meaning "greatly pleased and content" is from 1520s. Old English had eadig (from ead "wealth, riches") and gesælig, which has become silly. Old English bliðe "happy" survives as blithe. From Greek to Irish, a great majority of the European words for "happy" at first meant "lucky." An exception is Welsh, where the word used first meant "wise."

Happy medium "the golden mean" is from 1702. Happy ending in the literary sense recorded from 1756. Happy as a clam (1630s) was originally happy as a clam in the mud at high tide, when it can't be dug up and eaten. Happy hunting ground, the reputed Indian paradise, is attested from 1840, American English. Happy day for "wedding day" is by 1739; happy hour for "early evening period of discount drinks and free hors-d'oeuvres at a bar" is from 1961. Related: Happier; happiest.
happy (adv.) Look up happy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from happy (adj.).
happy-go-lucky (adv.) Look up happy-go-lucky at Dictionary.com
also happy go lucky, 1670s, "haphazard, in any way one pleases; every man for himself." Earlier as happy-be-lucky (1630s). The adjective, of persons, recorded from 1835, "careless," hence "carefree."
Hapsburg Look up Hapsburg at Dictionary.com
European dynasty, from German Habsburg, from the name of a castle on the Aar in Switzerland, originally Habichtsburg, literally "Hawk's Castle."
haptic (adj.) Look up haptic at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to the sense of touch," 1890, from Greek haptikos "able to come into contact with," from haptein "to fasten" (see apse).
haptics (n.) Look up haptics at Dictionary.com
1895, from haptic; see -ics.
hara-kiri (n.) Look up hara-kiri at Dictionary.com
"suicide by disembowelment," 1856, from Japanese, literally "belly-cutting," the colloquial word for what is formally called seppuku "cut open the stomach;" from hara "belly" + kiri "to cut." Sometimes erroneously written hari-kari.
haram (adj.) Look up haram at Dictionary.com
in Islamic terminology, "forbidden;" see harem.
harangue (n.) Look up harangue at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., arang, Scottish (in English from c. 1600), from Middle French harangue "a public address" (14c.), from Old Italian aringo "public square, platform; pulpit; arena," from a Germanic source such as Old High German hring "circle" (see ring (n.1)) on the notion of "circular gathering," with an -a- inserted to ease Romanic pronunciation of Germanic hr- (compare hamper (n.1)). But Watkins and Barnhart suggest a Germanic compound, *harihring "circular gathering, assembly," literally "host-ring, army-ring," with first element *hari- "war-band, host" (see harry (v.)). From the same Germanic "ring" root via Romanic come rank (n.), range (v.), arrange.
harangue (v.) Look up harangue at Dictionary.com
1650s, from French haranguer (15c.), from Middle French harangue (see harangue (n.)). Related: Harangued; haranguing.
harass (v.) Look up harass at Dictionary.com
1610s, "to lay waste, devastate" (obsolete); 1620s, "to vex by repeated attacks," from French harasser "tire out, vex" (16c.), which is of uncertain origin; possibly from Old French harer "stir up, provoke; set a dog on," and perhaps blended with Old French harier "to harry, draw, drag" [Barnhart]. Related: Harassed; harassing.
harassment (n.) Look up harassment at Dictionary.com
1753, from harass + -ment.
harbinger (n.) Look up harbinger at Dictionary.com
late 15c., herbengar "one sent ahead to arrange lodgings" (for a monarch, an army, etc.), alteration of Middle English herberger "provider of shelter, innkeeper" (late 12c.), from Old French herbergeor "one who offers lodging, innkeeper," agent noun from herbergier "provide lodging," from herber "lodging, shelter," from Frankish *heriberga "lodging, inn" (cognate with Old Saxon, Old High German heriberga "army shelter"), from Germanic compound *harja-bergaz "shelter, lodgings," which is also the source of harbor (n.). Sense of "forerunner, that which precedes and gives notice of the coming of another" is mid-16c. Intrusive -n- is 15c. (see messenger). As a verb, from 1640s (harbinge "to lodge" is late 15c.).
harbor (n.) Look up harbor at Dictionary.com
"lodging for ships; sheltered recess in a coastline," early 12c., a specialized sense of Middle English herberwe "temporary dwelling place, quarters, lodgings; an inn; the camp of an army in the field," probably from Old English here-beorg (West Saxon), *here-berg (Anglian) "lodgings, quarters," from Proto-Germanic compound *harja-bergaz "shelter, lodgings," from *heri "army, host" (see harry (v.)) + *burzjan- "protection, shelter" (see bury (v.)). Perhaps modeled on Old Norse herbergi "room, lodgings, quarters."
harbor (v.) Look up harbor at Dictionary.com
Old English herebeorgian "take up quarters, lodge, shelter oneself" (cognate with Old Norse herbergja, Old High German heribergon, Middle Dutch herbergen), verbal formation from here-beorg "lodgings, quarters" (see harbor (n.)). Meaning "give shelter to, protect" is from mid-14c. Figuratively, of thoughts, etc., from late 14c. Related: Harbored; harboring.
harbour Look up harbour at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of harbor (n. and v.); for spelling, see -or. In this case it is considered to be without etymological justification and probably by analogy of labour.
hard (adj.) Look up hard at Dictionary.com
Old English heard "solid and firm, not soft," also, "difficult to endure, carried on with great exertion," also, of persons, "severe, rigorous, harsh, cruel," from Proto-Germanic *hardu- (cognates: Old Saxon hard, Old Frisian herd, Dutch hard, Old Norse harðr "hard," Old High German harto "extremely, very," German hart, Gothic hardus "hard"), from PIE *kortu- (cognates: Greek kratos "strength," kratys "strong"), suffixed form of root *kar-/*ker- "hard."

Meaning "difficult to do" is from c. 1200. Of water, in reference to the presence of mineral salts, 1650s; of consonants, 1775. Hard of hearing preserves obsolete Middle English sense of "having difficulty in doing something." In the sense "strong, spiritous, fermented" from 1789 (as in hard cider, etc.), and this use probably is the origin of that in hard drugs (1955). Hard facts is from 1853; hard news is from 1938. Hard copy (as opposed to computer record) is from 1964; hard disk is from 1978. Hard times "period of poverty" is from 1705. Hard money (1706) is specie, as opposed to paper. Hence 19c. U.S. hard (n.) "one who advocates the use of metallic money as the national currency" (1844). To play hard to get is from 1945. Hard rock as a pop music style recorded from 1967. To do something the hard way is from 1907.
hard (adv.) Look up hard at Dictionary.com
Old English hearde "firmly, severely," from hard (adj.). Meaning "with effort or energy, with difficulty" is late 14c.
hard hat (n.) Look up hard hat at Dictionary.com
also hardhat, hard-hat, late 14c., "helmet," from hard (adj.) + hat (n.). From 1935 as "derby hat;" meaning "safety helmet" is from 1953; used figuratively for "construction worker" from 1970.
hard-bitten (adj.) Look up hard-bitten at Dictionary.com
"tough, tough in a fight," literally "given to hard biting," 1715, originally of hunting dogs, from hard (adv.) + bitten, with the past participle used actively (as in free-spoken).
hard-boiled (adj.) Look up hard-boiled at Dictionary.com
also hardboiled, 1723 in reference to eggs, "cooked so long as to be solid," from hard (adj.) + boiled. In transferred sense "severe, tough," from 1886.
hard-cover (adj.) Look up hard-cover at Dictionary.com
of books, 1949, from hard (adj.) + cover (n.).
hard-fought (adj.) Look up hard-fought at Dictionary.com
1660s, from hard (adv.) + fought.
hard-headed (adj.) Look up hard-headed at Dictionary.com
also hardheaded, 1580s, "stubborn," from hardhead "dull person" (1510s), from hard (adj.) + head (n.). Meaning "practical, shrewd" is attested from 1779. Compare Dutch hardhoofdig "stupid."
hard-hearted (adj.) Look up hard-hearted at Dictionary.com
also hardhearted, "obdurate, unfeeling," c. 1200, heard-iheorted," from hard (adj.) + hearted. Sometimes in Middle English also meaning "bold, courageous" (c. 1400). Related: Hard-heartedly; hard-heartedness. In late Old English and early Middle English, hard-heort meant both "hard-hearted" (adj.) and "hard-hearted person" (n.).
hard-line (adj.) Look up hard-line at Dictionary.com
"uncompromising," 1958, originally in reference to Soviet communist policies, from the noun phrase (see hard (adj.) + line (n.)) in the political sense. Related: Hard-liner (1963).
hard-nosed (adj.) Look up hard-nosed at Dictionary.com
"stubborn," 1927, from hard (adj.) + nose (n.). Earlier of bullets or shells with hard tips, and of dogs that had difficulty following a scent. Not in common use before 1950s, when it begins to be applied to tough or relentless characters generally (Damon Runyon characters, U.S. Marines, Princeton professors, etc.). Soft-nosed seems to have been used only of bullets.
hard-on (n.) Look up hard-on at Dictionary.com
"penile erection," 1922, earlier as an adjective (1893), from hard + on.
hard-shell (adj.) Look up hard-shell at Dictionary.com
1838 of Baptists (figuratively); 1798 of clams; see hard (adj.) + shell (n.). Hard-shelled is from 1610s.
hard-up (adj.) Look up hard-up at Dictionary.com
"in difficulties," especially "short of money," 1821, slang; it was earlier a nautical expression, in reference to steering.
hard-wired (adj.) Look up hard-wired at Dictionary.com
also hardwired, 1969, in computing, "with permanently connected circuits performing unchangeable functions;" transferred to human brains from 1971; from hard (adv.) + wire (v.).
hard-working (adj.) Look up hard-working at Dictionary.com
also hardworking, 1708, from hard (adv.) + working (adj.).
hardback (n.) Look up hardback at Dictionary.com
"type of book bound in stiff boards," 1954, from hard (adj.) + back (n.).
hardball (n.) Look up hardball at Dictionary.com
1883 as the name of a game, from hard (adj.) + ball (n.1). The figurative sense of "tough, uncompromising behavior" is from 1973.
hardcore Look up hardcore at Dictionary.com
also hard-core; 1936 (n.); 1951 (adj.); from hard (adj.) + core (n.). Original use seems to be among economists and sociologists, in reference to unemployables. Extension to pornography is attested by 1966. Also the name of a surfacing material.
harden (n.) Look up harden at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, transitive, "make (something) hard," from hard (adj.) + -en (1). Intransitive meaning "to become hard" is late 14c. The earlier verb was simply hard, from Old English heardian. Related: Hardened; hardening.
hardened (adj.) Look up hardened at Dictionary.com
past participle adjective from harden (v.). Figurative sense of "unfeeling" is from late 14c.
hardener (n.) Look up hardener at Dictionary.com
1610s, from harden + -er (1).
hardly (adv.) Look up hardly at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, "in a hard manner, with great exertion or effort," from Old English heardlice "sternly, severely, harshly; bravely; excessively" (see hard (adj.) + -ly (2)). Hence "assuredly, certainly" (early 14c.). Main modern sense of "barely, just" (1540s) reverses this, via the intermediate meaning "not easily, with trouble" (early 15c.). Formerly with superficial negative (not hardly). Similar formation in Old Saxon hardliko, German härtlich, Old Danish haardelig.
hardness (n.) Look up hardness at Dictionary.com
Old English heardnes; see hard (adj.) + -ness. Meaning "difficulty of action or accomplishment" is late 14c.
hardscrabble (n.) Look up hardscrabble at Dictionary.com
in popular use from c. 1826 as a U.S. colloquial name for any barren or impoverished place "where a livelihood may be obtained only under great hardship and difficulty" [OED]; from hard (adj.) + noun from scrabble (v.). Noted in 1813 as a place-name in New York state; first recorded in journals of Lewis and Clark (1804) as the name of a prairie. Perhaps the original notion was "vigorous effort made under great stress," though this sense is recorded slightly later (1812). As an adjective by 1845.
hardship (n.) Look up hardship at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, "quality of being hard" (obsolete), from hard (adj.) + -ship. Meaning "disadvantage, suffering, privation" is c. 1400.
hardtack (n.) Look up hardtack at Dictionary.com
"ship's biscuit," 1830, from hard (adj.) + tack (n.3); soft-tack was soft wheaten bread.
hardware (n.) Look up hardware at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "small metal goods," from hard (adj.) + ware (n.). In the sense of "physical components of a computer" it dates from 1947. Hardware store attested by 1789.
hardwood (n.) Look up hardwood at Dictionary.com
1560s, from hard (adj.) + wood (n.). That from deciduous trees, as distinguished from that from pines and firs.
hardy (adj.) Look up hardy at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, "bold, daring, fearless," also "presumptuous, audacious," from Old French hardi "bold, brave, courageous; confident, presumptuous," from past participle of hardir "to harden, be or make bold," from Frankish *hardjan "to make hard" (cognates: Old Frisian herda, Old High German herten, Old Norse herða, Gothic gahardjan "make hard"), from Proto-Germanic *hardu- (see hard (adj.)). Sense influenced by English hard. Of plants, "able to survive in the open year-round," 1660s. Related: Hardily; hardiness. Hardhede "physical hardiness" is attested from early 15c.
hare (n.) Look up hare at Dictionary.com
Old English hara "hare," from West Germanic *hasan- (cognates: Old Frisian hasa, Middle Dutch haese, Dutch haas, Old High German haso, German Hase), of uncertain origin; possibly the original sense was "gray" (compare Old English hasu, Old High German hasan "gray"), from PIE *kas- "gray" (cognates: Latin canus "white, gray, gray-haired"). Perhaps cognate with Sanskrit sasah, Afghan soe, Welsh ceinach "hare." Rabbits burrow in the ground; hares do not.
þou hast a crokyd tunge heldyng wyth hownd and wyth hare. ["Jacob's Well," c. 1440]
hare (v.) Look up hare at Dictionary.com
"to harry, harass," 1520s; meaning "to frighten" is 1650s; of uncertain origin; connections have been suggested to harry (v.) and to hare (n.). Related: Hared; haring.