imputable (adj.) Look up imputable at
1620s, from Medieval Latin imputabilis, from Latin imputare (see impute).
imputation (n.) Look up imputation at
1540s, noun of action from impute (v.) on model of Middle French imputation, or else from Late Latin imputationem (nominative imputatio), noun of action from imputare.
impute (v.) Look up impute at
early 15c., from Old French imputer (14c.) and directly from Latin imputare "to reckon, make account of, charge, ascribe," from assimilated form of in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + putare "reckon, clear up, trim, prune, settle" (see pave). Related: Imputed; imputing.
in Look up in at
Old English in (prep.) "in, into, upon, on, at, among; about, during;" inne (adv.) "within, inside," from Proto-Germanic *in (cognates: Old Frisian, Dutch, German, Gothic in, Old Norse i), from PIE *en "in" (cognates: Greek en, Latin in "in, into," Old Irish in, Welsh yn-, Old Church Slavonic on-). As an adjective from 1590s.

The forms merged in Middle English. Modern sense distinction between in and on is from later Middle English. Sense of "holding power" (the in party) first recorded c. 1600; that of "exclusive" (the in-crowd, an in-joke) is from 1907 (in-group); that of "stylish, fashionable" (the in thing) is from 1960. The noun sense of "influence, access" (have an in with) first recorded 1929 in American English. In-and-out "copulation" is attested from 1610s.
in absentia Look up in absentia at
Latin, literally "in (his/her/their) absence" (see absence).
in extremis Look up in extremis at
"at the point of death," Latin, literally "in the farthest reaches."
in like Flynn Look up in like Flynn at
1940s slang, said to have originated in the U.S. military, perhaps from alleged sexual exploits of Hollywood actor Errol Flynn.
in loco parentis Look up in loco parentis at
Latin, literally "in the place of a parent" (see parent).
in medias res Look up in medias res at
Latin, literally "in the midst of things" (see medium).
in memoriam Look up in memoriam at
Latin, literally "in memory of" (see memory).
in situ Look up in situ at
Latin, literally "in its (original) place or position" (see situate (v.)).
in toto Look up in toto at
Latin, "as a whole, completely" (see total).
in utero Look up in utero at
Latin, literally "in the uterus" (see uterus).
in vitro Look up in vitro at
Latin; "in a test tube, culture dish, etc.;" literally "in glass" (see vitreous).
in vivo Look up in vivo at
Latin; "within a living organism" (see viva).
in't Look up in't at
archaic; 17c. as short for in it.
in't Look up in't at
archaic or poetic contraction of in it.
in- (1) Look up in- at
prefix meaning "not, opposite of, without" (also im-, il-, ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant), from Latin in- "not," cognate with Greek an-, Old English un-, from PIE *ne "not" (see un- (1)).
in- (2) Look up in- at
element meaning "into, in, on, upon" (also im-, il-, ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant), from Latin in- "in" (see in). In Old French this often became en-, which usually was respelled in English to conform with Latin, but not always, which accounts for pairs like enquire/inquire. There was a native form, which in West Saxon usually appeared as on- (as in Old English onliehtan "to enlighten"), and some verbs survived into Middle English (such as inwrite "to inscribe"), but all now seem to be extinct. Not related to in- (1) "not," which also was a common prefix in Latin: to the Romans impressus could mean "pressed" or "unpressed."
in-fighting (n.) Look up in-fighting at
1812, from pugilism, the practice of getting at close quarters with an opponent; see in + fighting. Old English infiht (n.) meant "brawl within a house or between members of a household."
in-joke (n.) Look up in-joke at
1964, from in + joke.
in-law (n.) Look up in-law at
1894, "anyone of a relationship not natural," abstracted from father-in-law, etc.
The position of the 'in-laws' (a happy phrase which is attributed ... to her Majesty, than whom no one can be better acquainted with the article) is often not very apt to promote happiness. ["Blackwood's Magazine," 1894]
The earliest recorded use of the phrase is in brother-in-law (13c.); the law is Canon Law, which defines degrees of relationship within which marriage is prohibited.
in-migration (n.) Look up in-migration at
1942, in reference to movement within the same country, from in + migration.
in-store (adj.) Look up in-store at
also instore, 1961, from in + store (n.). In Middle English, instore was a verb meaning "to restore, renew," from Latin instaurare.
in-transit (adj.) Look up in-transit at
1918, from in + transit (n.).
inability (n.) Look up inability at
mid-15c., inhabilite, "disqualification for office," from in- (1) + ability. Earlier was unability "incapability; incompetence" (late 14c.). General sense by c. 1500.
inable (v.) Look up inable at
see enable.
inaccessible (adj.) Look up inaccessible at
early 15c., from Middle French inaccessible (14c.), from Late Latin inaccessibilis "unapproachable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + accessibilis (see accessible). Related: Inaccessibly; inaccessibility. Earlier in same sense was unaccessible (c. 1400).
inaccuracy (n.) Look up inaccuracy at
1701, "quality or condition of being inaccurate," from inaccurate + -cy. As an example of this, by 1883.
inaccurate (adj.) Look up inaccurate at
1738, from in- (1) "not" + accurate. Related: Inaccurately (1660s).
inaction (n.) Look up inaction at
1707, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + action.
inactive (adj.) Look up inactive at
1725, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + active.
inactivity (n.) Look up inactivity at
1640s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + activity. Phrase masterly inactivity attested by 1791.
inadequacy (n.) Look up inadequacy at
1764, from inadequate + -cy. Related: Inadequacies.
inadequate (adj.) Look up inadequate at
1670s; see in- (1) "not, opposite of" + adequate. Related: Inadequately.
inadmissible (adj.) Look up inadmissible at
1776, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + admissible. Related: Inadmissibility.
inadvertence (n.) Look up inadvertence at
mid-15c., from Middle French inadvertance (14c.), from Scholastic Latin inadvertentia, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + advertentia, from Latin advertere "to direct one's attention to," literally "to turn toward" (see advertise).
inadvertent (adj.) Look up inadvertent at
1650s, back-formation from inadvertence.
inadvertently (adv.) Look up inadvertently at
1670s, literally "inattentively," hence "unintentionally;" see inadvertent + -ly (2).
inadvisability (n.) Look up inadvisability at
1839, from inadvisable + -ity.
inadvisable (adj.) Look up inadvisable at
1819, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + advisable.
inalienable (adj.) Look up inalienable at
1640s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + alienable (see alienate). Related: Inalienably; Inalienability.
inamorata (n.) Look up inamorata at
"female lover," 1650s, from Italian innamorata, fem. of innamorato, past participle of innamorare "to fall in love," from in "in" (from Latin, see in) + amore "love" (see Amy).
inamorato (n.) Look up inamorato at
1892, masc. of inamorata (q.v.).
inane (adj.) Look up inane at
"silly, empty-headed," 1819, earlier "empty" (1660s), a back-formation from inanity. Related: Inanely.
inanimate (adj.) Look up inanimate at
early 15c., from Late Latin inanimatus "lifeless," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + animatus (see animation). The same word in 17c. also was a verb meaning "to infuse with life," from the other in- (see in- (2)).
inanition (n.) Look up inanition at
c. 1400, from Old French inanition, from Latin inanitionem (nominative inanitio) "emptiness," noun of action from past participle stem of inanire "to empty," from inanis "empty, void, worthless, useless," of uncertain origin.
inanity (n.) Look up inanity at
c. 1600, "emptiness, hollowness," literal and figurative, from French inanité or directly from Latin inanitas "emptiness, empty space," figuratively "worthlessness," noun of quality from inanis "empty, void, worthless, useless," of uncertain origin.
inapplicable (adj.) Look up inapplicable at
1650s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + applicable. Related: Inapplicably; inapplicability.
inapposite (adj.) Look up inapposite at
1620s (implied in inappositely), from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + apposite.