incessant (adj.) Look up incessant at
mid-15c., from Old French incessant (mid-14c.), from Late Latin incessantem (nominative incessans) "unceasing," from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)) + cessantem (nominative cessans), present participle of cessare "cease" (see cease). Related: Incessantly (early 15c.).
incest (n.) Look up incest at
c. 1200, "the crime of sexual intercourse between near kindred," from Old French inceste and directly from Latin incestum "unchastity, impious unchastity," also specifically "sex between close relatives," noun use of neuter adjective incestus "unchaste, impure," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + castus "pure" (see caste). In early use also in reference to sexual relations or marriage with one under a vow of chastity (sometimes distinguished as spiritual incest). Old English had sibleger "incest," literally "kin-lying."
incestuous (adj.) Look up incestuous at
1530s, from Latin incestuosus "incestuous," from incestus "unchaste" (see incest). Figurative use is from 1744. Related: Incestuously; incestuousness.
inch (n.1) Look up inch at
"linear measure, one-twelfth of a foot," late Old English ynce, Middle English unche (current spelling c. 1300), from Latin uncia "a twelfth part," from root of unus "one" (see one). An early borrowing from Latin, not found in any other Germanic language. Transferred and figurative sense of "a very small amount" is attested from mid-14c. For phrase give him an inch ... see ell.
inch (n.2) Look up inch at
"small Scottish island," early 15c., from Gaelic innis (genitive innse) "island, land by a river," from Celtic *inissi (cognates: Old Irish inis, Welsh ynys, Breton enez).
inch (v.) Look up inch at
"move little by little," 1590s, from inch (n.1). Related: Inched; inching.
inchoate (adj.) Look up inchoate at
1530s, from Latin inchoatus, past participle of inchoare, alteration of incohare "to begin," originally "to hitch up," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + cohum "strap fastened to the oxen's yoke." Related: Inchoative.
inchworm (n.) Look up inchworm at
1844, American English, from inch (v.) + worm (n.). Other old names for it included loaper caterpiller and surveyor, all from its mode of progress.
incidence (n.) Look up incidence at
early 15c., "incidental matter," from Middle French incidence (15c.), from Late Latin incidentia (see incident (n.)). Meaning "act of coming into contact with" is from 1650s; sense in physics is from 1620s.
incident (n.) Look up incident at
early 15c., "something which occurs casually in connection with something else," from Middle French incident and directly from Latin incidentem (nominative incidens), present participle of incidere "happen, befall," from in- "on" + -cidere, comb. form of cadere "to fall" (see case (n.1)). Sense of "an occurrence viewed as a separate circumstance" is from mid-15c. Meaning "event that might trigger a crisis or political unrest" first attested 1913.
incident (adj.) Look up incident at
"conducive (to), contributing (to)," early 15c., from Middle French incident (adj.) or directly from Latin incidens, present participle of incidere (see incident (n.)).
incidental (adj.) Look up incidental at
"casual, occasional," 1610s, from Medieval Latin incidentalis, from incidens (see incident (n.)). Incidentals (n.) "'occasional' expenses, etc.," is attested by 1707.
incidentally (adv.) Look up incidentally at
1520s, "by the way, casually;" see incidental + -ly (2). Sense of "as a new but related point" attested by 1925.
incinerate (v.) Look up incinerate at
1550s, from Medieval Latin incineratus "reduced to ashes," pp. of incinerare, from Latin in- "into" (see in- (2)) + cinis (genitive cineris) "ashes," from PIE root *keni- "dust, ashes" (cognates: Greek konis "dust"). Used earlier in English as a past participle adjective meaning "reduced to ashes" (early 15c.). Related: Incinerated; incinerating.
incineration (n.) Look up incineration at
1520s, from Middle French incinération (14c.), from Medieval Latin incinerationem (nominative incineratio), noun of action from past participle stem of incinerare (see incinerate).
incinerator (n.) Look up incinerator at
1883, American English, originally in the terminology of cremation, from incinerate + Latinate agent noun suffix -or. Meaning "device for waste disposal by burning" is from 1889.
incipience (n.) Look up incipience at
1864; see incipient + -ence. Incipiency is from 1817.
incipient (adj.) Look up incipient at
1660s, from Latin incipientem (nominative incipiens), present participle of incipere "begin, take up," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + -cipere, comb. form of capere "to take" (see capable).
incipit Look up incipit at
opening word of a Latin book or manuscript, Latin, literally "(here) begins," third person singular present indicative of incipere (see incipient).
incise (v.) Look up incise at
1540s, from French inciser (15c.), from Old French enciser (12c.), from Latin incisus, past participle of incidere "to cut into, cut through" (see incision). Related: Incised; incising.
incision (n.) Look up incision at
late 14c., "a cutting made in surgery," from Old French incision (13c.) and directly from Latin incisionem (nominative incisio) "a cutting into," noun of action from past participle stem of incidere "to cut in," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + -cidere, comb. form of caedere "to cut" (see -cide). Meaning "act of cutting into" is from early 15c.
incisive (adj.) Look up incisive at
early 15c., inscisif, "slashing, cutting with a sharp edge," from Middle French incisif and directly from Medieval Latin incisivus, from Latin incis-, past participle stem of incidere (see incision). Originally literal; figurative sense of "mentally acute" first recorded 1850 as a borrowing from French. Related: Incisively; incisiveness.
incisor (n.) Look up incisor at
"cutting tooth," 1670s, from Medieval Latin incisor "a cutting tooth," literally "that which cuts into," from Latin incisus, past participle of incidere (see incision). Inscisours as the name of a cutting tool is attested from early 15c.
incite (v.) Look up incite at
mid-15c., from Middle French enciter (14c.), from Latin incitare "to put into rapid motion," figuratively "rouse, urge, encourage, stimulate," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + citare "move, excite" (see cite). Related: Incited; inciting.
incitement (n.) Look up incitement at
1590s, from incite + -ment.
incitive (adj.) Look up incitive at
1888; see incite + -ive.
incivility (n.) Look up incivility at
1580s, "want of civilized behavior, rudeness," from French incivilité (early 15c.), from Late Latin incivilitatem (nominative incivilitas), from incivilis "not civil," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + civilis "relating to a citizen, relating to public life, befitting a citizen; popular, affable, courteous" (see civil). Meaning "an act of rudeness" is from 1650s. Incivil "not conducive to common good" is from mid-15c.
inclemency (n.) Look up inclemency at
1550s, from Middle French inclémence and directly from Latin inclementia "rigor, harshness, roughness," from inclemens (see inclement).
inclement (adj.) Look up inclement at
1660s, from French inclément and directly from Latin inclementem (nominative inclemens) "harsh, unmerciful," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + clementem "mild, placid." "Limitation to weather is curious" [Weekley].
inclinable (adj.) Look up inclinable at
"amenable, disposed," mid-15c., from Old French enclinable and directly from Latin inclinabilis, from inclinare (see incline).
inclination (n.) Look up inclination at
"condition of being mentally disposed" (to do something), late 14c., from Middle French inclination (14c.) and directly from Latin inclinationem (nominative inclinatio) "a leaning, bending," figuratively "tendency, bias, favor," noun of action from past participle stem of inclinare (see incline). Meaning "action of bending toward" (something) is from early 15c. That of "amount of a slope" is from 1799.
incline (v.) Look up incline at
c. 1300, "to bend or bow toward," from Old French encliner, from Latin inclinare "to cause to lean; bend, incline, turn, divert," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + clinare "to bend," from PIE *klei-n-, suffixed form of *klei- "to lean" (see lean (v.)). Metaphoric sense of "have a mental disposition toward" is early 15c. in English (but existed in classical Latin). Related: Inclined; inclining.
incline (n.) Look up incline at
c. 1600, "mental tendency," from incline (v.). The literal meaning "slant, slope" is attested from 1846.
include (v.) Look up include at
c. 1400, from Latin includere "to shut in, enclose, imprison, insert," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + claudere "to shut" (see close (v.)). The alleged Sam Goldwyn-ism, "Include me out," is attested from 1937. Related: Included; including.
inclusion (n.) Look up inclusion at
c. 1600, from Latin inclusionem (nominative inclusio) "a shutting up, confinement," noun of action from past participle stem of includere (see include).
inclusive (adj.) Look up inclusive at
mid-15c., from Medieval Latin inclusivus, from Latin inclus-, past participle stem of includere (see include). Related: Inclusively; inclusiveness.
incogitable (adj.) Look up incogitable at
"unthinkable," 1520s, from Late Latin incogitabilis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + cogitabilis, from stem of cogitare (see cogitation).
incognito (adj./adv.) Look up incognito at
1640s, from Italian incognito "unknown," especially in connection with traveling, from Latin incognitus "unknown," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + cognitus, past participle of cognoscere "to get to know" (see cognizance). Fem. form incognita was maintained through 19c. by those scrupulous about Latin. Incog was a common 18c. colloquial abbreviation.
incognizant (adj.) Look up incognizant at
1837, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + cognizant.
incoherence (n.) Look up incoherence at
1610s, formed from in- (1) "not" + coherence on model of Italian incoerenza.
incoherency (n.) Look up incoherency at
1680s, from incoherent + -cy.
incoherent (adj.) Look up incoherent at
1620s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + coherent. Related: Incoherently.
incohesive (adj.) Look up incohesive at
1826, from in- (1) "not" + cohesive. Related: Incohesively; incohesiveness.
incombustible (adj.) Look up incombustible at
late 15c., from Old French incombustible (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin incombustibilis; see in- (1) + combustible.
income (n.) Look up income at
c. 1300, "entrance, arrival," literally "what enters," perhaps a noun use of the late Old English verb incuman "come in," from in (adv.) + cuman "to come" (see come). Meaning "money made through business or labor" (i.e., "that which 'comes in' as a product of work or business") first recorded c. 1600. Income tax is from 1799, first introduced in Britain as a war tax, re-introduced 1842; authorized on a national level in U.S. in 1913.
incoming (n.) Look up incoming at
late 14c., "action of coming in," from in + coming. As a present participle adjective, from 1753. Of game, from 1892; transferred in World War I to artillery; as a warning cry of incoming shellfire, it seems to date to the U.S. war in Vietnam (1968).
incommensurability (n.) Look up incommensurability at
1560s; see incommensurable + -ity.
incommensurable (adj.) Look up incommensurable at
1550s, from Middle French incommensurable or directly from Medieval Latin incommensurabilis, from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + Late Latin commensurabilis, from Latin com- "with" + mensurabilis "measurable," from mensurare "to measure" (see measure (v.)). Related: Incommensurably.
incommensurate (adj.) Look up incommensurate at
1640s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + commensurate.
incommodious (adj.) Look up incommodious at
1550s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + commodious. Related: Incommodiously. A verb, incommode, is attested from late 16c.