increpation (n.) Look up increpation at Dictionary.com
c.1500, from Latin increpationem (nominative increpatio), noun of action from increpare "to make noise at, scold, nag," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + crepare "to creak" (see raven).
incriminate (v.) Look up incriminate at Dictionary.com
1730, back-formation from incrimination or else from Medieval Latin incriminatus, past participle of incriminare "to incriminate," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + criminare "to accuse of a crime," from crimen (genitive criminis) "crime" (see crime). Related: Incriminated; incriminating.
incrimination (n.) Look up incrimination at Dictionary.com
1650s, noun of action from Medieval Latin incriminare (see incriminate).
incroyable Look up incroyable at Dictionary.com
1796, from French incroyable, literally "incredible" (15c.), from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + croire "to believe," from Latin credere (see credo). Name for the French fop or dandy of the period of the Directory (1795-99). Said to be so called from their extravagant dress and from a favorite expression among them ("C'est vraiment incroyable").
incrustation (n.) Look up incrustation at Dictionary.com
also encrustation, 1640s, from Late Latin incrustationem (nominative incrustatio) "a covering with crust," noun of action from past participle stem of incrustare.
incubate (v.) Look up incubate at Dictionary.com
1640s, "to brood upon, watch jealously" (which also was a figurative sense of Latin incubare); 1721 as "to sit on eggs to hatch them," from Latin incubatus, past participle of incubare "to lie in or upon" (see incubation). Related: Incubated; incubating.
incubation (n.) Look up incubation at Dictionary.com
1610s, "brooding," from Latin incubationem (nominative incubatio) "a laying upon eggs," noun of action from past participle stem of incubare "to hatch," literally "to lie on, rest on," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + cubare "to lie" (see cubicle). The literal sense of "sitting on eggs to hatch them" first recorded in English 1640s.
incubator (n.) Look up incubator at Dictionary.com
"apparatus for hatching eggs by artificial heat," 1845, from incubate + -or.
incubus (n.) Look up incubus at Dictionary.com
c.1200, from Late Latin (Augustine), from Latin incubo "nightmare, one who lies down on (the sleeper)," from incubare "to lie upon" (see incubate). Plural is incubi. In the Middle Ages their existence was recognized by law.
inculcate (v.) Look up inculcate at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Latin inculcatus, past participle of inculcare "force upon, stamp in, tread down," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + calcare "to tread, press in," from calx (1) "heel." Related: Inculcated; inculcating.
inculcation (n.) Look up inculcation at Dictionary.com
1550s, from Late Latin inculcationem (nominative inculcatio), noun of action from past participle stem of inculcare (see inculcate).
inculpate (v.) Look up inculpate at Dictionary.com
1799, "to accuse, bring charges against," from Medieval Latin inculpatus, past participle of inculpare "to reproach, blame, censure," from Latin in- "in" (see in- (2)) + culpare "to blame," from culpa "fault." But inculpable (late 15c.) means "not culpable, free from blame," from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)) + culpare.
inculpation (n.) Look up inculpation at Dictionary.com
1798, noun of action from inculpate.
incumbency (n.) Look up incumbency at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from incumbent + -cy.
incumbent (n.) Look up incumbent at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "person holding a church position," from Medieval Latin incumbentem (nominative incumbens) "holder of a church position," noun use of present participle of incumbere "to obtain or possess," from Latin incumbere "recline on," figuratively "apply oneself to," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + -cumbere "lie down," related to cubare "to lie" (see cubicle). Extended to holders of any office from 1670s.
incumbent (adj.) Look up incumbent at Dictionary.com
1560s, in relation to duties or obligations, from Latin incumbentem (nominative incumbens), present participle of incumbere (see incumbent (n.)). The literal, physical sense is rare in English and first attested 1620s.
incumbrance (n.) Look up incumbrance at Dictionary.com
see encumbrance.
incunabula (n.) Look up incunabula at Dictionary.com
"swaddling clothes," also, figuratively, "childhood, beginnings;" 1824, from Latin incunabula (neuter plural), ultimately from cunae "cradle," from PIE *koi-na-, from root *kei- "to lie; bed, couch."
incunabulum (n.) Look up incunabulum at Dictionary.com
1861, singular of incunabula; taken up (originally in German) as a word for any book printed late 15c., in the "infancy" of the printer's art.
incur (v.) Look up incur at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Anglo-French encurir, Middle French encourir, from Latin incurrere "run into or against, rush at, make an attack;" figuratively, "to befall, happen, occur to," from in- "upon" (see in- (2)) + currere "to run" (see current (adj.)). Related: Incurred; incurring.
incurable (adj.) Look up incurable at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., from Old French incurable (13c.), from Late Latin incurabilis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + curabilis "curable" (see curable). Related: Incurably.
incurious (adj.) Look up incurious at Dictionary.com
1560s, "negligent, heedless," from Latin incuriosus "careless, negligent, unconcerned," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + curiosus (see curious). Meaning "uninquisitive" is from 1610s. Objective sense of "unworthy of attention" is from 1747.
incursion (n.) Look up incursion at Dictionary.com
"hostile attack," early 15c., from Middle French incursion (14c.) or directly from Latin incursionem (nominative incursio) "a running against," noun of action from past participle stem of incurrere (see incur).
incus (n.) Look up incus at Dictionary.com
ear bone, 1660s, from Latin incus "anvil," from incudere "to forge with a hammer." So called by Belgian anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564).
indebted (adj.) Look up indebted at Dictionary.com
late 14c., endetted "owing money," past participle of endetten "to indebt, oblige," from Old French endetter "to involve in debt," from en- "in" (see in- (2)) + dette "debt" (see debt). Figurative sense of "under obligation for favors or services" first attested 1560s. Related: indebt; indebtedness. Latin indebitus meant "not owed, not due."
indecency (n.) Look up indecency at Dictionary.com
1580s, from Latin indecentia "unseemliness, impropriety," noun of quality from indecentem (see indecent).
indecent (adj.) Look up indecent at Dictionary.com
1560s, "unbecoming, in bad taste," from French indécent (14c.), from Latin indecentem (nominative indecens), from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + decens (see decent). Sense of "offending against propriety" is from 1610s. Indecent assault (1861) originally covered sexual assaults other than rape or intended rape, but by 1934 it was being used as a euphemism for "rape." Related: Indecently
indecipherable (adj.) Look up indecipherable at Dictionary.com
1802, from in- (1) "not" + decipherable (see decipher (v.)). Related: Indecipherability.
indecision (n.) Look up indecision at Dictionary.com
1763, from French indécision (c.1600), from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + decision (see decision).
indecisive (adj.) Look up indecisive at Dictionary.com
1726, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + decisive. Related: Indecisively; indecisiveness.
indeclinable (adj.) Look up indeclinable at Dictionary.com
late 14c., originally in grammar, from French indéclinable, from Latin indeclinabilis, from indeclinatus "unchanged, constant," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + declinatus, from declinare (see decline (v.)). Related: Indeclinably.
indecorous (adj.) Look up indecorous at Dictionary.com
1670s, from Latin indecorus "unbecoming, unseemly, unsightly," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + decorus "becoming, fitting, seemly, proper" (see decorous). Related: Indecorously; indecorousness.
indeed (adv.) Look up indeed at Dictionary.com
early 14c., in dede "in fact, in truth," from Old English dæd (see deed). Written as two words till c.1600. As an interjection, 1590s; as an expression of surprise or disgust, 1834. Emphatic form in yes (or no) indeedy attested from 1856, American English.
indefatigability (n.) Look up indefatigability at Dictionary.com
1630s, from indefatigable + -ity.
indefatigable (adj.) Look up indefatigable at Dictionary.com
1580s (implied in indefatigably), from French indefatigable (15c.), from Latin indefatigabilis "that cannot be wearied," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + defatigare "to tire out," from de- "utterly, down, away" + fatigare "to weary" (see fatigue).
indefeasible (adj.) Look up indefeasible at Dictionary.com
1530s (implied in indefeasibly), from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + defeasible (see defeasance).
indefensible (adj.) Look up indefensible at Dictionary.com
1520s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + defensible. Related: Indefensibly.
indefinability (n.) Look up indefinability at Dictionary.com
1814, from indefinable + -ity.
indefinable (adj.) Look up indefinable at Dictionary.com
1810, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + definable (see define). Related: Indefinably.
indefinite (adj.) Look up indefinite at Dictionary.com
early 15c. (implied in indefinitely), from Latin indefinitus, from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + definitus, past participle of definire (see define).
indefinitely (adv.) Look up indefinitely at Dictionary.com
early 15c.; see indefinite + -ly (2).
indelible (adj.) Look up indelible at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Latin indelebilis "indelible, imperishable," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + delebilis "able to be destroyed," from delere "destroy, blot out" (see delete). Vowel change from -e- to -i- in English is late 17c. Related: Indelibly.
indelicate (adj.) Look up indelicate at Dictionary.com
1742, "offensive to propriety," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + delicate. Related: Indelicately.
indemnification (n.) Look up indemnification at Dictionary.com
1732, noun of action from indemnify.
indemnify (v.) Look up indemnify at Dictionary.com
"compensate for loss or expense," 1610s, from Latin indemnis "unhurt" (see indemnity) + -fy. Related: Indemnified; indemnifying.
indemnity (n.) Look up indemnity at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Middle French indemnité (14c.), from Late Latin indemnitatem (nominative indemnitas) "security for damage," from Latin indemnis "unhurt, undamaged," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + damnum "damage" (see damn).
indent (v.) Look up indent at Dictionary.com
early 15c., indenten/endenten "to make notches; to give (something) a toothed or jagged appearance," also "to make a legal indenture," from Old French endenter "to notch or dent, give a serrated edge to," from Medieval Latin indentare "to furnish with teeth," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + Latin dens (genitive dentis) "tooth" (see tooth). Related: Indented; indenting. The printing sense is first attested 1670s. The noun is first recorded 1590s, from the verb. An earlier noun sense of "a written agreement" (late 15c.) is described in Middle English Dictionary as "scribal abbrev. of endenture."
indentation (n.) Look up indentation at Dictionary.com
1728, of margins or edges, extended form of indent (n.). Meaning "action of making a dent or impression" is from 1847.
indention (n.) Look up indention at Dictionary.com
1763, formed irregularly from indent + -ation. It could be a useful word if it split with indentation the two senses (relating to margins and to dents) of that word, but indention, too, is used in both.
indenture (n.) Look up indenture at Dictionary.com
"contract for services," late 14c., from Anglo-French endenture, Old French endenteure "indentation," from endenter (see indent). Such contracts (especially between master craftsmen and apprentices) were written in full identical versions on a sheet of parchment, which was then cut apart in a zigzag, or "notched" line. Each party took one, and the genuineness of a document of indenture could be proved by juxtaposition with its counterpart. As a verb, 1650s, from the noun.