increpation (n.)
c.1500, from Latin increpationem (nominative increpatio), noun of action from increpare "to make noise at, scold, nag," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + crepare "to creak."
incriminate (v.)
1730, back-formation from incrimination or else from Medieval Latin incriminatus, past participle of incriminare "to incriminate," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + criminare "to accuse of a crime," from crimen (genitive criminis) "crime" (see crime). Related: Incriminated; incriminating.
incrimination (n.)
1650s, noun of action from Medieval Latin incriminare (see incriminate).
incroyable
1796, from French incroyable, literally "incredible" (15c.), from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + croire "to believe," from Latin credere (see credo). Name for the French fop or dandy of the period of the Directory (1795-99). Said to be so called from their extravagant dress and from a favorite expression among them ("C'est vraiment incroyable").
incrustation (n.)
also encrustation, 1640s, from Late Latin incrustationem (nominative incrustatio) "a covering with crust," noun of action from past participle stem of incrustare.
incubate (v.)
1640s, "to brood upon, watch jealously" (which also was a figurative sense of Latin incubare); 1721 as "to sit on eggs to hatch them," from Latin incubatus, past participle of incubare "to lie in or upon" (see incubation). Related: Incubated; incubating.
incubation (n.)
1610s, "brooding," from Latin incubationem (nominative incubatio) "a laying upon eggs," noun of action from past participle stem of incubare "to hatch," literally "to lie on, rest on," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + cubare "to lie" (see cubicle). The literal sense of "sitting on eggs to hatch them" first recorded in English 1640s.
incubator (n.)
"apparatus for hatching eggs by artificial heat," 1845, from incubate + -or.
incubus (n.)
c.1200, from Late Latin (Augustine), from Latin incubo "nightmare, one who lies down on (the sleeper)," from incubare "to lie upon" (see incubate). Plural is incubi. In the Middle Ages their existence was recognized by law.
inculcate (v.)
1540s, from Latin inculcatus, past participle of inculcare "force upon, stamp in, tread down," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + calcare "to tread, press in," from calx (1) "heel." Related: Inculcated; inculcating.
inculcation (n.)
1550s, from Late Latin inculcationem (nominative inculcatio), noun of action from past participle stem of inculcare (see inculcate).
inculpate (v.)
1799, "to accuse, bring charges against," from Medieval Latin inculpatus, past participle of inculpare "to reproach, blame, censure," from Latin in- "in" (see in- (2)) + culpare "to blame," from culpa "fault." But inculpable (late 15c.) means "not culpable, free from blame," from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)) + culpare.
inculpation (n.)
1798, noun of action from inculpate.
incumbency (n.)
c.1600, from incumbent + -cy.
incumbent (n.)
early 15c., "person holding a church position," from Medieval Latin incumbentem (nominative incumbens) "holder of a church position," noun use of present participle of incumbere "to obtain or possess," from Latin incumbere "recline on," figuratively "apply oneself to," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + -cumbere "lie down," related to cubare "to lie" (see cubicle). Extended to holders of any office from 1670s.
incumbent (adj.)
1560s, in relation to duties or obligations, from Latin incumbentem (nominative incumbens), present participle of incumbere (see incumbent (n.)). The literal, physical sense is rare in English and first attested 1620s.
incumbrance (n.)
see encumbrance.
incunabula (n.)
"swaddling clothes," also, figuratively, "childhood, beginnings;" 1824, from Latin incunabula (neuter plural), ultimately from cunae "cradle," from PIE *koi-na-, from root *kei- "to lie; bed, couch."
incunabulum (n.)
1861, singular of incunabula; taken up (originally in German) as a word for any book printed late 15c., in the "infancy" of the printer's art.
incur (v.)
early 15c., from Anglo-French encurir, Middle French encourir, from Latin incurrere "run into or against, rush at, make an attack;" figuratively, "to befall, happen, occur to," from in- "upon" (see in- (2)) + currere "to run" (see current (adj.)). Related: Incurred; incurring.
incurable (adj.)
mid-14c., from Old French incurable (13c.), from Late Latin incurabilis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + curabilis "curable" (see curable). Related: Incurably.
incurious (adj.)
1560s, "negligent, heedless," from Latin incuriosus "careless, negligent, unconcerned," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + curiosus (see curious). Meaning "uninquisitive" is from 1610s. Objective sense of "unworthy of attention" is from 1747.
incursion (n.)
"hostile attack," early 15c., from Middle French incursion (14c.) or directly from Latin incursionem (nominative incursio) "a running against," noun of action from past participle stem of incurrere (see incur).
incus (n.)
ear bone, 1660s, from Latin incus "anvil," from incudere "to forge with a hammer." So called by Belgian anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564).
indebted (adj.)
late 14c., endetted "owing money," past participle of endetten "to indebt, oblige," from Old French endetter "to involve in debt," from en- "in" (see in- (2)) + dette "debt" (see debt). Figurative sense of "under obligation for favors or services" first attested 1560s. Related: indebt; indebtedness. Latin indebitus meant "not owed, not due."
indecency (n.)
1580s, from Latin indecentia "unseemliness, impropriety," noun of quality from indecentem (see indecent).
indecent (adj.)
1560s, "unbecoming, in bad taste," from French indécent (14c.), from Latin indecentem (nominative indecens), from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + decens (see decent). Sense of "offending against propriety" is from 1610s. Indecent assault (1861) originally covered sexual assaults other than rape or intended rape, but by 1934 it was being used as a euphemism for "rape." Related: Indecently
indecipherable (adj.)
1802, from in- (1) "not" + decipherable (see decipher (v.)). Related: Indecipherability.
indecision (n.)
1763, from French indécision (c.1600), from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + decision (see decision).
indecisive (adj.)
1726, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + decisive. Related: Indecisively; indecisiveness.
indeclinable (adj.)
late 14c., originally in grammar, from French indéclinable, from Latin indeclinabilis, from indeclinatus "unchanged, constant," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + declinatus, from declinare (see decline (v.)). Related: Indeclinably.
indecorous (adj.)
1670s, from Latin indecorus "unbecoming, unseemly, unsightly," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + decorus "becoming, fitting, seemly, proper" (see decorous). Related: Indecorously; indecorousness.
indeed (adv.)
early 14c., in dede "in fact, in truth," from Old English dæd (see deed). Written as two words till c.1600. As an interjection, 1590s; as an expression of surprise or disgust, 1834. Emphatic form in yes (or no) indeedy attested from 1856, American English.
indefatigability (n.)
1630s, from indefatigable + -ity.
indefatigable (adj.)
1580s (implied in indefatigably), from French indefatigable (15c.), from Latin indefatigabilis "that cannot be wearied," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + defatigare "to tire out," from de- "utterly, down, away" + fatigare "to weary" (see fatigue).
indefeasible (adj.)
1530s (implied in indefeasibly), from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + defeasible (see defeasance).
indefensible (adj.)
1520s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + defensible. Related: Indefensibly.
indefinability (n.)
1814, from indefinable + -ity.
indefinable (adj.)
1810, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + definable (see define). Related: Indefinably.
indefinite (adj.)
early 15c. (implied in indefinitely), from Latin indefinitus, from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + definitus, past participle of definire (see define).
indefinitely (adv.)
early 15c.; see indefinite + -ly (2).
indelible (adj.)
1520s, from Latin indelebilis "indelible, imperishable," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + delebilis "able to be destroyed," from delere "destroy, blot out" (see delete). Vowel change from -e- to -i- in English is late 17c. Related: Indelibly.
indelicate (adj.)
1742, "offensive to propriety," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + delicate. Related: Indelicately.
indemnification (n.)
1732, noun of action from indemnify.
indemnify (v.)
"compensate for loss or expense," 1610s, from Latin indemnis "unhurt" (see indemnity) + -fy. Related: Indemnified; indemnifying.
indemnity (n.)
mid-15c., from Middle French indemnité (14c.), from Late Latin indemnitatem (nominative indemnitas) "security for damage," from Latin indemnis "unhurt, undamaged," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + damnum "damage" (see damn).
indent (v.)
early 15c., indenten/endenten "to make notches; to give (something) a toothed or jagged appearance," also "to make a legal indenture," from Old French endenter "to notch or dent, give a serrated edge to," from Medieval Latin indentare "to furnish with teeth," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + Latin dens (genitive dentis) "tooth" (see tooth). Related: Indented; indenting. The printing sense is first attested 1670s. The noun is first recorded 1590s, from the verb. An earlier noun sense of "a written agreement" (late 15c.) is described in Middle English Dictionary as "scribal abbrev. of endenture."
indentation (n.)
1728, of margins or edges, extended form of indent (n.). Meaning "action of making a dent or impression" is from 1847.
indention (n.)
1763, formed irregularly from indent + -ation. It could be a useful word if it split with indentation the two senses (relating to margins and to dents) of that word, but indention, too, is used in both.
indenture (n.)
"contract for services," late 14c., from Anglo-French endenture, Old French endenteure "indentation," from endenter (see indent). Such contracts (especially between master craftsmen and apprentices) were written in full identical versions on a sheet of parchment, which was then cut apart in a zigzag, or "notched" line. Each party took one, and the genuineness of a document of indenture could be proved by juxtaposition with its counterpart. As a verb, 1650s, from the noun.