Indies Look up Indies at
1550s, plural of Indie, Indy, from Middle English Ynde (early 13c.) "India," from the Old French form of Latin India (see India). Commonly applied to Asia and the East, later applied to the Caribbean basin, in a time of geographical confusion, which was distinguished from Asia proper by being called the West Indies.
indifference (n.) Look up indifference at
mid-15c., from Latin indifferentia "want of difference, similarity," noun of quality from indifferentem (see indifferent).
indifferent (adj.) Look up indifferent at
late 14c., "unbiased," from Old French indifferent "impartial" or directly from Latin indifferentem (nominative indifferens) "not differing, not particular, of not consequence, neither good nor evil," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + differens, present participle of differre "set apart" (see differ). Extended sense of "apathetic" first recorded early 15c.; that of "neither good nor bad" 1530s, on notion of "neither more nor less advantageous."
indifferently (adv.) Look up indifferently at
c. 1400, from indifferent + -ly (2).
indigence (n.) Look up indigence at
late 14c., from Old French indigence "indigence, need, privation" (13c.), from Latin indigentia "need, want; insatiable desire," from indigentem (nominative indigens), present participle of indigere "to need," from indu "in, within" + egere "be in need, want," from PIE *eg- "to lack" (cognates: Old Norse ekla "want, lack," Old High German eccherode "thin, weak").
indigency (n.) Look up indigency at
1610s, from Latin indigentia (see indigence).
indigene Look up indigene at
1590s (adj.); 1660s (n.); from French indigène (16c.), from Latin indigena "sprung from the land," as a noun, "a native," literally "in-born" (see indigenous).
indigenous (adj.) Look up indigenous at
1640s, from Late Latin indigenus "born in a country, native," from Latin indigena "sprung from the land," as a noun, "a native," literally "in-born," or "born in (a place)," from Old Latin indu "in, within" (earlier endo) + *gene-, root of gignere (perf. genui) "beget," from PIE *gen- "produce" (see genus).
indigent (adj.) Look up indigent at
c. 1400, from Old French indigent, from Latin indigentem (see indigence). As a noun, "poor person," from early 15c.
indigestible (adj.) Look up indigestible at
late 15c., from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + digestible; or else from Late Latin indigestibilis. Related: Indigestibility.
indigestion (n.) Look up indigestion at
late 14c., from Old French indigestion (13c.), from Late Latin indigestionem (nominative indigestio), from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + digestionem (see digestion). An Old English word for it was unmeltung.
indignance (n.) Look up indignance at
1580s; see indignant + -ance. Indignancy is attested from 1790.
indignant (adj.) Look up indignant at
1580s, from Latin indignantem (nominative indignans) "impatient, reluctant, indignant," present participle of indignari "to be displeased at, be indignant" (see indignation). Related: Indignantly.
indignation (n.) Look up indignation at
c. 1200, from Old French indignacion or directly from Latin indignationem (nominative indignatio) "indignation, displeasure," noun of action from past participle stem of indignari "regard as unworthy, be angry or displeased at," from indignus "unworthy," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dignus "worthy" (see dignity).
indignity (n.) Look up indignity at
1580s, "unworthiness," also "unworthy treatment; act intended to expose someone to contempt," from Latin indignitatem (nominative indignitas) "unworthiness, meanness, baseness," also "unworthy conduct, an outrage," noun of quality from indignus "unworthy" (see indignation). Related: Indignities.
indigo (n.) Look up indigo at
1550s, from Spanish indico, Portuguese endego, and Dutch (via Portuguese) indigo, all from Latin indicum "indigo," from Greek indikon "blue dye from India," literally "Indian (substance)," neuter of indikos "Indian," from India (see India). As "the color of indigo" from 1620s. Replaced Middle English ynde (late 13c., from Old French inde, from Latin indicum). Earlier name in Mediterranean languages was annil, anil (see aniline).
indirect (adj.) Look up indirect at
late 14c., from Middle French indirect (14c.) or directly from Late Latin indirectus, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + directus (see direct). Related: Indirectness.
indirection (n.) Look up indirection at
c. 1600, from indirect + -ion.
indirectly (adv.) Look up indirectly at
mid-15c., from indirect + -ly (2).
indiscernible (adj.) Look up indiscernible at
1630s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + discernible. Related: Indiscernibly; indiscernibility.
indiscipline (n.) Look up indiscipline at
1783, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + discipline (n.). Indisciplined as a past participle adjective is attested from c. 1400.
indiscreet (adj.) Look up indiscreet at
"imprudent, not discrete" (early 15c.) and indiscrete "not containing distinct parts" (c. 1600) are both from Latin indiscretus "unseparated; indistinguishable, not known apart," the former via an Old French or Medieval Latin secondary sense. From in- "not" (see in- (1)) + discreet. Related: Indiscreetly; indiscreetness.
indiscrete (adj.) Look up indiscrete at
see indiscreet. Related: Indiscretely.
indiscretion (n.) Look up indiscretion at
mid-14c., "want of discretion," from Old French indiscrécion "foolishness, imprudence" (12c.), from Late Latin indiscretionem (nominative indiscretio) "lack of discernment," from in- (see in- (1)) + discretionem (see discretion). Meaning "indiscreet act" is from c. 1600.
indiscriminate (adj.) Look up indiscriminate at
1640s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + discriminate (adj.).
indiscriminately (adv.) Look up indiscriminately at
1650s, from indiscriminate + -ly (2).
indispensability (n.) Look up indispensability at
1640s, from indispensable + -ity.
indispensable (adj.) Look up indispensable at
1530s, from Medieval Latin indispensabilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dispensabilis (see dispensable). Related: Indispensably.
indisposed (adj.) Look up indisposed at
c. 1400, "unprepared;" early 15c., "not in order," from in- (1) "not" + disposed; or else from Late Latin indispositus "without order, confused." Mid-15c. as "diseased;" modern sense of "not very well" is from 1590s. A verb indispose is attested from 1650s but is perhaps a back-formation of this.
indisposition (n.) Look up indisposition at
early 15c., "unfavorable influence" (in astrology); also in Middle English, "ill health, disorder of the mind or body; unfavorable disposition, hostility; inclination to evil; wickedness; public disorder, lawlessness," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + disposition.
indisputable (adj.) Look up indisputable at
1550s, from Late Latin indisputabilis, from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + disputabilis (see dispute). Related: Indisputably.
indissolubility (n.) Look up indissolubility at
1670s, from indissoluble + -ity.
indissoluble (adj.) Look up indissoluble at
mid-15c. (implied in indissolubly), from Latin indissolubilis "that cannot be dissolved," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dissolubilis, from dis- + solubilis (see soluble).
indistinct (adj.) Look up indistinct at
c. 1400 (implied in indistinctly "equally, alike"), from Latin indistinctus "not distinct, confused," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + distinctus (see distinct). Related: Indistinctly; indistinctness.
indistinguishable (adj.) Look up indistinguishable at
c. 1600, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + distinguishable. Related: Indistinguishably.
indite (v.) Look up indite at
late 14c., "put down in writing," from Old French enditer, from Vulgar Latin *indictare, from Latin in- "in, into, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + dictare “to declare” (see dictate). The same word as indict but retaining a French form. Related: Indited; inditing.
inditement (n.) Look up inditement at
1560s, "action of writing prose or verse," from indite + -ment.
individual (adj.) Look up individual at
early 15c., "one and indivisible" (with reference to the Trinity), from Medieval Latin individualis, from Latin individuus "indivisible," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dividuus "divisible," from dividere "divide" (see divide). Not common before c. 1600 and the 15c. usage might be isolated. Sense of "single, separate" is 1610s; meaning "intended for one person" is from 1889.
individual (n.) Look up individual at
"single object or thing," c. 1600, from individual (adj.). Colloquial sense of "person" is attested from 1742. Latin individuum meant "an atom, indivisible particle;" in Middle English individuum was used in sense of "individual member of a species" from early 15c.
individualism (n.) Look up individualism at
"self-centered feeling," 1827, from individual + -ism. As a social philosophy (opposed to communism and socialism) first attested 1851 in writings of J.S. Mill.
A majority can never replace the individual. ... Just as a hundred fools do not make one wise man, a heroic decision is not likely to come from a hundred cowards. [Adolf Hitler, "Mein Kampf," 1933]
individualist (n.) Look up individualist at
1840, from individual + -ist. Related: Individualistic.
individuality (n.) Look up individuality at
"the aggregate of one's idiosyncrasies," 1610s, from individual + -ity. Meaning "fact of existing as an individual" is from 1650s.
individualize (v.) Look up individualize at
1650s, "to point out individually;" see individual + -ize. From 1837 as "to make individual." Related: Individualized; individualizing.
individually (adv.) Look up individually at
1590s, "indivisibly," from individual + -ly (2). Meaning "as individuals" is from 1640s.
individuate (v.) Look up individuate at
1610s, from Medieval Latin individuatus, past participle of individuare, from Latin individuus (see individual). Related: Individuated; individuating.
individuation (n.) Look up individuation at
1620s, from Medieval Latin individuationem, noun of action from individuare, from individuus (see individual). Psychological sense is from 1909.
indivisibility (n.) Look up indivisibility at
1640s, from indivisible + -ity.
indivisible (adj.) Look up indivisible at
early 15c., from Middle French indivisible and directly from Late Latin indivisibilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + divisibilis (see divisible).
Indo-European Look up Indo-European at
1814, coined by physician, physicist and Egyptologist Thomas Young (1773-1829) and first used in an article in the "Quarterly Review," from Indo-, comb. form of Greek Indos "India" + European. "Common to India and Europe," specifically in reference to the group of related languages and to the race or races characterized by their use. The alternative Indo-Germanic (1835) was coined in German 1823 (indogermanisch), based on the two peoples at the extremes of the geographic area covered by the languages, before Celtic was realized also to be an Indo-European language. After this was proved, many German scholars switched to Indo-European as more accurate, but Indo-Germanic continued in use (popularized by the titles of major works) and the predominance of German scholarship in this field made it the popular term in England, too, through the 19c. See also Aryan.
Indochina Look up Indochina at
1886, from Indo-, comb. form of Greek Indos "India" + China. Name proposed early 19c. by Scottish poet and orientalist John Leyden, who lived and worked in India from 1803 till his death at 35 in 1811.