indigence (n.) Look up indigence at
late 14c., from Old French indigence "indigence, need, privation" (13c.), from Latin indigentia "need, want; insatiable desire," from indigentem (nominative indigens) "in want of, needing," present participle of indigere "to need, stand in need of," from indu "in, within" (see indigenous) + egere "be in need, want," from PIE *eg- "to lack" (cognates: Old Norse ekla "want, lack," Old High German eccherode "thin, weak").
indigency (n.) Look up indigency at
1610s, from Latin indigentia "need, want" (see indigence).
indigene (adj.) Look up indigene at
1590s, from French indigène (16c.), from Latin indigena "sprung from the land," as a noun, "a native," literally "in-born" (see indigenous). As a noun from 1660s.
indigenous (adj.) Look up indigenous at
"born or originating in a particular place," 1640s, from Late Latin indigenus "born in a country, native," from Latin indigena "sprung from the land, native," as a noun, "a native," literally "in-born," or "born in (a place)," from Old Latin indu (prep.) "in, within" + gignere (perfective genui) "beget," from PIE root *gene- "to produce, give birth, beget" (see genus).

Indu "within" is from archaic endo, which is cognate with Greek endo- "in, within," from PIE *endo-, extended form of root *en "in" (see in (adv.)). Related: Indigenously.
indigent (adj.) Look up indigent at
c. 1400, from Old French indigent "poor, needy," from Latin indigentem "in want of, needing" (see indigence). As a noun, "poor person," from early 15c.
indigestible (adj.) Look up indigestible at
late 15c., from Late Latin indigestibilis or else a native formation from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + digestible; or else from Late Latin indigestibilis. Related: Indigestibility (1733).
indigestion (n.) Look up indigestion at
late 14c., "difficulty or inability in digesting food," from Old French indigestion (13c.), from Late Latin indigestionem (nominative indigestio), from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + digestionem "arrangement, distribution" (see digestion). An Old English word for it was unmeltung.
indignance (n.) Look up indignance at
1580s, from indignant + -ance or else from Medieval Latin indignantia. Indignancy is attested from 1778.
indignant (adj.) Look up indignant at
1580s, from Latin indignantem (nominative indignans) "impatient, reluctant, indignant," present participle of indignari "to be displeased at, be offended, resent, deem unworthy" (see indignation). Related: Indignantly.
indignation (n.) Look up indignation at
c. 1200, from Old French indignacion "fury, rage; disrespect," or directly from Latin indignationem (nominative indignatio) "indignation, displeasure; a provocation, cause for indignation," noun of action from past participle stem of indignari "regard as unworthy, be angry or displeased at," from indignus "unworthy," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dignus "worthy" (see dignity). The indignation meeting (1835) once was a common American way to express popular outrage by passing and publishing resolutions.
indignity (n.) Look up indignity at
"unworthy treatment; act intended to lower the dignity of another," 1580s, from Latin indignitatem (nominative indignitas) "unworthiness, meanness, baseness," also "unworthy conduct, an outrage," noun of quality from indignus "unworthy" (see indignation). Related: Indignities.
indigo (n.) Look up indigo at
17c. spelling change of indico (1550s), "blue powder obtained from certain plants and used as a dye," from Spanish indico, Portuguese endego, and Dutch (via Portuguese) indigo, all from Latin indicum "indigo," from Greek indikon "blue dye from India," literally "Indian (substance)," neuter of indikos "Indian," from India (see India).

Replaced Middle English ynde (late 13c., from Old French inde "indigo; blue, violet" (13c.), from Latin indicum). Earlier name in Mediterranean languages was annil, anil (see aniline). As "the color of indigo" from 1620s. As the name of the violet-blue color of the spectrum, 1704 (Newton).
indirect (adj.) Look up indirect at
late 14c., from Old French indirect (14c.) or directly from Late Latin indirectus "not direct," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + directus (see direct (adj.)). Related: Indirectness.
indirection (n.) Look up indirection at
"irregular means, deceitful action," 1590s, from indirect + -ion.
indirectly (adv.) Look up indirectly at
mid-15c., from indirect + -ly (2).
indiscernible (adj.) Look up indiscernible at
1630s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + discernible. Related: Indiscernibly; indiscernibility.
indiscipline (n.) Look up indiscipline at
"disorder, lack of discipline," 1783, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + discipline (n.). Perhaps modeled on French indiscipline (18c.). Indisciplined as a past participle adjective is attested from c. 1400.
indiscreet (adj.) Look up indiscreet at
"imprudent, not discrete, lacking good judgment," early 15c., from Medieval Latin indiscretus, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + Latin discretus "separated, distinct" (in Medieval Latin "discerning, careful"), past participle of discernere "distinguish" (see discern). A Medieval Latin secondary sense of the word that also became indiscrete. Related: Indiscreetly; indiscreetness.
indiscrete (adj.) Look up indiscrete at
"not containing distinct parts," 1782 (earlier "not distinctly separate," c. 1600), from Latin indiscretus "unseparated; indistinguishable, not known apart," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + discretus "separated, distinct" (in Medieval Latin "discerning, careful"), past participle of discernere "distinguish" (see discern). Related: Indiscretely; indiscreteness.
indiscretion (n.) Look up indiscretion at
mid-14c., "want of discretion, imprudence," from Old French indiscrecion "foolishness, imprudence" (12c.), from Late Latin indiscretionem (nominative indiscretio) "lack of discernment," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + discretionem "discernment, power to make distinctions" (see discretion). Meaning "indiscreet act" is from c. 1600.
indiscretionary (adj.) Look up indiscretionary at
1788, from indiscretion + -ary.
indiscriminate (adj.) Look up indiscriminate at
"not carefully discriminating, done without making distinctions," 1640s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + discriminate (adj.).
indiscriminately (adv.) Look up indiscriminately at
1650s, from indiscriminate + -ly (2).
indispensability (n.) Look up indispensability at
1640s, from indispensable + -ity.
indispensable (adj.) Look up indispensable at
1530s, "not subject to dispensation," from Medieval Latin *indispensabilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dispensabilis, from Latin dispensare "disburse, administer, distribute (by weight)" (see dispense). Meaning "necessary" is from 1690s. From 17c. into 19c. often spelled indispensible, but modern dictionaries considered this improper.

As a noun, "indispensable thing," from 1794; c. 1800-1810, after French use, it was the name of a type of pocket bag worn by women. indispensables (1820) also was one of the many 1820s jocular euphemisms for "trousers" (see indescribable). Related: Indispensably.
indisposed (adj.) Look up indisposed at
c. 1400, "unprepared;" early 15c., "not in order," from in- (1) "not" + disposed; or else from Late Latin indispositus "without order, confused." From mid-15c. in English as "diseased;" modern sense of "not very well, slightly ill" is from 1590s. A verb indispose is attested from 1650s but perhaps is a back-formation of this, rather than its source, or from French indisposer.
indisposition (n.) Look up indisposition at
early 15c., "unfavorable influence" (in astrology), mid-15c., "disinclination (to), state of being not disposed in mind," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + disposition. Perhaps modeled on Old French indisposicion or Medieval Latin indispositio. Sense of "ill health, disorder of the mind or body" is from mid-15c. Other 15c. senses included "inclination to evil; wickedness," and "public disorder, lawlessness."
indisputable (adj.) Look up indisputable at
1550s, from Late Latin indisputabilis, from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + disputabilis, from Latin disputare "to weigh, examine, discuss, argue, explain" (see dispute (v.)). Related: Indisputably.
indissolubility (n.) Look up indissolubility at
1670s, from indissoluble + -ity.
indissoluble (adj.) Look up indissoluble at
mid-15c. (implied in indissolubly), from Latin indissolubilis "indestructible, that cannot be dissolved," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dissolubilis, from dis- + solubilis (see soluble). Related: Indissolubly.
indistinct (adj.) Look up indistinct at
1580s, "not seen or heard clearly," from Latin indistinctus "not distinguishable, confused, obscure," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + distinctus (see distinct). From c. 1600 as "not clearly defined or distinguished." Indistinctly is attested from c. 1400 in an obsolete sense "equally, alike, indiscriminately." Related: Indistinctness.
indistinguishable (adj.) Look up indistinguishable at
1640s, "not clearly perceived;" 1650s, "incapable of being told apart," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + distinguishable. Shakespeare's use of it (c. 1600) seems to mean "of indeterminate shape." Related: Indistinguishably.
indite (v.) Look up indite at
formerly also endite, late 14c., "put down in writing," from Old French enditer, enditier "dictate, write; draw up, draft; (legally) indict," from Vulgar Latin *indictare, from Latin in- "in, into, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + dictare "to declare" (see dictate (v.)). The same word as indict but retaining a French form. Related: Indited; inditing.
inditement (n.) Look up inditement at
1560s, "action of writing prose or verse," from indite + -ment. Perhaps modeled on French enditement (12c.).
indium (n.) Look up indium at
metallic element, 1864, Modern Latin, from indicum "indigo" (see indigo) + chemical name element -ium. So called for its spectral lines. Ferdinand Reich (1799-1882), professor of physics at Freiberg, isolated it while analyzing local zinc ores in 1863 and identified it as a new element by the two dark blue lines in its spectrum, which did not correspond to any known element. The discovery had to be observed by his assistant, Theodor Richter, because Reich was color-blind.
individual (adj.) Look up individual at
early 15c., "one and indivisible, inseparable" (with reference to the Trinity), from Medieval Latin individualis, from Latin individuus "indivisible," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dividuus "divisible," from dividere "divide" (see divide). Original sense now obsolete; the word was not common before c. 1600 and the 15c. example might be an outlier. Sense of "single, separate, of but one person or thing" is from 1610s; meaning "intended for one person" is from 1889.
individual (n.) Look up individual at
"single object or thing," c. 1600, from individual (adj.). Meaning "a single human being" (as opposed to a group, etc.) is from 1640s. Colloquial sense of "person" is attested from 1742. Latin individuum as a noun meant "an atom, indivisible particle," and in Middle English individuum was used in sense of "individual member of a species" (early 15c.).
individualism (n.) Look up individualism at
"quality of being distinct or individual, individuality," 1815, from individual + -ism. As the name of a social philosophy favoring non-interference of government in lives of individuals (opposed to communism and socialism) first attested 1851 in writings of J.S. Mill.
individualist (n.) Look up individualist at
1839, "egoist, free-thinker," from individual + -ist, and compare individualism. Related: Individualistic.
individuality (n.) Look up individuality at
1610s, "the aggregate of one's idiosyncrasies," from individual + -ity, or from Medieval Latin individualitas. Meaning "condition of existing as an individual" is from 1650s.
individualization (n.) Look up individualization at
also individualisation, noun of action from individualize. Attested in 1746 but rare in English before 1820s, in which use probably it is a borrowing from French or German.
individualize (v.) Look up individualize at
1630s, "to make individual, stamp with individual character;" 1650s, "to point out individually, to note separately as individuals;" see individual + -ize. Related: Individualized; individualizing.
individually (adv.) Look up individually at
1590s, "indivisibly," from individual + -ly (2). Meaning "as individuals" is from 1640s.
individuate (v.) Look up individuate at
1610s, from Medieval Latin individuatus, past participle of individuare "make individual," from Latin individuus "individual" (see individual (adj.)). Perhaps modeled on obsolete French individuer. Related: Individuated; individuating.
individuation (n.) Look up individuation at
1620s, from Medieval Latin individuationem (nominative individuatio), noun of action from past participle stem of individuare "to make individual," from Latin individuus "individual" (see individual (adj.)). Psychological sense is from 1909.
indivisibility (n.) Look up indivisibility at
1640s, from indivisible + -ity. Perhaps modeled on French indivisibilité.
indivisible (adj.) Look up indivisible at
early 15c., from Old French indivisible (14c.) and directly from Late Latin indivisibilis "not divisible," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + divisibilis (see divisible). Related: Indivisibly.
Indo- Look up Indo- at
word-forming element meaning "of or pertaining to India" (and some other place), from Greek Indo-, from Indos "India" (see India).
Indo-China Look up Indo-China at
also Indochina, "Further India, the region between India and China," 1815, from Indo- "India" + China. The name was said to have been proposed by Scottish poet and orientalist John Leyden, who lived and worked in India from 1803 till his death at 35 in 1811. French Indo-Chine is attested from 1813, but the source credits it to Leyden. The inappropriateness of the name was noticed from the start. Related: Indo-Chinese (1814).
Indo-European Look up Indo-European at
1814, coined by English polymath Thomas Young (1773-1829) and first used in an article in the "Quarterly Review," from Indo- + European. "Common to India and Europe," specifically in reference to the group of related languages and to the race or races characterized by their use.

The alternative Indo-Germanic (1835) was coined in German in 1823 (indogermanisch), based on the two peoples then thought to be at the extremes of the geographic area covered by the languages, but this was before Celtic was realized also to be an Indo-European language. After this was proved, many German scholars switched to Indo-European as more accurate, but Indo-Germanic continued in use (popularized by the titles of major works) and the predominance of German scholarship in this field made it the popular term in England, too, through the 19c. See also Aryan. Indo-Aryan (1850) seems to have been used only of the Aryans of India. Indo-European also was used in reference to trade between Europe and India or European colonial enterprises in India (1813).