initial (adj.) Look up initial at
1520s, "of or pertaining to a beginning," from Middle French initial or directly from Latin initialis "initial, incipient," from initium "a beginning, an entrance," from past participle stem of inire "to go into, enter upon, begin," from in- "into, in" (see in- (2)) + ire "to go" (see ion).
initial (n.) Look up initial at
"initial letter of a name or surname," 1620s, from initial (adj.) in a specialized sense "standing at the beginning of a word, sentence, etc."
initial (v.) Look up initial at
"to mark or sign with initials," 1864, American English, from initial (n.). Related: Initialed; initialing.
initialism (n.) Look up initialism at
word formed from the first letters of other words or a phrase, 1957, from initial (n.) + -ism. The distinction from acronym is not universally agreed-upon; in general, words such as NATO, where the letters form a word, are regarded as acronyms, those such as FBI, where the letters sound as letters, are initialisms. The use of acronym in entries in this dictionary that are technically initialisms is a deliberate error, because many people only know to search for all such words under "acronym."
initialize (v.) Look up initialize at
1833, "to designate by initials," from initial + -ize. Meaning "to make ready for operation" is from 1957. Related: Initialized; initializing.
initiate (n.) Look up initiate at
"one who has been initiated," 1811, from past participle adjective initiate (c. 1600); see initiate (v.).
initiate (v.) Look up initiate at
c. 1600, "introduce to some practice or system," also "begin, set going," from Latin initiatus, past participle of initiare "to begin, originate," from initium "beginning" (see initial). In some senses a back-formation from initiation. Related: Initiated; initiates; initiating; initiator.
initiation (n.) Look up initiation at
1580s, from Middle French initiation or directly from Latin initiationem (nominative initiatio) "participation in secret rites," noun of action from past participle stem of initiare "originate, initiate," from initium (see initial).
initiative (n.) Look up initiative at
1793, "that which begins," also "power of initiating," from French initiative (1560s), from Latin initiatus (see initiation). First attested in English in writings of William Godwin. Phrase take the initiative recorded by 1844.
initiatory (adj.) Look up initiatory at
1610s, from Latin initiat-, stem of initiare (see initiate (v.)) + -ory.
inject (v.) Look up inject at
c. 1600, from Latin iniectus "a casting on, throwing over," past participle of inicere "to throw in or on," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + -icere, comb. form of iacere "to throw" (see jet (v.)). Related: Injectable; injected; injecting.
injection (n.) Look up injection at
"forcing a fluid into a body" (with a syringe, etc.), early 15c., from Middle French iniection (14c.) or directly from Latin iniectionem (nominative iniectio), noun of action from past participle stem of inicere (see inject).
injudicious (adj.) Look up injudicious at
1640s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + judicious. Related: Injudiciously.
Injun (n.) Look up Injun at
1812 (from 1683 as Ingin), spelling representing American English colloquial pronunciation of Indian (q.v.). Honest Injun as an asseveration of truthfuless first recorded 1868, from the notion of assurance extracted from Indians of their lack of duplicity.
"Honest Injun?" inquired Mr. Wilder, using a Western phrase equivalent to demanding of the narrator of a story whether he is strictly adhering to the truth. ["The Genial Showman," London, 1870]
The term honest Indian is attested from 1676.
injunction (n.) Look up injunction at
early 15c., from Late Latin injunctionem (nominative injunctio) "a command," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin injungere "impose," literally "attach to" (see enjoin).
injunctive Look up injunctive at
1620s, from Latin injunct-, past participle stem of injungere (see enjoin) + -ive. As a term in grammar, from 1910.
injure (v.) Look up injure at
mid-15c., "do an injustice to, dishonor," probably a back-formation from injury, or else from Middle French injuriier, from Latin injurare. Injury also served as a verb (late 15c.). Related: Injured; injuring.
injurious (adj.) Look up injurious at
early 15c., "abusive," from Middle French injurios (14c., Modern French injurieux) and directly from Latin injuriosus "unlawful, wrongful, harmful, noxious," from injuria (see injury). Related: Injuriously.
injury (n.) Look up injury at
late 14c., "harm, damage, loss; a specific injury," from Anglo-French injurie "wrongful action," from Latin injuria "wrong, hurt, injustice, insult," noun use of fem. of injurius "wrongful, unjust," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + ius (genitive iuris) "right, law" (see jurist).
injustice (n.) Look up injustice at
late 14c., from Old French injustice, from Latin injustitia "injustice," from injustus "unjust, wrongful, oppressive," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + justus "just" (see just (adj.)).
ink (n.) Look up ink at
"the black liquor with which men write" [Johnson], mid-13c., from Old French encre, formerly enque "dark writing fluid" (11c.), originally enca, from Late Latin encaustum, from Greek enkauston "purple or red ink," used by the Roman emperors to sign documents, originally a neuter adjective form of enkaustos "burned in," from stem of enkaiein "to burn in," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + kaiein "to burn" (see caustic). The word is from a Greek method of applying colored wax and fixing it with heat. The Old English word for it was simply blæc, literally "black." The -r- in the Latin word is excrescent. Donkin credits a Greek pronunciation, with the accent at the front of the word, for the French evolution; the same Latin word became inchiostro in Italian, encausto in Spanish. Ink-blot test attested from 1928.
ink (v.) Look up ink at
"to mark or stain in ink," 1560s, from ink (n.). Meaning "to cover (a printing plate, etc.) with ink" is from 1727. Related: Inked; inking.
inkhorn (n.) Look up inkhorn at
late 14c., "small portable vessel (originally made of horn) for holding ink," from ink (n.) + horn (n.). Used attributively as an adjective for things (especially vocabulary) supposed to be beloved by scribblers and bookworms (1540s). An Old English word for the thing was blæchorn.
inkling (n.) Look up inkling at
c. 1400, apparently from the gerund of Middle English verb inclen "utter in an undertone, hint at, hint" (mid-14c.), which is of unknown origin; perhaps related to Old English inca "doubt, suspicion."
inky (adj.) Look up inky at
"as black as ink," 1590s, from ink (n.) + -y (2). Related: Inkily; inkiness.
inlaid (adj.) Look up inlaid at
1590s, from in + laid, past participle of lay (v.).
inland (adj.) Look up inland at
Old English inn lond "land around the mansion of an estate," from in + land (n.). Meaning "interior parts of a country, remote from the sea or borders" is from 1570s. As an adjective, "of or pertaining to interior parts of a country," from 1550s.
inlandish (adj.) Look up inlandish at
1650s, "produced at home, domestic, native," from inland + -ish. Also "characteristic of inland regions" (1849).
inlay Look up inlay at
1590s (v.), 1650s (n.), from in + lay. Related: Inlaid.
inlet (n.) Look up inlet at
1570s, "narrow opening into a coast, arm of the sea," a special use of Middle English inleten "to let in" (c. 1300), from in + let (v.). In this sense said by old sources to be originally a Kentish term.
inline (adj.) Look up inline at
1923 of printing, 1929 of engines, 1958 of computers, by 1989 of roller skates; from in + line (n.).
inly (adv.) Look up inly at
Old English inlice "internally; sincerely;" see in + -ly (2).
inmate (n.) Look up inmate at
1580s, "one allowed to live in a house rented by another" (usually for a consideration), from in "inside" + mate "companion." Sense of "one confined to an institution" is first attested 1834.
inmost (adj.) Look up inmost at
Old English innemest; see in + -most.
inn (n.) Look up inn at
Old English inn "lodging, dwelling, house," probably from inne (adv.) "inside, within" (see in). Meaning "public house with lodging" is perhaps by c. 1200, certainly by c. 1400. Meaning "lodging house or residence for students" is early 13c. in Anglo-Latin, obsolete except in names of buildings that were so used (such as Inns of Court, mid-15c.).
innards (n.) Look up innards at
1825, innerds, dialectal variant of inwards "the bowels" (c. 1300); see inward.
innate (adj.) Look up innate at
early 15c., from Late Latin innatus "inborn," past participle of innasci "to be born in, originate in," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + nasci "to be born" (Old Latin gnasci; see genus). Related: Innately.
inner (adj.) Look up inner at
c. 1400, from Old English inra, comparative of inne (adv.) "inside" (see in). Similar formation in Old High German innaro, German inner. An unusual evolution for a comparative, it has not been used with than since Middle English. Inner tube in the pneumatic tire sense is from 1894. Inner city, in reference to poverty and crime, is attested from 1968.
innermost (adj.) Look up innermost at
mid-14c., from inner + -most. Innermore also existed in Middle English.
innervate (v.) Look up innervate at
1870, from in- (2) "in" + Latin nervus (see nerve) + -ate. Probably rather a back-formation from innervation (1832). Related: Innervated. Innervation in psychology is from 1880.
innie (n.) Look up innie at
in reference to navels, by 1972, from in (adv.) + -ie.
inning (n.) Look up inning at
Old English innung "a taking in, a putting in," gerundive of innian "get within, put or bring in," from inn (adv.) "in" (see in). Meaning "a team's turn in a game" first recorded 1735, usually plural in cricket, singular in baseball.
innkeeper (n.) Look up innkeeper at
1540s, from inn + keeper.
innocence (n.) Look up innocence at
mid-14c., "freedom from guilt," from Old French inocence "innocence, purity, chastity" (12c.), from Latin innocentia, from innocens "harmless, blameless" (see innocent). Meaning "lacking in guile or artifice" is from late 14c.
innocense (n.) Look up innocense at
alternative spelling of innocence.
innocent (adj.) Look up innocent at
mid-14c., "doing no evil, free from sin or guilt," from Old French inocent "harmless; not guilty; pure" (11c.), from Latin innocentem (nominative innocens) "not guilty, harmless, blameless," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + nocentem (nominative nocens), present participle of nocere "to harm" (see noxious). Meaning "free from guilt of a specific crime or charge" is from late 14c. The earliest use was as a noun, "person who is innocent of sin or evil" (c. 1200). The Holy Innocents (early 14c.) were the young children slain by Herod after the birth of Jesus (Matt. ii:16).
innocently (adv.) Look up innocently at
c. 1400, from innocent (adj.) + -ly (2).
innocuous (adj.) Look up innocuous at
1590s, from Latin innocuus "harmless," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + nocuus "hurtful," from root of nocere "to injure, harm," from *nok-s-, suffixed form of PIE root *nek- (1) "death" (see necro-). Related: Innocuously; innocuousness.
innovate (v.) Look up innovate at
1540s, "introduce as new," from Latin innovatus, past participle of innovare "to renew, restore; to change," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + novus "new" (see new). Meaning "make changes in something established" is from 1590s. Related: Innovated; innovating.
innovation (n.) Look up innovation at
mid-15c., "restoration, renewal," from Latin innovationem (nominative innovatio), noun of action from past participle stem of innovare (see innovate).