innervate (v.) Look up innervate at
1870, from in- (2) "in" + Latin nervus (see nerve) + -ate. Probably rather a back-formation from innervation (1832). Related: Innervated. Innervation in psychology is from 1880.
innie (n.) Look up innie at
in reference to navels, by 1972, from in (adv.) + -ie.
inning (n.) Look up inning at
Old English innung "a taking in, a putting in," gerundive of innian "get within, put or bring in," from inn (adv.) "in" (see in). Meaning "a team's turn in a game" first recorded 1735, usually plural in cricket, singular in baseball.
innkeeper (n.) Look up innkeeper at
1540s, from inn + keeper.
innocence (n.) Look up innocence at
mid-14c., "freedom from guilt," from Old French inocence "innocence, purity, chastity" (12c.), from Latin innocentia, from innocens "harmless, blameless" (see innocent). Meaning "lacking in guile or artifice" is from late 14c.
innocense (n.) Look up innocense at
alternative spelling of innocence.
innocent (adj.) Look up innocent at
mid-14c., "doing no evil, free from sin or guilt," from Old French inocent "harmless; not guilty; pure" (11c.), from Latin innocentem (nominative innocens) "not guilty, harmless, blameless," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + nocentem (nominative nocens), present participle of nocere "to harm" (see noxious). Meaning "free from guilt of a specific crime or charge" is from late 14c. The earliest use was as a noun, "person who is innocent of sin or evil" (c. 1200). The Holy Innocents (early 14c.) were the young children slain by Herod after the birth of Jesus (Matt. ii:16).
innocently (adv.) Look up innocently at
c. 1400, from innocent (adj.) + -ly (2).
innocuous (adj.) Look up innocuous at
1590s, from Latin innocuus "harmless," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + nocuus "hurtful," from root of nocere "to injure, harm," from *nok-s-, suffixed form of PIE root *nek- (1) "death" (see necro-). Related: Innocuously; innocuousness.
innovate (v.) Look up innovate at
1540s, "introduce as new," from Latin innovatus, past participle of innovare "to renew, restore; to change," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + novus "new" (see new). Meaning "make changes in something established" is from 1590s. Related: Innovated; innovating.
innovation (n.) Look up innovation at
mid-15c., "restoration, renewal," from Latin innovationem (nominative innovatio), noun of action from past participle stem of innovare (see innovate).
innovative (adj.) Look up innovative at
1806 (with an isolated use from c. 1600), from innovate + -ive. Related: Innovatively; innovativeness.
innovator (n.) Look up innovator at
1590s, from Late Latin innovator, agent noun from innovare (see innovate).
innuendo (n.) Look up innuendo at
1670s, "oblique hint, indiscreet suggestion," usually a deprecatory one, from Latin innuendo "by meaning, pointing to," literally "giving a nod to," ablative of gerund of innuere "to mean, signify," literally "to nod to," from in- "at" + nuere "to nod" (see numinous). Originally a legal phrase (1560s) from Medieval Latin, with the sense of "to wit." It often introduced the derogatory meaning alleged in libel cases, which influenced its broader meaning. As a verb, from 1706.
Innuit Look up Innuit at
1765, from Inupiaq Eskimo inuit "people," plural of inuk "man, person."
innumerable (adj.) Look up innumerable at
mid-14c., from Latin innumerabilis "countless, immeasurable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + numerabilis "able to be numbered," from numerare "to count, number," from numerus "a number" (see number (n.)).
inobservant (adj.) Look up inobservant at
1660s, from Latin inobservantem (nominative inobservans) "inattentive, negligent," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + observans (see observance).
inoculate (v.) Look up inoculate at
mid-15c., "implant a bud into a plant," from Latin inoculatus, past participle of inoculare "graft in, implant," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + oculus "bud," originally "eye" (see eye (n.)). Meaning "implant germs of a disease to produce immunity" first recorded (in inoculation) 1714, originally in reference to smallpox. After 1799, often used in sense of "to vaccine inoculate." Related: Inoculated; inoculating.
inoculation (n.) Look up inoculation at
mid-15c. in horticulture; 1714 in pathology, from Latin inoculationem (nominative inoculatio) "an engrafting, budding," noun of action from past participle stem of inoculare (see inoculate).
inoffensive (adj.) Look up inoffensive at
1590s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + offensive. Related: Inoffensively; inoffensiveness.
inoperable (adj.) Look up inoperable at
1856, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + operable.
inoperative (adj.) Look up inoperative at
1630s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + operative.
inopportune (adj.) Look up inopportune at
1530s, from Late Latin inopportunus "unfitting," from in- "not" + opportunus (see opportune). A rare word before 19c. Related: Inopportunely.
inordinate (adj.) Look up inordinate at
late 14c., "not ordered, lacking order or regularity," from Latin inordinatus "unordered, not arranged," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + ordinatus, past participle of ordinare "to set in order" (see order). Sense of "immoderate, excessive" is from notion of "not kept within orderly limits." Related: Inordinately; inordinateness.
inorganic (adj.) Look up inorganic at
1794, "without organized organic structure," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + organic. Sense of "not arriving by natural growth" recorded from 1862.
inpatient Look up inpatient at
1760 (n.); 1959 (adj.), from in + patient.
input (n.) Look up input at
1793, "a sum (of cash) put in," from in + put. Computing sense of "data fed into a machine" is from 1948; the verb in the computing sense is attested from 1946. There was a Middle English verb input (late 14c.) meaning "to put in, place, set," but it died out long before this.
inquest (n.) Look up inquest at
late 13c., an-queste "legal or judicial inquiry," from Old French enqueste "inquiry," from Vulgar Latin *inquaestia (source also of Italian inchiesta), from fem. past participle of Vulgar Latin *inquirere "inquire" (see inquire).
inquire (v.) Look up inquire at
late 13c., from Old French enquerre "ask, inquire about" (Modern French enquérir), from Vulgar Latin *inquaerere, from Latin in- "into" (see in- (2)) + quaerere "ask, seek" (see query (v.)). Respelled 14c. on Latin model, but half-Latinized enquire still persists. Related: Inquired; inquiring; inquiringly.
inquirer (n.) Look up inquirer at
1560s, "one who inquires," agent noun from inquire.
inquiry (n.) Look up inquiry at
mid-15c., enquery, from enquere (see inquire). Respelled from mid-16c. to conform to Latin.
inquisition (n.) Look up inquisition at
late 14c., "judicial investigation, act or process of inquiring," from Old French inquisicion "inquiry, investigation" (12c.), from Latin inquisitionem (nominative inquisitio) "a searching into, legal examination," noun of action from past participle stem of inquirere (see inquire).

In Church history, inquisitors were appointed from 382 C.E. to root out heretics, and the Inquisition refers to the ecclesiastical court (Congregation of the Holy Office) appointed 13c. by Innocent III to suppress heresy. It never operated in Britain. The capital letter form appeared in English only after c. 1500, and usually refers to the office's reorganization 1478-1483 in Spain as what is commonly called the Spanish Inquisition.
inquisitive (adj.) Look up inquisitive at
late 14c., from Old French inquisitif, from Late Latin inquisitivus "making inquiry," from Latin inquisit-, past participle stem of inquirere (see inquire).
An housbonde shal nat been Inquisityf of goddes pryuetee nor of his wyf. [Chaucer, "Miller's Prologue"]
Related: Inquisitively; inquisitiveness.
inquisitor (n.) Look up inquisitor at
c. 1400, from Old French inquisiteur (c. 1400) or directly from Latin inquisitor "searcher, examiner," in law, "an investigator, collector of evidence," agent noun from Latin inquirere (see inquire). As the title of an officer of the Inquisition, from 1540s. Related: Inquisitorial.
inro Look up inro at
1610s, from Japanese, from Chinese yin "seal" + lung "basket."
inroad (n.) Look up inroad at
1540s, "hostile incursion, raid, foray," from in- (2) "in;" second element is road in the obsolete sense of "riding;" related to raid. Related: Inroads.
insalubrious (adj.) Look up insalubrious at
1630s, from Latin insalubris "unhealthy, unwholesome," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + salubris (see salubrious).
insane (adj.) Look up insane at
1550s, from Latin insanus "mad, insane; outrageous, excessive, extravagant," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + sanus "well, healthy, sane" (see sane). Originally only of persons; of actions, from 1842. Compare lunatic; and Italian pazzo "insane," originally a euphemism, from Latin patiens "suffering." German verrückt, literally past participle of verrücken "to displace," "applied to the brain as to a clock that is 'out of order' " [Buck]. The noun meaning "insane person" is attested from 1786.
insanity (n.) Look up insanity at
1580s, "state of being insane," from Latin insanitatem (nominative insanitas) "unhealthfulness," noun of quality from insanus (see insane). Meaning "extreme folly" is from 1844.
insatiability (n.) Look up insatiability at
1650s, from Late Latin insatiabilitas, from insatiabilis (see insatiable).
insatiable (adj.) Look up insatiable at
early 15c., insaciable, from Old French insaciable (13c.), or directly from Late Latin insatiabilis "not to be satisfied," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + satiabilis, from satiare (see satiate). Related: Insatiably.
insatiate (adj.) Look up insatiate at
mid-15c., insaciate, from Latin insatiatus "unsatisfied," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + satiatus, past participle of satiare (see satiate).
inscribe (v.) Look up inscribe at
1550s (form inscriven is from late 14c.), from Latin inscribere "to write in or on," (see inscription). Meaning "to dedicate (by means of an inscription)" is from 1640s. Related: Inscribed; inscribing.
inscription (n.) Look up inscription at
late 14c., from Latin inscriptionem (nominative inscriptio) "a writing upon, inscription," noun of action from past participle stem of inscribere "inscribe, to write on or in anything," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + scribere "to write" (see script (n.)).
inscrutability (n.) Look up inscrutability at
1650s, from inscrutable + -ity.
inscrutable (adj.) Look up inscrutable at
c. 1500, from Late Latin inscrutabilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + scrutabilis, from scrutari "examine, ransack" (see scrutiny). Related: Inscrutably.
insect (n.) Look up insect at
c. 1600, from Latin (animal) insectum "(animal) with a notched or divided body," literally "cut into," from neuter past participle of insectare "to cut into, to cut up," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + secare "to cut" (see section (n.)). Pliny's loan-translation of Greek entomon "insect" (see entomology), which was Aristotle's term for this class of life, in reference to their "notched" bodies.

First in English in 1601 in Holland's translation of Pliny. Translations of Aristotle's term also form the usual word for "insect" in Welsh (trychfil, from trychu "cut" + mil "animal"), Serbo-Croatian (zareznik, from rezati "cut"), Russian (nasekomoe, from sekat "cut"), etc.
insecticide (n.) Look up insecticide at
"substance which kills insects," 1865, from insect + -cide.
insectivore (n.) Look up insectivore at
1863, from French insectivore (1817), from Latin insectivorus, from comb. form of insectum (see insect) + vorare "devour, swallow" (see voracity).
insectivorous (adj.) Look up insectivorous at
1610s; see insect + -vorous.