informational (adj.) Look up informational at
1810, from information + -al (1).
informative (adj.) Look up informative at
1650s, "instructive, didactic," from Medieval Latin informativus, from Latin informatus, past participle of informare "to train, instruct, educate" (see inform). In Middle English, the same word meant "formative, shaping, plastic, having power to form or animate" (late 14c.). Related: Informatively.
informed (adj.) Look up informed at
1540s, "current in information," past-participle adjective from inform (v.). In 16c.-17c. it also could mean "unformed, formless," from in- (1) "not, opposite of," and was used in astronomy of stars that did not form part of the visual pattern of a constellation but were within it.
informer (n.) Look up informer at
late 14c., enfourmer "instructor, one who teaches or gives advice," from inform (Middle English enfourmen) and also from Old French enformeor. Meaning "one who communicates information" is mid-15c.; sense of "one who gives information against another" (especially in reference to law-breaking) is c. 1500.
infortunate (adj.) Look up infortunate at
"unlucky, luckless," late 14c., from Latin infortunatus, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + fortunatus "prospered, prosperous; lucky, happy" (see fortunate (adj.)). Also used in medieval astrology in reference to the supposed malevolent influence of certain positions or combinations of planets. The word lies beneath the "obsolete" headstone in OED. Related: infortune (n.); infortunacy.
infotainment (n.) Look up infotainment at
1983, from info- + entertainment.
infra (adv.) Look up infra at
"under, below, further on," from Latin infra "below, under, beneath" (see infra-). A Latin word sometimes encountered in footnotes.
infra dig. Look up infra dig. at
"beneath one's dignity, unbecoming to one's position in society," 1824, colloquial abbreviation of Latin infra dignitatem "beneath the dignity of." See infra- + dignity.
infra- Look up infra- at
word-forming element meaning "below, beneath," from Latin infra (adverb and preposition) "below, underneath, on the under side, beneath," also "later than; smaller than; inferior to," related to infernus "low, below," from PIE *ndher "under" (cognates: Sanskrit adnah "below," Old English under "under, among;" see under). Modern popular use of it dates from the 1920s, as an opposite to super-, often in science fiction. "This use of infra- is scarcely a Latin one" [OED].
infra-red (adj.) Look up infra-red at
also infrared, 1873, "below the red" (in the spectrum), from infra- + red (adj.1). As a noun, also from 1873.
infraction (n.) Look up infraction at
mid-15c., "the breaking of an agreement," from Old French infraction (13c.) and directly from Latin infractionem (nominative infractio) "a breaking, weakening," noun of action from past participle stem of infringere "to damage, break off, break, bruise," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + frangere "to break" (see fraction). The verb infract (1560s) is archaic.
infralapsarian (adj.) Look up infralapsarian at
1731, from infra- + Latin lapsus "a fall" (see lapse (n.)) + ending from unitarian, etc.

Of or pertaining to the Calvinist doctrine that god's election of some to everlasting life was consequent to his decree to allow the Fall of man, and was thus a remedial measure. Contrasted to supralapsarian, in reference to the belief that the decision to create some men to be damned was His first decree. In the sublapsarian view, He did not decree, but foresaw, the Fall; the decree to elect those who would believe also comes after the decree to allow the Fall, but the decree to provide salvation for man comes immediately after the decree to elect.
infrasonic (adj.) Look up infrasonic at
1927, on the model of supersonic, etc., from infra- + sonic. Or perhaps modeled on French infra-sonore.
infrastructure (n.) Look up infrastructure at
1887, from French infrastructure (1875); see infra- + structure (n.). The installations that form the basis for any operation or system. Originally in a military sense.
infrequency (n.) Look up infrequency at
1670s, fact of being infrequent," from Latin infrequentia "a small number, thinness, scantiness," noun of quality from infrequentem (nominative infrequens) "occurring seldom, unusual; not crowded, absent," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + frequens (see frequent). Older in this sense is infrequence (1640s). Earlier infrequency was used in a now-obsolete sense of "state of being unfrequented" (c. 1600).
infrequent (adj.) Look up infrequent at
1530s, "little used" (now obsolete); 1610s, "not occurring often," from Latin infrequentem (nominative infrequens) "occurring seldom, unusual; not crowded, absent," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + frequens "repeated, regular, constant, often" (see frequent). Related: Infrequently.
infrigidation (n.) Look up infrigidation at
early 15c., in medicine, "a making cold, cooling; a state of coolness," from Late Latin infrigidationem (nominative infrigidatio) "a cooling," noun of action from past participle stem of infrigidare "to make cold," from in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + frigidare, from frigidus "cold" (see frigid). A verb infrigidate is attested from 1540s.
infringe (v.) Look up infringe at
mid-15c., enfrangen, "to violate," from Latin infringere "to damage, break off, break, bruise," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + frangere "to break" (see fraction). Meaning "encroach" first recorded c. 1760. Related: Infringed; infringing.
infringement (n.) Look up infringement at
"a break or breach" (of a contract, right, etc.), from infringe + -ment. Earlier in a now-obsolete sense of "contradiction" (1590s).
infundibulum (n.) Look up infundibulum at
1799, "funnel-shaped organ or body part," from a Modern Latin use of Latin infundibulum "a funnel," from infundere "to pour into" (see infuse) + -bulum, suffix forming names of instruments. In some cases a loan-translation into Latin of Greek khoane "funnel." Related: Infundibular.
infuriate (v.) Look up infuriate at
1660s, from Italian infuriato, from Medieval Latin infuriatus, past participle of infuriare "to madden, enrage," from Latin in furia "in a fury," from ablative of furia (see fury). Also from 1660s as an adjective in English, but this use is rare. Related: Infuriated; infuriating; infuriation.
infuriating (adj.) Look up infuriating at
1885, present participle adjective from infuriate (v.). Related: Infuriatingly.
infuse (v.) Look up infuse at
early 15c., "to pour in, introduce, soak (something in liquid)," from Latin infusus, past participle of infundere "to pour into, pour out; press in, crowd in; mix, mingle," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + fundere "pour, spread" (see found (v.2)). Related: Infused; infusing; infusory; infusorial.
infusion (n.) Look up infusion at
c. 1400, "a liquid extract (obtained by soaking in water);" early 15c., "a pouring in; that which is poured in," from Old French infusion "injection" (13c.) or directly from Latin infusionem (nominative infusio) "a pouring in, a watering," noun of action from past participle stem of infundere "to pour into" (see infuse).
ingenious (adj.) Look up ingenious at
early 15c., "intellectual, talented," from Middle French ingénieux "clever, ingenious" (Old French engeignos), from Latin ingeniosus "of good natural capacity, full of intellect, clever, gifted with genius," from ingenium "innate qualities, ability; inborn character," literally "that which is inborn," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gignere, from PIE *gen(e)-yo-, suffixed form of root *gen- "to give birth, beget, produce" (see genus).

Sense of "skillful, crafty, clever at contrivance" first recorded 1540s; earlier in this sense was Middle English enginous (mid-14c.), from Old French engeignos. Middle English also had engineful "skillful (in war)" (c. 1300). By a direct path, Latin ingenium produced Middle English ingeny "intellectual capacity, cleverness" (early 15c.), but this is obsolete. Compare engine. Related: Ingeniously; ingeniousness.
ingenue (n.) Look up ingenue at
"young woman who displays innocent candor or simplicity," 1848, from French ingénue "artless girl," especially as a character on the stage, noun use of fem. of ingénu "ingenuous, artless, simple" (13c.), from Latin ingenuus "frank, upright, candid," originally "free-born" (see ingenuous). Italicized in English into 20c.
ingenuity (n.) Look up ingenuity at
1590s, "honor, nobility," from Middle French ingénuité "quality of freedom by birth" and directly from Latin ingenuitatem (nominative ingenuitas) "condition of a free-born man," figuratively "frankness, generosity, noble-mindedness," from ingenuus "frank, candid, noble" (see ingenuous).

Etymologically, this word belongs to ingenuous, but in 17c. ingenious "intellectual, talented" and ingenuous so often were confused (even by Shakespeare) that ingenuity in English has come to mean only "capacity for invention or construction." That sense of this word is first attested 1640s; the word for it in Middle English was ingeniosity (the native word is craftiness). French ingénuité has evolved through "natural and graceful freedom of manners" to "graceful simplicity" (compare ingenue); for the sense "ingeniousness," French uses ingénuosité.
ingenuous (adj.) Look up ingenuous at
1590s, "noble in nature, high-minded; honorably straightforward," from Latin ingenuus "with the virtues of freeborn people, of noble character, frank, upright, candid," originally "native, freeborn," literally "born in (a place)," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + PIE *gen(e)-wo-, suffixed form of root gene- "to give birth, beget, produce" (see genus). Sense of "artless, innocent" is 1670s, via evolution from "honorably open, straightforward," to "innocently frank." Related: Ingenuously; ingenuousness.
ingest (v.) Look up ingest at
1610s, "to take in as food," from Latin ingestus, past participle of ingerere "to throw in, pour in, heap upon," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + gerere "to carry" (see gest). Related: Ingested; ingesting.
ingestion (n.) Look up ingestion at
"action of ingesting," 1610s, from Late Latin ingestionem (nominative ingestio) "a pouring in," noun of action from past participle stem of ingerere "pour in" (see ingest).
ingle (n.1) Look up ingle at
"fireplace," c. 1500, from Scottish, usually said to be from Gaelic aingeal "fire, light" ("but there are difficulties" [OED]), a word of uncertain origin. The vogue for Scottish poetry in late 18c. introduced ingleside "fireside" (1750) and ingle-nook "corner by the fire" (1774) to literary English.
ingle (n.2) Look up ingle at
"boy favorite, catamite," 1590s, of uncertain origin.
inglorious (adj.) Look up inglorious at
"with bad fame, dishonorable," 1570s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + glorious. Latin ingloriosus meant "without fame, unhonored, inconspicuous, without trophies." The classical sense "without fame, obscure" is attested in the English word from 1590s but is marked "rare" in OED. Related: Ingloriously; ingloriousness.
ingot (n.) Look up ingot at
late 14c., "mold in which metal is cast," probably from in- (2) "in" + Old English goten, past participle of geotan "to pour" (see found (v.2)). Sense of "mass of cast metal" first attested early 15c.
ingraft (v.) Look up ingraft at
see engraft. Related: ingrafted; ingrafting.
ingrain (v.) Look up ingrain at
see engrain, or ingrained.
ingrained (adj.) Look up ingrained at
"deeply rooted," 1590s, literally "dyed with grain "cochineal," the red dyestuff (see engrain). Figuratively, "thoroughly imbued" (of habits, principles, prejudices, etc.) from 1851. In reference to dyed carpets, etc., it is attested from 1766, from the manufacturing phrase in (the) grain "in the raw material before manufacture."
ingrate (n.) Look up ingrate at
"ungrateful person," 1670s, from earlier adjective meaning "unfriendly," also "ungrateful, unthankful" (14c.), from Latin ingratus "unpleasant, disagreeable," also "ungrateful, unthankful," and "thankless, unprofitable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + gratus "pleasing, beloved, dear, agreeable" (see grace (n.)).
ingratiate (v.) Look up ingratiate at
1620s, possibly via 16c. Italian ingraziarsi "to bring (oneself) into favor," or an unrecorded Medieval Latin *ingratiatus, from Latin phrase in gratiam "for the favor of," from in "in" (see in- (2)) + gratia "favor, grace" (see grace (n.)). Related: Ingratiated; ingratiating.
ingratitude (n.) Look up ingratitude at
mid-14c., from Old French ingratitude "ungratefulness" (13c.) and directly from Late Latin ingratitudinem (nominative ingratitudo) "unthankfulness," noun of quality from Latin ingratus "ungrateful" (see ingrate).
ingrave (v.) Look up ingrave at
see engrave. Related: Ingraved; ingraving.
ingredient (n.) Look up ingredient at
early 15c., "something forming part of a mixture," from Latin ingredientem (nominative ingrediens) "that which enters into" (a compound, recipe, etc.), present participle of ingredi "go in, enter," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gradi "to step, go" (see grade (n.)).
ingress (n.) Look up ingress at
mid-15c., from Latin ingressus "an advance; walking; an entry," from ingress-, past participle stem of ingredi "to step into, enter," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gradi "to step, go" (see grade (n.)). The verb meaning "to enter, go in" sometimes said to be American English, but it is attested from early 14c.
ingrown (adj.) Look up ingrown at
also in-grown, 1660s, "native, innate," from in + grown. Of nails, "that has grown into the flesh," 1878 (in-growing in this sense is from 1859). Related: Ingrowth (1870).
inguinal (adj.) Look up inguinal at
1680s, from French inguinal (16c.) or directly from Latin inguinalis "of the groin," from inguen (genitive inguinis) "groin," from PIE *engw- "groin, internal organ" (cognates: Greek aden "gland"). Related: Inguinally.
ingurgitation (n.) Look up ingurgitation at
"immoderate eating and drinking," 1520s, from Late Latin ingurgitationem (nominative ingurgitatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin ingurgitare "plunge into, gorge," from in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + gurgitare "to engulf," from gurges "whirlpool, gorge" (see gurges).
Ingvaeonic (n.) Look up Ingvaeonic at
hypothetical ancestral North Sea Germanic language, 1933, from Latin Ingaeuones, name of a Germanic tribe in Tacitus, literally "people of Yngve," god, demigod, or eponymous ancestor.
inhabit (v.) Look up inhabit at
late 14c., from Old French enhabiter, enabiter "dwell in, live in, reside" (12c.), from Latin inhabitare "to dwell in," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + habitare "to dwell," frequentative of habere "hold, have" (see habit (n.)). Formerly also enhabit. Related: Inhabited; inhabiting.
inhabitable (adj.) Look up inhabitable at
1. "not habitable," late 14c., from Old French inhabitable (14c.), from Latin inhabitabilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + habitabilis (see habitable).

2. "capable of being inhabited" (the main modern sense), c. 1600, from inhabit + -able). In Late Latin, inhabitabilis also was used in a sense of "that can be inhabited." A word used in two opposite senses.
inhabitant (n.) Look up inhabitant at
"one who dwells in a place" (as distinguished from a visitor or transient), early 15c., from Anglo-French inhabitant, from Latin inhabitantem (nominative inhabitans), present participle of inhabitare "to dwell in" (see inhabit). Related: Inhabitants. As an adjective, also from early 15c.