insolence (n.)
late 14c., from Latin insolentia "unusualness, haughtiness, arrogance," from insolentem (see insolent).
insolent (adj.)
late 14c., "contemptuous, arrogant, haughty," from Latin insolentem (nominative insolens) "arrogant, immoderate," literally "unusual," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + solentem, present participle of solere "be accustomed," which possibly is related to sodalis "close companion," and to suescere "become used to." Meaning "contemptuous of rightful authority" is from 1670s. Related: Insolently.
insolubility (n.)
1610s, from Late Latin insolubilitas, from Latin insolubilis (see insoluble).
insoluble (adj.)
late 14c., "unable to be loosened," from Latin insolubilis "that cannot be loosened," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + solubilis (see soluble). Figurative use, of problems, etc., is from late 14c.
It was a tacit conviction of the learned during the Middle Ages that no such thing as an insoluble question existed. There might be matters that presented serious difficulties, but if you could lay them before the right man -- some Arab in Spain, for instance, omniscient by reason of studies into the details of which it was better not to inquire -- he would give you a conclusive answer. The real trouble was only to find your man. [Gertrude Bell, "The Desert and the Sown," 1907]
insolvency (n.)
1660s; see insolvent + -cy. Insolvence (1793) is rare.
insolvent (adj.)
1590s, "unable to pay one's debts," from in- (1) "not" + Latin solventem "paying" (see solvent). Originally of one who was not a trader; only traders could become bankrupt.
insomnia (n.)
1620s, insomnie, from Latin insomnia "want of sleep," from insomnis "sleepless," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + somnus "sleep" (see Somnus). The modern form is from 1758.
insomniac
1877 (adj.); 1879 (n.), from insomnia.
insomuch
late 14c. as a phrase; tending to be run together from 16c.
insouciance (n.)
1799, from French insouciant "carelessness, thoughtlessness, heedlessness," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + se soucier "to care," from Latin sollicitare "to agitate" (see solicit).
insouciant (adj.)
1829, from French insouciant "careless, thoughtless, heedless," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + souciant "caring," present participle of soucier "to care," from Latin sollicitare "to agitate" (see solicit). Related: Insouciantly.
inspect (v.)
1620s, from Latin inspectus, past participle of inspicere "to look into" (see inspection). Related: Inspected; inspecting.
inspection (n.)
late 14c., from Old French inspeccion "inspection, examination" (13c.), from Latin inspectionem (nominative inspectio) "a looking into," noun of action from past participle stem of inspicere "look into, inspect, examine," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + specere "to look" (see scope (n.1)).
inspector (n.)
c.1600, "overseer, superintendent," from Latin inspector, agent noun from past participle stem of inspicere (see inspection). As a police ranking between sergeant and superintendent, it dates from 1840. Related: Inspectorial. Of the 18c. feminine formations, inspectrix (1715) is earlier than inspectress (1785).
inspiration (n.)
c.1300, "immediate influence of God or a god," especially that under which the holy books were written, from Old French inspiracion "inhaling, breathing in; inspiration," from Late Latin inspirationem (nominative inspiratio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin inspirare "inspire, inflame, blow into," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + spirare "to breathe" (see spirit). Literal sense "act of inhaling" attested in English from 1560s. Meaning "one who inspires others" is attested by 1867.
inspirational (adj.)
1839, "influenced by inspiration;" 1884, "tending to inspire;" see inspiration + -al (1).
inspire (v.)
mid-14c., enspiren, "to fill (the mind, heart, etc., with grace, etc.);" also "to prompt or induce (someone to do something)," from Old French enspirer (13c.), from Latin inspirare "inflame; blow into" (see inspiration), a loan-translation of Greek pnein in the Bible. General sense of "influence or animate with an idea or purpose" is from late 14c. Also sometimes used in literal sense in Middle English Related: Inspired; inspires; inspiring.
inspirer (n.)
c.1500, agent noun from inspire.
inspissate (v.)
1620s, from Late Latin inspissatus, past participle of inspissare, from in- + spissare "to thicken," related to spissus "thick" (see spissitude). Related: Inspissated; inspissating.
instability (n.)
early 15c., from Middle French instabilite "inconstancy," from Latin instabilitatem (nominative instabilitas) "unsteadiness," from instabilis "unsteady," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + stabilis (see stable (2)).
instable (adj.)
c.1400, from Latin instabilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + stabilis (see stable). Now mostly replaced by unstable.
install (v.)
early 15c., "place in (ecclesiastical) office by seating in an official stall," from Medieval Latin installare, from Latin in- "in" (see in- (2)) + Medieval Latin stallum "stall," from a Germanic source (compare Old High German stal "standing place;" see stall (n.1)). Related: Installed; installing.
installation (n.)
"action of installing," mid-15c., of church offices or other positions, from Medieval Latin installationem (nominative installatio), noun of action from past participle stem of installare (see install). Of machinery, etc., "act of setting up," from 1882.
installment (n.)
"act of installing," 1580s, from install + -ment. Meaning "arrangement of payment by fixed portions at fixed times" is from 1732, alteration of Anglo-French estaler "fix payments," from Old French estal "fixed position, place," from a Germanic source akin to Old High German stal "standing place" (see stall (n.1)). Figurative sense of "part of a whole produced in advance of the rest" is from 1823.
Instamatic
1962, proprietary name (reg. Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.) for a type of self-loading camera, from instant + automatic.
instance (n.)
mid-14c., "urgency," from Old French instance "eagerness, anxiety, solicitation" (13c.), from Latin instantia "presence, effort intention; earnestness, urgency," literally "a standing near," from instans (see instant). In Scholastic logic, "a fact or example" (early 15c.), from Medieval Latin instantia, used to translate Greek enstasis. This led to use in phrase for instance "as an example" (1650s), and the noun phrase To give (someone) a for instance (1953, American English).
instant (n.)
late 14c., "infinitely short space of time," from Old French instant (adj.) "assiduous, at hand," from Medieval Latin instantem (nominative instans), in classical Latin "present, pressing, urgent," literally "standing near," present participle of instare "to urge, to stand near, be present (to urge one's case)," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand" (see stet). Elliptical use of the French adjective as a noun.
instant (adj.)
mid-15c., "present, urgent," from Old French instant (14c.), from Latin instantem (nominative instans) "pressing, urgent," literally "standing near" (see instant (n.)). Meaning "now, present" is from 1540s, and led to the use of the word in dating of correspondence, in reference to the current month, often abbreviated inst. and persisting at least into the mid-19c. Thus 16th inst. means "sixteenth of the current month." Sense of "immediately" is from 1590s. Of foods, by 1912. Televised sports instant replay attested by 1965. Instant messaging attested by 1994.
instantaneous (adj.)
1640s (implied in instantaneously), formed in English from Medieval Latin *instantaneus, from instantem (see instant (n.)) on model of spontaneous. Related: Instantaneousness.
instantiate (v.)
1946, from instant (Latin instantia) + -ate. Related: Instantiated; instantiation.
instantly (adv.)
late 15c., "urgently, persistently," from instant (adj.) + -ly (2). Meaning "immediately" is 1550s.
instate (v.)
"to put someone in a certain state or condition," c.1600, from in + state (n.1). Related: Instated; instating.
instatement (n.)
1670s, from instate + -ment.
instead (adv.)
1590s, from Middle English ine stede (early 13c.; see stead); loan-translation of Latin in loco (French en lieu de). Still often two words until c.1640.
instep (n.)
mid-15c., apparently from in + step, "though this hardly makes sense" [Weekley]. An Old English word for "instep" was fotwelm. Middle English also had a verb instep "to track, trace" (c.1400).
instigate (v.)
1540s, back-formation from instigation or else from Latin instigatus, past participle of instigare "to urge on, incite" (see instigation). Related: Instigated; instigates; instigating.
instigation (n.)
early 15c., from Middle French instigation and directly from Latin instigationem (nominative instigatio), noun of action from past participle stem of instigare "urge on, incite," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + *stigare, a root meaning "to prick," from PIE root *steig- "to prick, stick, pierce" (see stick (v.)).
instigator (n.)
1590s, from Latin instigator, agent noun from instigare (see instigation). Fem. formation instigatrix is recorded from 1610s.
instill (v.)
also instil, early 15c., "to introduce (liquid, feelings, etc.) little by little," from Latin instillare "put in by drops, to drop, trickle," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + stilla "a drop" (see distill). Related: Instilled; instilling.
instillation (n.)
1540s, from Latin instillationem (nominative instillatio) "a dropping in," noun of action from past participle stem of instillare (see instill).
instinct (n.)
early 15c., "a prompting," from Latin instinctus "instigation, impulse," noun use of past participle of instinguere "to incite, impel," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + stinguere "prick, goad," from PIE *steig- "to prick, stick, pierce" (see stick (v.)). Meaning "animal faculty of intuitive perception" is from mid-15c., from notion of "natural prompting." Sense of "innate tendency" is first recorded 1560s.
instinctive (adj.)
1610s (implied in instinctively), from Latin instinct-, past participle stem of instinguere (see instinct) + -ive. Related: Instinctiveness.
instinctual (adj.)
1841, from instinct (Latin instinctus) + -al (1). Related: Instinctually.
institute (v.)
early 14c., "to establish in office, appoint," from Latin institutus, past participle of instituere "to set up," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + statuere "establish, to cause to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand," with derivatives meaning "place or thing that is standing" (see stet). General sense of "set up, found, introduce" first attested late 15c. Related: Instituted; instituting.
institute (n.)
1510s, "purpose, design," from institute (v.). From 1540s as "an established law." The sense of "organization, society" is from 1828, borrowed from French Institut national des Sciences et des Arts, established 1795 to replace the royal academies, from Latin institutum, neuter past participle of instituere.
institution (n.)
c.1400, "action of establishing or founding (a system of government, a religious order, etc.)," from Old French institucion "foundation; thing established," from Latin institutionem (nominative institutio) "disposition, arrangement; instruction, education," noun of state from institutus (see institute). Meaning "established law or practice" is from 1550s. Meaning "establishment or organization for the promotion of some charity" is from 1707.
institutional (adj.)
1610s, from institution + -al (1).
institutionalization (n.)
1911, from institutionalize + -ation.
institutionalize (v.)
"to put into institutional life" (usually deprecatory), 1905; see institution. Related: Institutionalized. Earlier (1865) it meant "to make into an institution."
instruct (v.)
early 15c., from Latin instructus, past participle of instruere "arrange, inform, teach," literally "to build, erect," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + struere "to pile, build" (see structure (n.)). Related: Instructed; instructing.