inhalation (n.) Look up inhalation at
1620s, noun of action from past participle stem of Latin inhalare (see inhale).
inhale (v.) Look up inhale at
1725, "to breathe in, draw air into the lungs," a back-formation from inhalation or else from French inhaler in this sense; used as a word to be the opposite of exhale. In form from Latin inhalare, but this meant "breathe upon," from in- "on, upon" (see in- (2)) + halare "breathe." Slang sense of "eat rapidly" is recorded from 1924. As a noun, "act of inhaling," by 1934. Related: Inhaled; inhaling.
inhance (v.) Look up inhance at
obsolete form of enhance. Related: Inhancement.
inharmonious (adj.) Look up inharmonious at
1711, from in- (1) "not" + harmonious. Related: Inharmoniously.
inhere (v.) Look up inhere at
1580s, "to exist or have being" (in something), "belong to the intrinsic nature of," from Latin inhaerere "to stick in or to," also figurative (see inherent). Related: Inhered; inhering.
inherence (n.) Look up inherence at
1570s, from Middle French inhérence (15c.) or directly from Medieval Latin inhaerentia, from inhaerentem (see inherent). Related: Inherency (c. 1600).
inherent (adj.) Look up inherent at
1570s, from Latin inhaerentem (nominative inhaerens), present participle of inhaerere "be closely connected with, be inherent," literally "adhere to, cling to," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + haerere "to stick" (see hesitation). Related: Inherently.
inherit (v.) Look up inherit at
c. 1300, "to make (someone) an heir" (a sense now obsolete), from Old French enheriter "make heir, attribute the right of inheretance to, appoint as heir," from Late Latin inhereditare "to appoint as heir," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + Latin hereditare "to inherit," from heres (genitive heredis) "heir" (see heredity).

Sense of "receive inheritance, get by succession as representative of the former possessor" is attested from mid-14c.; in Medieval Latin inhereditare also had taken on a sense "put in possession." Original sense is retained in disinherit. Related: Inherited; inheriting; inheritable.
inheritance (n.) Look up inheritance at
late 14c., enheritaunce "fact of receiving by hereditary succession;" early 15c. as "that which is or may be inherited," from Anglo-French and Old French enheritaunce, from Old French enheriter "make heir, appoint as heir" (see inherit). Heritance "act of inheriting" is from mid-15c.
inhesion (n.) Look up inhesion at
1630s, from Late Latin inhaesionem (nominative inhaesio) "a hanging or adhering to," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin inhaerere "to stick in or into" (see inherent).
inhibit (v.) Look up inhibit at
early 15c., "to forbid, prohibit," back-formation from inhibition or else from Latin inhibitus, past participle of inhibere "to hold in, hold back, keep back." Psychological sense (1876) is from earlier, softened meaning of "restrain, check, hinder" (1530s). Related: Inhibited; inhibiting.
inhibition (n.) Look up inhibition at
late 14c., "formal prohibition; interdiction of legal proceedings by authority;" also, the document setting forth such a prohibition, from Old French inibicion and directly from Latin inhibitionem (nominative inhibitio) "a restraining," from past participle stem of inhibere "to hold in, hold back, keep back," from in- "in, on" (see in- (2)) + habere "to hold" (see habit (n.)). Psychological sense of "involuntary check on an expression of an impulse" is from 1876.
inhibitor (n.) Look up inhibitor at
1868 as a Scottish legal term; 1914 in biochemistry; agent noun in Latin form from inhibit. Form inhibiter is attested from 1610s.
inhibitory (adj.) Look up inhibitory at
late 15c., from Medieval Latin inhibitorius "inhibitory," from inhibit-, past participle stem of Latin inhibere "to hold in, keep back" (see inhibition).
inhospitable (adj.) Look up inhospitable at
1560s, from Middle French inhospitable (15c.), from Medieval Latin inhospitabilis (equivalent of Latin inhospitalis), from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Medieval Latin hospitabilis (see hospitable).
inhuman (adj.) Look up inhuman at
mid-15c., "cruel," from Latin inhumanus "inhuman, savage, cruel, rude, barbarous," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + humanus "human" (see human). Spelled inhumane till 18c. (see humane).
inhumane (adj.) Look up inhumane at
originally a variant spelling and pronunciation of inhuman "cruel, hard-hearted;" it appears to have died out 17c. but returned c. 1822, probably a reformation as a negative of humane (q.v.), with its accent.
inhumanity (n.) Look up inhumanity at
"barbarous cruelty," late 15c., from French inhumanité (14c.) or directly from Latin inhumanitatem (nominative inhumanitas) "inhuman conduct, savageness; incivility, rudeness," noun of quality from inhumanus "inhuman, savage, cruel" (see inhuman).
And Man, whose heav'n-erected face
The smiles of love adorn,--
Man's inhumanity to man
Makes countless thousands mourn!
[Robert Burns, "Man was Made to Mourn," 1784]
inhumation (n.) Look up inhumation at
"act of burying in the ground" (as opposed to cremation), 1630s, noun of action from inhume "to bury" (see inhume).
inhume (v.) Look up inhume at
"bury, lay in the grave," c. 1600, from Latin inhumare "to bury," literally "to put into the ground," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + humus "earth, soil" (see humus). Related: Inhumed; inhuming.
Inigo Look up Inigo at
masc. proper name, from Spanish Iñigo, probably from Latin Ignatius.
inimical (adj.) Look up inimical at
1640s, from Late Latin inimicalis "hostile," from Latin inimicus "unfriendly; an enemy" (see enemy).
Inimical expresses both feeling and action, generally in private affairs. Hostile also expresses both feeling and action, but applies especially to public affairs: where it applies to private matters, it expresses either strong or conspicuous action or feeling, or both, or all. [Century Dictionary, 1902]
inimitability (n.) Look up inimitability at
1711, from inimitable + -ity. Perhaps from or modeled on French inimitabilité.
inimitable (adj.) Look up inimitable at
late 15c., from Latin inimitabilis "that cannot be imitated," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + imitabilis "imitable" (see imitable). Related: Inimitably.
iniquitous (adj.) Look up iniquitous at
"unjust wicked," 1726, from iniquity + -ous. Related: Iniquitously; iniquitousness.
iniquity (n.) Look up iniquity at
c. 1300, "hostility, malevolence; a hostile action," from Old French iniquité "wickedness, unfavorable situation," from Latin iniquitatem (nominative iniquitas) "unequalness, unevenness, injustice," noun of quality from iniquus "unjust, unequal; slanting, steep," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + aequus "just, equal" (see equal (adj.)). For vowel change, see acquisition. Meaning "evil, wickedness" is from late 14c.
initial (adj.) Look up initial at
1520s, "of or pertaining to a beginning," from Middle French initial or directly from Latin initialis "initial, incipient," from initium "a beginning, an entrance," from past participle stem of inire "to go into, enter upon, begin," from in- "into, in" (see in- (2)) + ire "to go" (see ion).
initial (n.) Look up initial at
"initial letter of a name or surname," 1620s, from initial (adj.) in a specialized sense "standing at the beginning of a word, sentence, etc."
initial (v.) Look up initial at
"to mark or sign with initials," 1864, American English, from initial (n.). Related: Initialed; initialing.
initialism (n.) Look up initialism at
word formed from the first letters of other words or a phrase, 1957, from initial (n.) + -ism. The distinction from acronym is not universally agreed-upon; in general, words such as NATO, where the letters form a word, are regarded as acronyms, those such as FBI, where the letters sound as letters, are initialisms. The use of acronym in entries in this dictionary that are technically initialisms is a deliberate error, because many people only know to search for all such words under "acronym."
initialize (v.) Look up initialize at
1833, "to designate by initials," from initial + -ize. Meaning "to make ready for operation" is from 1957. Related: Initialized; initializing.
initiate (n.) Look up initiate at
"one who has been initiated," 1811, from past participle adjective initiate (c. 1600); see initiate (v.).
initiate (v.) Look up initiate at
c. 1600, "introduce to some practice or system," also "begin, set going," from Latin initiatus, past participle of initiare "to begin, originate," from initium "beginning" (see initial). In some senses a back-formation from initiation. Related: Initiated; initiates; initiating; initiator.
initiation (n.) Look up initiation at
1580s, from Middle French initiation or directly from Latin initiationem (nominative initiatio) "participation in secret rites," noun of action from past participle stem of initiare "originate, initiate," from initium (see initial).
initiative (n.) Look up initiative at
1793, "that which begins," also "power of initiating," from French initiative (1560s), from Latin initiatus (see initiation). First attested in English in writings of William Godwin. Phrase take the initiative recorded by 1844.
initiatory (adj.) Look up initiatory at
1610s, from Latin initiat-, stem of initiare (see initiate (v.)) + -ory.
inject (v.) Look up inject at
c. 1600, from Latin iniectus "a casting on, throwing over," past participle of inicere "to throw in or on," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + -icere, comb. form of iacere "to throw" (see jet (v.)). Related: Injectable; injected; injecting.
injection (n.) Look up injection at
"forcing a fluid into a body" (with a syringe, etc.), early 15c., from Middle French iniection (14c.) or directly from Latin iniectionem (nominative iniectio), noun of action from past participle stem of inicere (see inject).
injudicious (adj.) Look up injudicious at
1640s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + judicious. Related: Injudiciously.
Injun (n.) Look up Injun at
1812 (from 1683 as Ingin), spelling representing American English colloquial pronunciation of Indian (q.v.). Honest Injun as an asseveration of truthfuless first recorded 1868, from the notion of assurance extracted from Indians of their lack of duplicity.
"Honest Injun?" inquired Mr. Wilder, using a Western phrase equivalent to demanding of the narrator of a story whether he is strictly adhering to the truth. ["The Genial Showman," London, 1870]
The term honest Indian is attested from 1676.
injunction (n.) Look up injunction at
early 15c., from Late Latin injunctionem (nominative injunctio) "a command," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin injungere "impose," literally "attach to" (see enjoin).
injunctive Look up injunctive at
1620s, from Latin injunct-, past participle stem of injungere (see enjoin) + -ive. As a term in grammar, from 1910.
injure (v.) Look up injure at
mid-15c., "do an injustice to, dishonor," probably a back-formation from injury, or else from Middle French injuriier, from Latin injurare. Injury also served as a verb (late 15c.). Related: Injured; injuring.
injurious (adj.) Look up injurious at
early 15c., "abusive," from Middle French injurios (14c., Modern French injurieux) and directly from Latin injuriosus "unlawful, wrongful, harmful, noxious," from injuria (see injury). Related: Injuriously.
injury (n.) Look up injury at
late 14c., "harm, damage, loss; a specific injury," from Anglo-French injurie "wrongful action," from Latin injuria "wrong, hurt, injustice, insult," noun use of fem. of injurius "wrongful, unjust," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + ius (genitive iuris) "right, law" (see jurist).
injustice (n.) Look up injustice at
late 14c., from Old French injustice, from Latin injustitia "injustice," from injustus "unjust, wrongful, oppressive," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + justus "just" (see just (adj.)).
ink (n.) Look up ink at
"the black liquor with which men write" [Johnson], mid-13c., from Old French encre, formerly enque "dark writing fluid" (11c.), originally enca, from Late Latin encaustum, from Greek enkauston "purple or red ink," used by the Roman emperors to sign documents, originally a neuter adjective form of enkaustos "burned in," from stem of enkaiein "to burn in," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + kaiein "to burn" (see caustic). The word is from a Greek method of applying colored wax and fixing it with heat. The Old English word for it was simply blæc, literally "black." The -r- in the Latin word is excrescent. Donkin credits a Greek pronunciation, with the accent at the front of the word, for the French evolution; the same Latin word became inchiostro in Italian, encausto in Spanish. Ink-blot test attested from 1928.
ink (v.) Look up ink at
"to mark or stain in ink," 1560s, from ink (n.). Meaning "to cover (a printing plate, etc.) with ink" is from 1727. Related: Inked; inking.
inkhorn (n.) Look up inkhorn at
late 14c., "small portable vessel (originally made of horn) for holding ink," from ink (n.) + horn (n.). Used attributively as an adjective for things (especially vocabulary) supposed to be beloved by scribblers and bookworms (1540s). An Old English word for the thing was blæchorn.
inkling (n.) Look up inkling at
c. 1400, apparently from the gerund of Middle English verb inclen "utter in an undertone, hint at, hint" (mid-14c.), which is of unknown origin; perhaps related to Old English inca "doubt, suspicion."