injustice (n.) Look up injustice at
late 14c., from Old French injustice "unfairness, injustice" (14c.), from Latin iniustitia "unfairness, injustice," from iniustus "unjust, wrongful, unreasonable, improper, oppressive," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + iustus "just" (see just (adj.)). Injust (adj.) is attested from late 15c., from French, but unjust is the usual English word.
ink (n.) Look up ink at
"the black liquor with which men write" [Johnson], mid-13c., from Old French enche, encre "dark writing fluid" (12c.), earlier enque (11c.), originally enca, from Late Latin encaustum, from Late Greek enkauston. In later Greek this came to mean "any type of ink," but originally it was specifically the purple or red ink used by the Roman emperors to sign documents, and the word describes a Greek method of applying colored wax and fixing it with heat. It is originally the neuter of the past-participle adjective enkaustos "burned in," from the stem of enkaiein "to burn in," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + kaiein "to burn" (see caustic).

The usual words for "ink" in Latin was atramentum (source of Old French arrement), from ater "black;" the Greek word was melan, neuter of melas "black." The Old English word for it was blæc, literally "black," and compare Swedish bläk, Danish blæk "ink." Spanish and Portuguese (tinta) and German (tinte) get their "ink" words from Latin tinctus "a dyeing."

Donkin credits a Greek pronunciation, with the accent at the front of the word, for the French evolution; the same Latin word, behaving regularly, became inchiostro (with excrescent -r-) in Italian, encausto in Spanish. As an adjective, inken (c. 1600) occasionally has been used. Ink-slinger, contemptuous for "writer," is from 1887. The psychologist's ink-blot test attested from 1928.
ink (v.) Look up ink at
"to mark or stain in ink," 1560s, from ink (n.). Meaning "to cover (a printing plate, etc.) with ink" is from 1727. Related: Inked; inks; inking.
ink-well (n.) Look up ink-well at
also inkwell, 1875, from ink (n.) + well (n.).
inkhorn (n.) Look up inkhorn at
late 14c., "small portable vessel (originally made of horn) for holding ink," from ink (n.) + horn (n.). Used attributively from 1540s ("Soche are your Ynkehorne termes," John Bale) as an adjective for things (especially vocabulary) supposed to be beloved by scribblers, pedants, and bookworms. An Old English word for the thing was blæchorn.
inkling (n.) Look up inkling at
c. 1400, apparently from the gerund of the Middle English verb inclen "utter in an undertone, hint at, hint" (mid-14c.), which is of unknown origin; perhaps it is related to Old English inca "doubt, suspicion, question, scruple." However the earliest record of the word is as a nyngkiling; and Middle English Dictionary offers that this is not a misdivision of an inkling but rather suggests the word is a nasalized variant of nikking "a hint, slight indication," gerundive of the Middle English verb nikken "to mark (a text) for correction" (mid-15c.), from nik (n.) "a notch, tally" (see nick (n.)).
inky (adj.) Look up inky at
"as black as ink," 1590s, from ink (n.) + -y (2). Related: Inkily; inkiness.
inlaid (adj.) Look up inlaid at
1590s, "embedded in (something)," from in + laid, past participle of lay (v.). In old slang (c. 1700) it meant "full of money, living at ease."
inland (adj.) Look up inland at
"of or pertaining to interior parts of a country," 1550s, from in + land (n.). The noun meaning "interior parts of a country (remote from the sea or borders)" is attested from 1570s. Meaning "confined to a country" (as opposed to foreign) is from 1540s. In Middle English and Old English the same compound meant "land immediately around the mansion of an estate, land in the lord's own occupation (as opposed to land occupied by tenants)." Related: Inlander.
inlandish (adj.) Look up inlandish at
1650s, "produced at home, domestic, native," from inland in the "domestic, not foreign" sense + -ish. Also "characteristic of inland regions" (1849). Old English had inlendisc, inlende "native, indigenous."
inlapidate (v.) Look up inlapidate at
"turn to stone" (trans.), 1620s, from in- (2) "in, into" + verb from Latin lapis (genitive lapidis) "stone." Related: Inlapidated; inlapidating.
inlay (v.) Look up inlay at
1590s, "insert in or into," from in (adv.) + lay (v.). As a noun, "that which is inlaid" (especially for ornamental effect), from 1650s. Related: Inlaid.
inlet (n.) Look up inlet at
"narrow opening into a coast, arm of the sea," 1570s, said by old sources to be originally a Kentish term; a special use of Middle English inlate "passage or opening by which an enclosed place may be entered" (c. 1300), from inleten "to let in" (early 13c.), from in + let (v.).
inlier (n.) Look up inlier at
1859, from in (adv.) on model of outlier.
inlighten (v.) Look up inlighten at
former alternative form of enlighten (q.v.). Related: Inlightened; inlightening.
inline (adj.) Look up inline at
also in-line, 1923 of printing, 1929 of engines, 1958 of computers, by 1989 of roller skates; from in + line (n.).
inly (adv.) Look up inly at
Old English inlice "internally, inwardly; sincerely, heartily;" see in + -ly (2).
inmate (n.) Look up inmate at
1580s, "one allowed to live in a house rented by another" (usually for a consideration), from in (adj.) "inside" + mate (n.) "companion." OED suggests the first element is perhaps originally inn. Sense of "one confined to an institution" is first attested 1834.
inmost (adj.) Look up inmost at
16c. respelling of Middle English innemest, from Old English innemest "furthest within, remotest from the boundary;" see in + -most.
inn (n.) Look up inn at
Old English inn "lodging, dwelling, house," probably from inne (adv.) "inside, within" (see in). Meaning "public house with lodging" is perhaps by c. 1200, certainly by c. 1400. Meaning "lodging house or residence for students" is attested from early 13c. in Anglo-Latin, now obsolete except in names of buildings that were so used (such as Inns of Court, mid-15c.).
innards (n.) Look up innards at
"entrails of an animal," 1825, innerds, dialectal variant of inwards "the bowels" (c. 1300); see inward. Compare inmeat "edible entrails of animals" (c. 1400); Old English innoð "entrails, stomach."
innate (adj.) Look up innate at
early 15c., "existing from birth," from Late Latin innatus "inborn, native, natural" (source also of French inné, Spanish and Italian innato), past participle of innasci "to be born in, originate in," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + nasci "to be born" (Old Latin gnasci; see genus). Opposed to acquired. Related: Innately; innateness.
inner (adj.) Look up inner at
c. 1400, from Old English inra, comparative of inne (adv.) "inside" (see in (adv.)). Similar formation in Old High German innaro, German inner. The original order of comparison was in/inner/inmost; the evolution has been unusual for a comparative, and inner has not been used with than since Middle English.

Inner man "the soul" is from late Old English. The Quaker inner light is attested by that name from 1833. Inner tube in the pneumatic tire sense is from 1894. Inner city, in reference to poverty and crime, is attested from 1968.
innermost (adj.) Look up innermost at
mid-14c., from inner + -most. In the same sense innerest is from c. 1200. The older word is inmost. Innermore also existed in Middle English.
innervate (v.) Look up innervate at
"stimulate through the nerves," 1870, a back-formation from innervation "sending of a stimulus through the nerves" (1832); see in- (2) "in" + nerve (n.) + -ate. Related: Innervated. Innervation in psychology is from 1880, translated from German Innervationsgefühl.
innie (n.) Look up innie at
in reference to navels, by 1972, from in (adj.) + -ie.
inning (n.) Look up inning at
Old English innung "a taking in, a putting in," gerundive of innian "get within, put or bring in; lodge; include; fill up, restore," from inn (adv.) "in" (see in). Meaning "a team's turn in action in a game" first recorded 1735, usually plural in cricket, singular in baseball.
innkeeper (n.) Look up innkeeper at
1540s, from inn + keeper.
innocence (n.) Look up innocence at
mid-14c., "freedom from guilt or moral wrong," from Old French inocence "innocence; purity, chastity" (12c., Modern French innocence), from Latin innocentia "blamelessness, uprightness, integrity," from innocens "harmless; blameless; disinterested" (see innocent). Meaning "lacking in guile or artifice," as of childhood, is from late 14c. Meaning "freedom from legal wrong" is from 1550s.
innocense (n.) Look up innocense at
alternative spelling of innocence.
innocent (adj.) Look up innocent at
mid-14c., "doing no evil; free from sin, guilt, or moral wrong," from Old French inocent "harmless; not guilty; pure" (12c.), from Latin innocentem (nominative innocens) "not guilty, blameless; harmless; disinterested," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + nocentem (nominative nocens), present participle of nocere "to harm," from *nok-s-, suffixed form of PIE root *nek- (1) "death" (see necro-).

Meaning "free from guilt of a specific crime or charge" is from late 14c., as is the meaning "with childlike simplicity or artlessness." Humorous sense "free, devoid of" is from 1706. The noun meaning "person who is innocent of sin or evil, artless or simple person" is from c. 1200, especially a young child (who presumably has not yet sinned actively). The Holy Innocents (early 14c.) were the young children slain by Herod after the birth of Jesus (Matt. ii:16), hence Innocents day (Dec. 28).
innocently (adv.) Look up innocently at
c. 1400, from innocent (adj.) + -ly (2).
innocuous (adj.) Look up innocuous at
1590s, from Latin innocuus "harmless; innocent; inoffensive," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + nocuus "hurtful," from root of nocere "to injure, harm," from *nok-s-, suffixed form of PIE root *nek- (1) "death" (see necro-). Related: Innocuously; innocuousness.
innominable (adj.) Look up innominable at
"unnameable," late 14c., from Old French innominable, from Late Latin innominabilis "that cannot be named," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + *nominabilis, from Latin nominalis "pertaining to a name or names," from nomen (genitive nominis) "name"(see name (n.)). In jocular use, "trousers" (1834; see inexpressible).
innovate (v.) Look up innovate at
1540s, "introduce as new" (trans.), from Latin innovatus, past participle of innovare "to renew, restore;" also "to change," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + novus "new" (see new). Intransitive meaning "bring in new things, alter established practices" is from 1590s. Related: Innovated; innovating.
innovation (n.) Look up innovation at
mid-15c., "restoration, renewal," from Late Latin innovationem (nominative innovatio), noun of action from past participle stem of innovare "to change; to renew" (see innovate). Meaning "a novel change, experimental variation, new thing introduced in an established arrangement" is from 1540s.
innovative (adj.) Look up innovative at
1806 (with an isolated use from c. 1600), from innovate + -ive. Related: Innovatively; innovativeness.
innovator (n.) Look up innovator at
"an introducer of changes," 1590s, from Late Latin innovator, agent noun from innovare "to change" (see innovate).
innuendo (n.) Look up innuendo at
"oblique hint, indiscreet suggestion," usually a deprecatory one, 1670s, from Latin innuendo "by meaning, pointing to," literally "giving a nod to," ablative of gerund of innuere "to mean, signify," literally "to nod to," from in- "at" (see in- (2)) + nuere "to nod" (see numinous).

Originally in English a legal phrase (1560s) from Medieval Latin, with the sense of "to wit," introducing an explanatory or parenthetical clause, it also introduced the derogatory meaning alleged in libel cases, which led to broader meaning. As a verb, from 1706.
Innuit Look up Innuit at
1765, from Inupiaq Eskimo inuit "the people," plural of inuk "man, person."
innumerable (adj.) Look up innumerable at
mid-14c., from Latin innumerabilis "countless, immeasurable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + numerabilis "able to be numbered," from numerare "to count, number," from numerus "a number" (see number (n.)). Related: Innumerability.
innumerate (adj.) Look up innumerate at
"unacquainted with the basic principles of mathematics," 1959, based on illiterate, with Latin numerus "a number" (see number (n.)). Related: Innumeracy.
Ino Look up Ino at
Greek sea-goddess, daughter of Cadmus and Hermione.
inobservant (adj.) Look up inobservant at
1660s, from Late Latin inobservantem (nominative inobservans) "inattentive, negligent," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Latin observans (see observance). Related: Inobservance (1610s).
inoculate (v.) Look up inoculate at
mid-15c., "implant a bud into a plant," from Latin inoculatus, past participle of inoculare "graft in, implant a bud or eye of one plant into another," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + oculus "bud," originally "eye" (see eye (n.)). Meaning "implant germs of a disease to produce immunity" is from inoculation, originally in reference to smallpox, after 1799, often used in sense of "to vaccine inoculate." Related: Inoculated; inoculating.
inoculation (n.) Look up inoculation at
mid-15c. in horticulture, "act or practice of grafting buds;" 1714 in pathology, "insertion of a form of a virus in order to prevent a more serious attack of it," from Latin inoculationem (nominative inoculatio) "an engrafting, budding," noun of action from past participle stem of inoculare (see inoculate).
inoffensive (adj.) Look up inoffensive at
1590s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + offensive (adj.). Related: Inoffensively; inoffensiveness.
inofficious (adj.) Look up inofficious at
c. 1600, "neglecting one's duty;" in law, "not in accord with one's moral duty," 1660s, from Medieval Latin inofficiosus "contrary to duty; harmful," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1) + Latin officiosus "dutiful, obliging" (see officious).
inoperable (adj.) Look up inoperable at
"incapable of being treated by surgical operation," 1856, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + operable.
inoperative (adj.) Look up inoperative at
"not working," 1630s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + operative (adj.).