instruct (v.) Look up instruct at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin instructus, past participle of instruere "arrange, inform, teach," literally "to build, erect," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + struere "to pile, build" (see structure (n.)). Related: Instructed; instructing.
instruction (n.) Look up instruction at Dictionary.com
c.1400, instruccioun, "action or process of teaching," from Old French instruccion (14c.), from Latin instructionem (nominative instructio) "building, arrangement, teaching," from past participle stem of instruere "arrange, inform, teach," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + struere "to pile, build" (see structure (n.)). Meaning "an authoritative direction telling someone what to do; a document giving such directions," is early 15c. Related: Instructions.
instructional (adj.) Look up instructional at Dictionary.com
1801, from instruction + -al (1).
instructive (adj.) Look up instructive at Dictionary.com
1610s, from instruct + -ive. Related: Instructively; instructiveness.
instructor (n.) Look up instructor at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Old French instructeur and directly from Medieval Latin instructor "teacher" (in classical Latin, "preparer"), agent noun from instruere (see instruct).
instrument (n.) Look up instrument at Dictionary.com
late 13c., "musical instrument," from Old French instrument "means, device; musical instrument" (14c., earlier estrument, 13c.) and directly from Latin instrumentem "a tool, apparatus, furniture, dress, document," from instruere "arrange, furnish" (see instruct). Meaning "tool, implement, utensil" is early 14c. in English; meaning "written document by which formal expression is given to a legal act" is from early 15c.
instrumental (adj.) Look up instrumental at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "of the nature of an instrument," from Old French instrumental, from Medieval Latin instrumentalis, from Latin instrumentum (see instrument). Meaning "serviceable, useful" is from c.1600. Of music, c.1500; noun meaning "musical composition for instruments only" is attested by 1940. Related: Instrumentally; instrumentality.
instrumentalist (n.) Look up instrumentalist at Dictionary.com
1823, from instrumental in the musical sense + -ist.
instrumentation (n.) Look up instrumentation at Dictionary.com
"composition and arrangement of music for instruments," 1845, from French instrumentation, from instrument (see instrument) + -ation.
insubordinate (adj.) Look up insubordinate at Dictionary.com
1849, on model of French insubordonné (1789); from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + subordinate. Related: Insubordinately.
insubordination (n.) Look up insubordination at Dictionary.com
1790, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + subordination. Perhaps on model of French insubordination (1788).
insubstantial (adj.) Look up insubstantial at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from Medieval Latin insubstantialis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + substantialis (see substantial). Related: Insubstantially.
insubstantiality (n.) Look up insubstantiality at Dictionary.com
1827, from insubstantial + -ity.
insue (v.) Look up insue at Dictionary.com
obsolete form of ensue.
insufferable (adj.) Look up insufferable at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + sufferable (see suffer). Related: Insufferably.
insufficiency (n.) Look up insufficiency at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Late Latin insufficientia, noun of quality from insufficientem (see insufficient). Insufficience "deficiency" is from early 15c.
insufficient (adj.) Look up insufficient at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French insufficient (14c.), from Latin insufficientem (nominative insufficiens) "insufficient," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + sufficientem (see sufficient). Originally of persons, "inadequate, unable;" of things, from late 15c. Related: Insufficiently.
insula (n.) Look up insula at Dictionary.com
Latin, literally "an island" (also, in ancient Rome, "a block of buildings"); see isle.
insular (adj.) Look up insular at Dictionary.com
1610s, "of or pertaining to an island," from Late Latin insularis, from Latin insula "island" (see isle). Metaphoric sense "narrow, prejudiced" is 1775, from notion of being cut off from intercourse with other nations, especially with reference to the situation of Great Britain. Earlier adjective in the literal sense was insulan (mid-15c.), from Latin insulanus.
insularity (n.) Look up insularity at Dictionary.com
1755, "narrowness of feelings," from insular + -ity. Literal sense attested from 1790.
insulate (v.) Look up insulate at Dictionary.com
1530s, "make into an island," from Latin insulatus, from insula (see insular). Sense of "cause a person or thing to be detached from surroundings" is from 1785. Electrical/chemical sense of "block from electricity or heat" is from 1742. Related: Insulated; insulating.
insulation (n.) Look up insulation at Dictionary.com
1848, "act of making (something) into an island," noun of action from insulate. Transferred sense attested by 1798. Electrical sense is from 1767. The concrete sense of "insulating material" is recorded by 1870.
insulator (n.) Look up insulator at Dictionary.com
1801, agent noun in Latin form from insulate.
insulin (n.) Look up insulin at Dictionary.com
1922 (earlier insuline, 1914), coined in English from Latin insula "island," so called because the hormone is secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insuline was coined independently in French in 1909.
insult (v.) Look up insult at Dictionary.com
1560s, "triumph over in an arrogant way," from Middle French insulter (14c.) and directly from Latin insultare "to assail, to leap upon" (already used by Cicero in sense of "insult, scoff at, revile"), frequentative of insilire "leap at or upon," from in- "on, at" (see in- (2)) + salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)). Sense of "to verbally abuse, affront, assail with disrespect" is from 1610s. Related: Insulted; insulting.
insult (n.) Look up insult at Dictionary.com
c.1600 in the sense of "attack;" 1670s as "an act of insulting," from Middle French insult (14c.) or directly from Late Latin insultus, from insilire (see insult (v.)). To add insult to injury translates Latin injuriae contumeliam addere.
insuperable (adj.) Look up insuperable at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "unconquerable," from Latin insuperabilis "that cannot be passed over, unconquerable," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + superabilis "that may be overcome," from superare "to overcome," from superus "one that is above," from super "over" (see super-). Figurative use from 1650s. Related: Insuperably.
insupportable (adj.) Look up insupportable at Dictionary.com
1520s, from French insupportable (14c.) or directly from Late Latin insupportabilis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Latin supportare "to carry" (see support).
insurance (n.) Look up insurance at Dictionary.com
1550s, "engagement to marry," a variant of ensurance (see ensure). Commercial sense of "security against loss or death in exchange for payment" is from 1650s. Assurance was the older term for this (late 16c.).
insure (v.) Look up insure at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., insuren, spelling variant of ensuren (see ensure). Took on its particular sense of "make safe against loss by payment of premiums" from mid-17c. (replacing assure in that meaning). Related: Insured; insuring.
insurer (n.) Look up insurer at Dictionary.com
1650s, agent noun from insure.
insurgence (n.) Look up insurgence at Dictionary.com
1847; see insurgency + -ence.
insurgency (n.) Look up insurgency at Dictionary.com
1803, from insurgent + -cy.
insurgent (n.) Look up insurgent at Dictionary.com
"one who rises in revolt," 1765, from Latin insurgentem (nominative insurgens), present participle of insurgere "rise up, rise against, revolt," from in- "against," or perhaps merely intensive, + surgere "to rise" (see surge). An obsolete verb insurge "to rise in opposition or insurrection" is attested from 1530s.
insurmountable (adj.) Look up insurmountable at Dictionary.com
1690s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + surmountable (see surmount). Related: Insurmountably.
insurrection (n.) Look up insurrection at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Middle French insurrection, from Late Latin insurrectionem (nominative insurrectio) "a rising up," noun of action from past participle stem of insurgere "to rise up" (see insurgent).
insurrectionary Look up insurrectionary at Dictionary.com
1796 (adj.), 1893 (n.), from insurrection + -ary.
intact (adj.) Look up intact at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Latin intactus "untouched, uninjured, undefiled," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + tactus, past participle of tangere "to touch" (see tangent (adj.)).
intaglio (n.) Look up intaglio at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Italian intaglio "engraved work" (plural intagli), from intagliare "to cut in, engrave," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + tagliare "to cut" (see entail).
intail (v.) Look up intail at Dictionary.com
obsolete form of entail.
intake (n.) Look up intake at Dictionary.com
c.1800, "place where water is taken into a channel or pipe," from verbal phrase, from in (adv.) + take (v.). Meaning "act of taking in" (food, breath, etc.) is first attested 1808.
intangible (adj.) Look up intangible at Dictionary.com
1630s, "incapable of being touched," from French intangible (c.1500) or directly from Medieval Latin intangibilis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Late Latin tangibilis "that may be touched" (see tangible). Figurative sense of "that cannot be grasped by the mind" is from 1880. Noun meaning "anything intangible" is from 1914. Related: Intangibly.
integer (n.) Look up integer at Dictionary.com
"a whole number" (opposed to fraction), 1570s, from Latin integer (adj.) "whole, complete," figuratively, "untainted, upright," literally "untouched," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + root of tangere "to touch" (see tangent (adj.)). The word was used earlier in English as an adjective meaning "whole, entire" (c.1500).
integral (adj.) Look up integral at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "of or pertaining to a whole," from Middle French intégral (14c.), from Medieval Latin integralis "forming a whole," from Latin integer "whole" (see integer). Related: Integrally. As a noun, 1610s, from the adjective.
integrate (v.) Look up integrate at Dictionary.com
1630s, "to render (something) whole," from Latin integratus, past participle of integrare "make whole," from integer "whole" (see integer). Meaning "to put together parts or elements and combine them into a whole" is from 1802. Integrate in the "racially desegregate" sense is a back-formation from integration, dating to the 1948 U.S. presidential contest. Related: Integrated; integrating.
integrated (adj.) Look up integrated at Dictionary.com
1580s, "combined into a whole," past participle adjective from integrate (v.). Sense of "not divided by race, etc." is from 1948.
integration (n.) Look up integration at Dictionary.com
1610s, from French intégration and directly from Latin integrationem (nominative integratio) "renewal, restoration," noun of action from past participle stem of integrare (see integrate). Anti-discrimination sense is recorded from 1940 in a S.African context.
integrity (n.) Look up integrity at Dictionary.com
c.1400, "innocence, blamelessness; chastity, purity," from Old French integrité or directly from Latin integritatem (nominative integritas) "soundness, wholeness, blamelessness," from integer "whole" (see integer). Sense of "wholeness, perfect condition" is mid-15c.
integument (n.) Look up integument at Dictionary.com
1610s, from Latin integumentum "a covering," from integere "to cover over," from in- "in, upon" (see in- (2)) + tegere "to cover" (see stegosaurus).
integumentary (adj.) Look up integumentary at Dictionary.com
1826, from integument + -ary.